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Korea, Japan's willing Vassal - The Sights and Sounds of Bangkok 
Two Scandinavian Capitals in Winter - Hawaii, a new Winter Resort 

tym& M 


1 - 9 - 1 - 6 

$3 a year 




NOT EVERY man of affairs smokes 
Fatimas — many do not smoke at 
all. But — because cigarettes are the 
mildest form of smoking— they are com- 
ing every day to be a standard smoke 
with more and more active -minded, 
substantial men. Fatima in particular 

seems to appeal to men of this character. 
This is doubtless because Fatima's 
Turkish blend is so delicately balanced 
that men find it leaves them feeling 
keen and fit even after smoking more 
heavily than usual. 


A Sensible Cigarette. 



The chosen instrument 
of the world's greatest artists 

The instrument which plays the greatest music is the 
instrument you want in your home! The Victrola is 
supreme. Its supremacy is founded on a basis of great 
things actually accomplished. It is in millions of homes 
the world over because it takes into these homes all that is 
best in every branch of music and entertainment. 

The artists who make records exclusively for the Victor 
are the greatest artists in the world. The Victrola tone 
is the true and faithful tone of the singer's voice and the 
master's instrument. It is for this reason that the Victrola 
is the chosen instrument of practically every artist famous 
in the world of opera, instrumental music, sacred music, 
band music, dance music, vaudeville and entertainment. 

Go today to a Victor dealer's and listen to this instrument 
for yourself. Hear Caruso or Melba or Elman or Harry 
Lauder or Sousa's band on the Victrola. 

Victors and Victrolas— $10 to $400 

Victor Talking Machine Co., Camden, N. J., U.S.A. 

Berliner Gramophone Co., Montreal, Canadian Distributors 

Important warning. Victor Records can be safely 
and satisfactorily played only with Victor Needles 
or Tungs-tone Stylus on Victors or Victrolas. 
Victor Records cannot be safely played on machines 
with jeweled or other reproducing points. 

New Victor Records demonstrated at 
all dealers on the 28th of each month 






Vanderbilt and Madison Avenues 
43d and 44th Streets 


The Opening of the 

Supper Room 




will have charge of the dancing and 

give their own wonderful exhibition 

after the theatre 

The Social r. ndez-Vous for afternoon tea 
4 t > 6 P. M. Ka'aluhi's Hawaiian orchestra 


■■■■ "Paradise of the Pacific" ■*■■* 

I Special 15-Day Cruise I 

$130.oo and Up 

1 Palatial Steamers leave San Francisco i 

"n« «y to nulMn tnwtr 

= For further information on thia and = 


- Japan and China South America § 

= Cuba West Indies = 


I "Membership and Its Advantages" § 

I Amalgamated Travel and Tourist Association. Inc. i 

1 110-120 Broadway, Equitable Bldg., New York 1 




Two luxurious 24 day cruises to 

Cuba,Jamaica,Panama & CostaRica 

the wonderlands of the Caribbean, by the beautiful 
American steamships "Tenadores" and "Pastores" of 
the Great White Fleet under exclusive charter. 

Many exceptional side trips by automobile and special train 
are included. 

Every detail that our long experience in the West Indies suggests as 
adding to the luxury and delight of tropical travel has been included 
to make these cruises • , , i iir. . ■> i. t 

An Ideal Winter Holiday 

Sailing from New York Feb. 10 and Feb. 24. 
Price S290 and up 

Also Remarkable Tours to: South 
Amer ica: Dec. 30, Jan. 13, Feb. 10 
and 24, Mar. 14. Japan and China- 
Jan. 27, Feb. 24, Mar. 24. Austral- 
asia: Mar. 7 and Mar. 13. 
$ Send for booklet desired. 


New York Phila. Chicago San Francisco 




Leaving Los Angeles and Sao Francisco We ekl 




A quiet, luxurious 
Residential Hotel, 
affording the Ex- 
clusiveness and 
Elegance of a pri- 
»r ~r vate Residence. 
,„„ i/ V, ,* Opposite the Met- 
ropolitan Club and the 5th Ave. Entrance 
to Central Park. Apartments, single or 
en suite, for long or short periods. 


Sailings Thursdays and Saturdays. 1 


Regular service from New York and I 
direct connections with Havana. I 


Regular Sailings for Progreso, Vera 1 
Cruz and Tampico. § 

West Coast Ports 
Central America 

and Salina Cruz, Mexico, via 1 
Panama Canal (no transshipment) . \ 
Connections for South America | 
and the Orient. 1 

Excellent Service, spacious passenger | 

accommodations. Booklets, rates and | 

schedules promptly supplied on applica- | 

tion to: 1 


New York and Cuba Mail S. S. Co. I 
Foot of Wall Street, New York. | 


SOUTH SEAS. Arrangements should 

now be made to visit 


Suva, New Zealand, Australia 

The Palatial Passenger Steamers 


(20,000 tons) 


(13,500 tons) 

Sail from Vancouver, B.C., Nov. 22, Dec. 20, 
Jan. 17. Round Pacific Tour, $337.50 up. 
Honolulu, $135.00 up. For further particulars 

Can. Pac. Rly., 1231 Broadway, N. Y., or to Can. 
Aust. Royal Mail Line, 440 Seymour St., Van 
couver, B. C. 

rf S " 

i ■ 


"4 -.J" 


At the 

Rainbow's End 

is Nassau-Bahamas 

a quaintly foreign colony, won- 
derfully rich in the romantic 
strangeness and astounding color 
of the Tropics. 

From December to April the climate 
is that of June, while but a short dis- 
tance away, cities in the United States 
are being racked unceasingly by storm. 

Wouldn't a month or two in Nassau 
with its marvelous surf bathing, big 
game fishing, tennis and golf — be a 
holiday to remember? 

Wouldn't you come home wonder- 
fully "fit." 

Write today for "Nassau-Bahamas" 
and Hotel, Boarding House and Fur- 
nished Villa Register. The time to go 
is this winter, and the time to plan 
is NOW. 

Bahamas Government Agent 

450 Fourth Ave. New York City 


-ifWJtt — ..*«w»^p^l>. 

,;" -ZSiC^MHr ' 

iT-iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiijiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii^ nr'ir'ii'i'HUB!' 

I The Belleview 

Belleair Heights, Florida 

Special Golf Privileges to Hotel Patrons 



No. 1 Course 6218 YARDS, No. 2 Course 5763 YARDS 

H For information, booklet. H ft CAYTAN MfiD 305 FIFTH AVE., N. Y. 
m etc., address *». IF. OAAIUH, 1UUK. Tel. Madison Sq. 9957 




Watkins, N. Y., on Seneca Lake 

OPEN ALL THE YEAR Wm. E. Leffingwell, Pres. 












A Mineral Springs HEALTH RESORT and HOTEL 
known as 


In Private Park with miles of graded walks for Oertel hill 
climbing. On the Southern Tier Highway, all macadam. 

Attractive and Well-kept Golf Course 

Miniature Golf Clock Golf Tennis Motoring 


mRATUC are direcll y connected with the Hotel 
DH I IIW arK * complete in all appointments for 

Hydrotherapy, Electrotherapy and Mechanotherapy 
FOUR MINERAL SPRINGS. The Bathing Springs are similar to 
the waters of Bad Nauheim in the proportions of Calcium Chloride 
and Sodium Chloride, but are about five times as strong. The Ra- 
dium Emanation from Brine Spring No. 1 averages 68 Mache 
Units per liter of water and is due to Radium Salts in Solution. 
Unsurpassed advantages for the treatment of Heart, Circulatory, Kidney, 
Nutritional, and Nervous Disorders, Rheumatism, Gout and Obesity. 
Illustrated Booklets and latest reports on Mineral Springs mailed 
on request 



White Sulphur Springs 










Sulphur Water, Nauheim and all prin- 
cipal baths of European Health Resorts 
are given in the Bath House by 
sftilled attendants. 



prtMu/ &(&th 





None genuine without both 

They can be had in cloths of all weights suitable 
for wear every day of the year. 

Leading Retailers of Men's, Women's and Children's 

Coats are showing new and exclusive models. 

Bradford JZi'TTi • j.1 , sz American Offices: 




Sufferers with Tuberculosis will find 
Relief and Cure in this High Alti- 
tude and Low Humidity, provided 
they have the means to secure the 
proper accommodations. 

Sanatoria, Boarding Houses 
Cottages, Ranch Homes 

Albuquerque, N. Mex. 

New Mexico is a Wonder-Land of 
Beautiful Scenery, Hunting and 
Fishing Grounds that have scarcely 
been touched. There are New 
Delights for the Tourist in Ex- 
ploring Our Old Cave Dwellings 
and Ruined Pueblos. Summer 
Climate Ideal. Write 

Albuquerque New Mexico 
Chamber of Commerce 


In writing to advertisers, please mention Travel 



HcDtt Spm 

In Winter— 

The only place in America where a cure 
can be taken just as comfortably as in the 
Spring, Summer or Fall. At no other place can there 
be found such ideal conditions for rest, recreation and recup- 
eration with environments that leave nothing to be desired. No pains are spared „ 
to make The Homestead even more attractive in the winter than at other seasons. The 
well known standard of equipment and of service is maintained throughout the year. 
Situated 2,500 feet above sea level — Never any extremes — Agreeable mornings, cloudless 
skies, balmy noons, wonderful and incomparable sunsets — 
Magnificent vistas— spacious rooms, corridors and verandahs. 

Famous Healing Waters 

Truly Wonderful— Naturally Heated— 106° 

In the waters at Hot Springs is found more radio activity 
than at any place in the world — a fact so fraught with importance 
that it is almost startling to suffering humanity. At none of the 
celebrated places in Europe are the natural waters so charged with all 
their gases and other health giving qualities — At no other place is 
the temperature prescribed for hot baths, that at which the water 
actually emerges from the earth in the natural springs. 

The famous Spout Bath for Gout, Rheumatism, Ner- 
vous Diseases, Sciatica, Nervous Prostration, Liver Troubles 
and Old Joint Injuries. Modern and complete bath equip- 
ment — Swedish Gymnastics, Massage and Hot Air Treat- 
ments — Needle, Spray, Electric, Medicated and other 
Baths — Physicians of international reputation — Expe- 
rienced and careful attendants. 

The Bath House is connected with the Hotel by an ornate, 
sunlighted viaduct, so that the bather may go to and from his room 
without outside exposure. 

The Homestead Book 

A lifelike photographic description of the Homestead Hotel and 
its surroundings, in natural colors. It tells of the 500 rooms — excellent 
cuisine — incomparable drinking water— attractive ballroom — fascinat- 
ing drives— interesting trails and bridle paths — Golf courses and 
Tennis Courts. This book, together with the treatises on the 
therapeutic value of the waters, should be read by everyone looking 
for an ideal winter resort for rest, recuperation and recreation. We 
will gladly send copies upon request. 

H. ALBERT, Resident Manager, Hot Springs, Va. 

Booking Offices — Ritz-Carlton Hotels, New York, Philadelphia 


Go there nowl Voyage is delightful via Honolulu 
and Samoa, Splendid 10,000 ton, twin screw American steamers 
every 21 days from San Francisco (Nov. 7, 28, Dec. 19. Jan. 9). 
Return let class, S3 3 7. 50; 2nd class, S225; including China and Japan 
let class, $575; to Honolulu. $65. Folders free. 
^■e\ H. E. BURNETT, 17 Battery Place, New York.for 

669 Market Street, 
San Francisco. 




Saddles, $3.00 np. New uniforms, $1.50 up. 
Array 7 shot carbine $3.50; ctges. l?5c each 
f. S. N.Winchester high power rifle Cm m, $9.85 
Team harness $21. 85 up. C.W. Army Revolvers, $1.65 
Remington Army Revolver, $4.85; clges. lc each 
Hanser High Power rifle vrlth 200 eiges. $19.85 
15 Acres Government Auction Goods Bargains 
illustrated and described in 428 large page whole- 
Bale and retail cyclopedia 'catalogue, mailed 25c 
east and 30c west of Mississippi River. 

Fop Rent 

Lightbourn Residence, Paget, Bermuda 

This house is one of the few modern houses on the island 
and is also one of the show places. It is large and well built 
of white limestone with green trimmings and is very well 
furnished. There are five masters' bed-rooms and other 
rooms in proportion. It has a cottage back of the kitchen 
which is used as the servants' quarters. There are two open 
fireplaces on the ground floor and also two up-stairs. A 
fine shore front with bath houses offers exceptional facilities 
for bathing. A man is provided by the owner to attend to 
the lawns and flower gardens. This splendid place is for 
rent for a season of five months from the middle of Novem- 
ber to the middle of April for $2,000. 

Photographs of the place may be seen by application to us. 


569 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 

Tel. Murray Hill 31. 

In writing to advertisers, please mention Travel 

Absolutely Fireproof 
555 Rooms 

Each with Private Bath 

European Plan — ■ 

Tariff from $1.50 

Whether you stop in Los Angeles a day, week or 
month, the Clark is the ideal place to sojourn. 
Located in the very heart of things. The appoint- 
ments are in exquisite taste, imparting an at- 
mosphere of quiet refinement. Write for folder. 


Lessee and Mgr 

g- ; 



Rest and recuperate at California's 
world-famous health and recreation 
resort — 60 miles from Los Angeles. 
Only Di-Sodium Arsenate natural 
steam caves known. Radio-active mud 
and steam baths. Eminent physicians 
highly recommend Arrowhead. Alti- 
tude 2,000 ft. Large hotel. Every 
convenience. Magnificent location. 
Write for folder and rates. 

ARROWHEAD SPRINGS, Southern California 

To the Tropics 

k ■: • ill A-.Cruise ." 


24 restful days away from Winter 
with the 

American Express 
Special Steamer 

Shore Visits 
Sail Jan. 27 or Mar. 10 

Write for Booklet 

American ExpressCompany 

66 Broadway, New York 
Philadelphia Boston Chicago San Francisco 

NO VEMBER, 1916 

To California and Hawaii 

SPECIAL Tours leave Chicago every Saturday 
evening during the Fall and Winter, via 
Chicago, Union Pacific & Nortji-Westeni Line. 
An experienced representative accompanies 
each Tour. All Expense or Independent Travel 
— whole or part trip. We look after all your 
travel comforts. Let us send you '"Winter 
Tours" book containing full information about 
our First Class Tours. 

S. A. HUTCHISON, Mgr., Department of Tonr«. 
Clark and Adams Streets Chicago 




How would you like to enter the activities of the winter fresh and vigorous and finish 
the same way still well and active? 

It is entirely possible for back of all is HEALTH. The course of health training 
at Battle Creek is adapted to each patient's needs — diet scientifically regulated, 
graduated body-building, exercises, the scientific application of hydrotherapy, elec- 
trotherapy, mechanical and medical exercises, radium, the X-ray, massage and all 
other up-to-date remedial measures. 

And everything learned at Battle Creek can be applied at home with but few changes 
in your regular daily routine. What to eat and how much; the proper physical ex- 
ercise for a busy man ; the fresh-air method ; laws of relaxation ; rest — all of these vital 
problems are solved at Battle Creek. 

Save time by learning how to gain time — more than one executive has through the 
study of physical efficiency put an extra day into his week. 

The concise and interesting booklet " STARTING LIFE OVER AT FORTY" 
will be sent you gratis upon request. Put your name on the coupon and mail 


Battle Creek Box 151 Michigan 

$1.35 net. 



Remember Raffles, Stingaree, Young Wallingford — those amiable 
villains of literature? Here are their worthy successors in Pod and 
Bender, the two arch-crooks whose adventurous careers are alter- 
nately marked by opulence and high living, and darker days when 
prison walls loom before them. However much the reader deplores 
their morals, he cannot help chuckling over the supreme confidence 
and resourcefulness of these "gentlemen of the road." Mr. 
England is a master in this field of fiction and this novel is among 
his very best. 
McBRIDE & CO. 31 Union Sq. N., New York City 

In writing to advertisers, please mention Travel 



Exceptional Values 

1. Woman's, extra light weight 20-inch 
Suit Case of long grain Cowhide; com- 
pletely fitted; assorted silk linings. r»ff r\r\ 

Special.. ^O.UU 

2. ', "Rite-Hite" Wardrobe Trunk, made 
of three-ply veneer Basswood, covered 
and interlined with hard vulcanized 
fibre. Ten hangers, three large deep 
drawers, and two lower drawers con- 
vertible for hats; top drawer has lock. 

3. Light-weight Cowhide Leather Suit 
Case, %]/2 inches deep, steel frame, 
leather corners; shirt pocket in lid of 
case. Size 24 inches 


Special . 


4. Week-end Case of Black Enameled 

duck, steel frame, reinforced corners 

and edges, straps all around, tray, 

pocket in lid. Sizes 24, 26 and 28 . _- 

inches 4. 75 

James McCreery & Co. 

5th Avenue 

New York 

34th Street 

Volume XXVIII 


November, 1916 

Number 1 


Photograph (c) by Underwood 6 s Underwood. 

ER Contents Design 



Gertrude Emerson and Elsie F. 
Weil 9 

Davis 14 

Photographs 17 

Homer. Croy 22 

BANGKOK. Lucie Chandler 26 

Charles Phelps Cushing 30 

WINTER? Enos Whittaker 34 

Anne Bunner Ingham .... 38 

OCEANIA. Photographs. G. 
Wright Peavey, F.R.G.S. . 40 



HOMES. Johnston Mac- 
kenzie 44 

Published monthly by Robert M. McBride & 
Company, Inc., Union Square North, New York 
City; Rolls House, Breams Bldg., London, E. 
C, 25 cents per copy; $3.00 per year. For foreign 
postage, add SI. 00; Canadian, 50 cents. Entered 
as second-class matter at the Post-Office at New 
York, under act of March 3, 1879, and copyrighted 
1916 by Robert M. McBride & Company, Inc. 

Edward Frank Allen, Editor. 

Travel assumes no responsibility for the damage 
or loss of manuscripts or photographs submitted 
for publication, although due care will be taken 
to insure their safety. Full postage should always 
be sent for the return of unavailable material. 





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A society for the prevention of bad luck assembled just beyond the limits of a Korean village. The Koreans are a very superstitious people, and these grotesque 
images are planted on the outskirts of every town to frighten away evil spirits and protect the inhabitants against misfortune 



Gertrude Emerson and Elsie F. Weil 

HE steamer swung in across the Straits from 
Shimonoseki, "Gates of the South," and tied 
up at a long, slim pier under the abrupt red 
promontories of Fusan. A very white sun- 
light cut like a knife down the single street 
that led from the pier and bumped up against 
Dragon Tail Mountain at the 
back of the little Korean town. 
It looked very hot. The innu- 
merable coolies who crowded 
around us clamoring for bag- 
gage, pointing, in 
the universal lan- 
guage, to a curious- 
ly forked packing 
arrangement like a 
V on their backs, 
were all dressed in 
white clothes, filthy 

Oto be sure, but by 

a , , _ • v the midst of the 

A street scene in Korea 

tropics, but some- 
thing was wrong somewhere, for a sharp wind nipped down the Dragon 
Mountains and raced across the town, catching us unexpectedly by the 
ears and nose and toes with all the brazenness of January approved 

from the North Pole to 35 degrees on the same side of the equator. 

The Chosen-Manchuria weekly express puffed out great clouds of 
white smoke, warning us that we had only an hour of grace to see the 
town. It was enough, not really to see the town, but to catch the sig- 
nificant trend of its fate, and of the fate of the Hermit Kingdom. Once 
upon a time, so the story runs, a Divine Being descended from Heaven 
and took up his abode at the foot of a sandalwood tree on the Ever 
White Mountains. The people of the land made this Sandal Prince 
their sovereign, becoming his subjects, and his realm was given the 
name of Chosen, or Morning Calm. Some 4,000 years of pretty tur- 
bulent history followed for the Land of Morning Calm, in which 
Chosen, or Korea, as it came to be better known, successively played 
the part of buffer between China and Japan, and bone of contention ; 
but the signing of the act of annexation to Japan in 1910 was the first 
stroke of the death knell of the little kingdom. In six years Japan has 
steadily gone on ringing the toll to Korean nationality, until to-day only 
a ghost stalks the land. 

As we walked along the street lined with Japanese shops under the 
escort of a Japanese official, it was the new Japanese hotel that instinc- 
tively caught our eyes, or a Japanese bank, or the foreign government 
offices that rose impressively from the surrounding squalor; as we 
mounted a little way into the town, it was a harbor filled with bustling 
Japanese shipping that we looked back upon. Perhaps the fish market, 
a great open space at one corner of the crescent of Fusan, near the 
Dragon's Head, was dirty enough still to be considered native. Yet it 
was pointed out that the fishing guild is under the control of the Japa- 
nese, and the principal fish brokers are all of them Japanese. Tall 
women in bright pinks and blues, with green cloths thrown over their 
heads, stood inside the shallow baskets of squirming eels, octopuses and 
flapping fish, bargaining with Oriental patience; and the old wrinkled 
fishwives, their faces burned black, squatted in the midst of the baskets 
with equal patience, smoking pipes a yard long, and gazing with a 




In Korea the graveyards lie scattered over miles of territory, for the dead are buried in 
whatever spot the priests select as propitious 

peculiar and baffling indifference out across the noisy jostling market 
place to the Dragon Hills — till the ultimate moment of compromise. 
There were men, too, selling and buying, but most of them seemed to 
be on the outer rim, engaged in the primary Korean industry of eating. 
They stood in groups around great brass bowls and picked the greasy 
tidbits out with brass chopsticks or flat porcelain spoons, supplementing 
the fare with steaming hot potatoes. 

The hat worn by Korean men is a very singular affair, resembling a 
stove pipe of black gauze, and it is at least five sizes too small. In winter 
the somewhat airy creation is tied over a fur head cap, but at other 
times the long knot of hair shows plainly through the crown. It was 
very funny to see dignified Korean gentlemen striding along in their 
glossy white garments, consisting of baggy trousers and a flowing coat 
tied under the right armpit, with this little comic-opera hat perched on 
top of their heads. It was funnier still to see them, as we did later, pro- 
duce a little oiled paper bag when it began to rain, and slip it carefully 
over the crown of. the hat, a simple and efficacious umbrella! We 
noticed a frequent variation in costume. In every crowd there were 
always four or five dressed in natural colored linen garments, with 
enormous straw hats shaped like the petals of a flower at the brim, 
which rested on the shoulders and completely covered the face. 

"They are mourners," our guide explained. "The Korean law re- 
quires people to wear mourning for three years after the death of their 
parents or near relatives. In this time they may not marry." 

He further explained how the mourner's hat served as an excellent dis- 
guise for the French Catholic missionaries in the early days when they 
were persecuted by the Korean government. In the costume of 
mourners they could go about the country and quietly carry on their 
work with little or no danger of molestation 
from the authorities. 

"Do you speak the Korean language?" we 

"No, I do not speak Korean. What should 
I want with the language of these dirty peo- 
ple!" he answered abruptly. 

From the train windows we gathered our first 
impressions of the country. There is much 
boasted development of the peninsula under 
Japanese dominion, which an exhibition of pro- 
vincial agricultural and industrial enterprise 
held at Seoul this year elaborately proves. 
Nevertheles's, the desolate wastes of red-brown 
hills and rocky mountains, of slow-moving 
rivers where occasional lazy junks crept past 
below us, of little anemic villages scarcely to 
be distinguished from the face of the land, with 
their mud walls and huddling houses and shape- 
less roofs of straw tied down with ropes, did 
not look over prosperous. All day long lines of 
small, biblical, white-clothed figures moved in 
single file along the roads following the train. 
They seemed endless, as though they were com- 
ing from nowhere and going nowhere — like the Fusan typifies the passing 
illustration of some unwritten book. Roads in- the harbor is filled with 


stone tortoise, 800 years old, upholds the stone tablet over the grave 
Kii Cha, founder of the Kudara dynasty in the Eighth Century 


terlace the country like threads of a very fine fish net, and are the great 
free means of communication and transportation for the people. Much 
of the trade of the country is that of the journeyman, and is still wholly 
unorganized. There were also fleeting glimpses of the women washing 
by the rivers. They beat the clothes in primitive fashion with stones. 
Afterwards we learned that nearly half the lifetime of the women is 
spent in washing the clothes, the white, of course, easily soiling with 
little wear. To economize labor, most of the garments are pasted to- 
gether. Instead of ironing, they are beaten with a stick until the cloth 
has become perfectly smooth and polished with the finish almost of 
satin. As we watched the bare red-brown land slipping away behind 
us, the alkali river banks, the setting sun which had suddenly fired the 
straw villages, and the tall, dark people of Korea visible on the roads 
and at the stations, we became aware that, almost by accident, as it 
were, we had entered into a new country. Through centuries of vas- 
salage, first to one strong neighbor and then to the other, Korea has 
maintained the nationalism whose ghost will not die. 

We reached Seoul, or Keijyo, as the capital of the country has been 
renamed, long after it had become dark. It seemed as though we were 
stepping out into one vast glitter, for the city was ablaze with lights 
and a crowd of brilliant stars shone down from the immeasurable black 
depths of the sky. We proceeded straight to the "Finest Hotel in the 
Far East," as the Chosen Hotel is advertised in the circulars; and it 
proved, indeed, a palatial 
caravanserai, where the loaf 
of bread and jug of wine of 
civilization are served in 
such a way as to satisfy the 


of old Korea; for modernity, in the person of Japan, has set its seal upon the city, and 
Japanese shipping and the town with Japanese business houses and government buildings 

NOVEMBER, 19 16 

1 1 


The Korean gesang is a sister of the Japanese geisha, and until recent years was 
the only type of woman not strictly secluded 


The lamp and clock at the left strike an Occidental note at variance with the straw- 
mat and cushions and the mural decorations 

most gilded of Philistines. To those who are on intimate terms with six 
o'clock in the morning the hour holds more fascination than any other in 
the day, and one of its chief charms lies in the fact that you may 
usually enjoy it by yourself. When we came down the next morning 
the great dining-room was utterly deserted. Out through the windows 
we could see the silver feather of the moon tossed up over the dark 
purple mountains in a Maxfield Parrish sky, and above the heart of 
the city the Catholic cathedral suspended in thin air, faint and unreal 
as a dream. It was very beautiful — Seoul asleep. 

Half an hour later it was day, but as we walked down the winding 
driveway and out under the heavy Korean gateway the sky had assumed 
a lusterless gun metal color which was curiously intensified by the heavy 
frost on the ground. It gave one the impression that the sky and the 
earth had somehow changed places. We noticed that every morning 
was dark like this, until after nine o'clock. Two small green birds in 
a wicker cage outside a Chinese laundry set up a shrill song as we 
turned out of an alley into the main street. Just in front of the laundry 
was an ash barrel, and the cover unexpectedly popped up and disclosed 
three Korean boys who had evidently spent the night in this hospitable, 
if scarcely reputable, lodging house. Koreans, Japanese and Chinese, 
indiscriminately mixed, were beginning to open the wooden shutters of 
their shops with a great clatter and banging, exchanging in some poly- 
glot language the greetings of the day. From the direction of Nandai- 
mon, the beautiful Great South Gate that cuts diagonally across a square 
flanked by imposing public buildings, a stream of people were return- 
ing from market with their purchases balanced on their heads or shoul- 
ders. We stumbled into the market just off the main street. It was filled 
with a dirty, spitting crowd, like twenty Bedlams let loose. Poisonous 
candy of arsenic green, deadly nightingale purple, and cochineal red; 

flat, open baskets, like the fish baskets of Fusan, overflowing with fine 
powdered paints; eggs done up by the string in queer little straw jackets; 
evil smelling dried fish by the ton; expostulating hens on the backs of 
vendors or customers; raw, dirty meats, half decayed vegetables; to- 
bacco, and beans, beans, beans, were all jumbled together in inextricable 
confusion. In summer these markets are held at three or four in the 
morning, so it becomes necessary to be up betimes if one wishes to 
strike a good bargain. Throughout the country great market fairs are 
held in certain places on certain days in the month, and people travel 1 
from miles around to attend them, but most of the trade is carried on 
by traffic and barter of commodities. It was picturesque enough, but 
scarcely inspiring, and we were glad to make our way out into the open 
street again, where we could breathe, and around back of the hotel, past 
the gate of the ex-Emperor's palace, and the Great Bell. This bell used! 
to be sounded twice each day, giving the morning and evening hours, 
but now it rests on the ground behind a dilapidated fence, under a 
roof that is falling in, and is forgotten by the people. There is a curious 
story in connection with its casting. 

Six centuries ago a king ordered all the provincial governors of his 
kingdom to demand offerings of metal from the people for the casting 
of a great bell. The people vied with one another in making contribu- 
tions, but one day a woman came to one of the governors, carrying a. 
child of about three years of age, and said, "I have brought this child' 
to offer in place of metals which I have not." The governor refused' 
the offer, and she went away. Not long after the bell was cast, but to 
the dismay of everyone it broke no sooner than the casting was com- 
pleted, and no matter how many times it was recast the same thing 
happened every time. The king sent to all his subjects to see if anyone 
could explain this mysterious occurrence, and at length some one ven- 


A wall encircles the inner city, pierced by eight pavilioned gates, with tiled and 
gracefully sloping Chinese roofs 


As in the case of painting and calligraphy, Buddhism was first adopted by the Koreans, 
and then introduced by them into Japan 



tured that it was because the woman's offering of a child had been 
rejected. The young child was accordingly sought and found and 
thrown into the melting pot, and that time the bell came out whole and 
perfect. But for a long time after, when the great tones rang out at 
morning and evening and died down, there could be heard a strange 
sobbing and the faint cry as of a child, "ah-mi-la-la, Ah ! my mother !" 

Seoul, as befits the capital of an awakening and enterprising Japanned 
Korea, is rapidly assuming the aspect of a modern European city. 
Widened streets with improved lighting systems, electric trams, impos- 
ing Wall Street banks and handsome office buildings present a good 
front; and the native quarters, shoved to the side as if this modern 
Seoul, or Keijyo, were a bit afraid of being contaminated by too close 
proximity, may easily be overlooked. Now and then one comes upon 
a beautiful old gate, with tiled and gracefully sloping Chinese roofs. 
Perhaps the loveliest thing about Seoul are those old gates, and, so far, 
they have been jealously guarded by the "Society for the Preservation 
of Historic Relics." 

Under the wing of a ubiquitous and very courteous official who put 
himself at our disposal during our entire stay in Seoul, we visited the 
palace of Prince Li, the retired Korean ruler; or, rather, the part of it 
where he did not hap- , 

pen to be, for we 
were informed that 
His Majesty was at 
home the morning of 
our visit. A long cor- 
ridor led into what 
we dubbed the Lino- 
leum Palace. Thou- 
sands of hooks bris- 
tled along the wall, 
hooks for the wraps 
of distinguished 
guests at receptions 
never held. Fierce 
red and green and 
yellow chandeliers 
decorated the ceiling, 
red plush rocking 
chairs and rows of 
uncompromising res- 
taurant chairs and 
ugly, spidery little 
tables were distrib- 
uted around the room, 
and, actually, brown 
linoleum with yellow 
spots covered the 
floor! The Hall of 
Benevolent Adminis- 
tration is a massive 
building with double winged roofs, standing apart at the end of a marble 
terrace. Giant dull red pillars reached up to the shadowy vault overhead, 
where the many angles and projecting beams were gorgeously painted 
in primary colors, and in the center a sacred phoenix spread its glitter- 
ing tail. The mid-Victorian throne of gilded wood and yellow satin, and 
tall, shimmering screens with precipitous blue mountains and processions 
of microscopic little people trailing across them were the only furnish- 
ings. Korean paintings strike one as cruder than the Japanese, but at 
every turn one comes upon the sources of inspiration in Japanese paint- 
ings, for the art of painting, along with that of calligraphy and Bud- 
dhism, was introduced into Japan from Korea some 1,500 years ago. 
Korea played the same role toward Japan that Ireland did toward Eng- 
land in its early history, and is now suffering a similar fate. 

The Old North Palace two miles away was very much like the East 
Palace of Prince Li, and the numerous halls — the Hall of the Thousand 
Autumns, of Ten Thousand Springs, of Peace, of Happy Gathering — 
showed, in a desolate way, how springs and autumns alike may become 
but the memory of vanished dreams. The grounds of the Palaces are 
very extensive and contain hidden gardens and lotus ponds and softly 
bubbling springs and little pagoda-like rest houses. As we wandered 
around, we felt more than once that we had accidentally stumbled into 
some Oriental Sleeping Beauty Forest. 

The tomb of the last Korean Queen is another mecca toward which 
it is befitting that the unhurried tourist bend his steps. It lies outside 
the city wall, on an eminence some six miles away, and commands a 
view down over the city and the River Kan, winding its way serpentwise 
through the cloven brown hills. The road to it leads through miles of 
graveyard. Stretching off to the horizon on every side, no stone or 


The supplies laid out for this feast in honor of the hostess' sixtieth birthday uphold the statement put forth that 

eating is the primary occupation of Korea 

monument of any kind to distinguish one from another, millions of little 
mole-like mounds covered the face of the land like a disease. The 
Koreans are very superstitious about death, and the dead are thought to 
exert evil influences from the grave unless they are propitiated. Divin- 
ators are called upon to select the auspicious spot for burial, and the 
bones must never be disturbed. Now and then we saw a farmer more 
progressive than the rest who was attempting to reclaim part of the 
ground, and had sown a crazy field around the graves. But reclamation 
of land has never been a part of Korean enterprise. 

In the official guidebook of the Imperial Japanese Government Rail- 
ways, Queen Min is spoken of as the "unfortunate Queen of Korea." 
This little known and remarkable woman has indeed played a tragic 
role in the history of her country. Like the Empress Dowager of China 
who swung the destinies of the Dragon Empire for half a century, the 
Korean Queen stands out in the dissolute, intriguing court as the one 
figure of strength and determination. Foreseeing the menace of the 
growing Japanese interest in the country, she secretly worked against 
it, thereby incurring the hatred of the Japanese government. It was 
decided that for the "good of Korea" she must be put out of the way, 
and accordingly, on the morning of October 8, 1895, the palace was 

surrounded with Japa- 
nese troops and a 
small group of dis- 
contented Korean of- 
ficials, and Japanese 
soldiers entered her 
apartments and mur- 
dered her, afterwards 
pouring petroleum 
over the body and 
setting fire to it in 
one of the courtyards. 
It has been darkly 
hinted that the Queen 
was really burned 
alive, and that in or- 
der that no mistake 
might be made, since 
the soldiers had never 
seen her, two or three 
of her ladies in wait- 
ing were also burned. 
The murder of Queen 
Min is one of the 
blackest pages of 
modern history. At 
any rate, the Japa- 
nese have erected an 
imposing mausoleum 
to her memory, and it 
may be that her soul 
is at rest out there in the foothills of the brown Korean mountains, 
under the wide reach of the windy sky. 

Up to the present Korean women have been denied the right of edu- 
cation. As jealously guarded as the members of a Turkish harem, they 
have remained in their own apartments and lived the restricted lives 
allowed them, entirely apart from men and all worldly intercourse. 
Not until the annexation to Japan did a single modern girls' school 
exist in the country. Since that time many schools have been inaugu- 
rated and a system of education founded on that in force in Japan has 
been opened up to the Korean women. There are to-day 14,000 Korean 
girls attending school, besides the large number registered in special 
classes for the study of weaving, embroidery, sericulture and filature. 
We visited a number of schools, and found the girls mentally alert and 
keen in interest. At the Girls Higher Normal School we were given 
the opportunity to go through the women's quarters — long series of tiny 
rooms quite bare of furniture, pleasantly warmed by the novel Korean 
method of turning the whole cellar of a house into a furnace and 
allowing the smoke of wood fires to heat the brick tiles of the flooring. 
This method of heating is effective, but expensive, and has resulted in 
the complete destruction of forests throughout the country. In the 
six years since the country has been under Japanese administration, 
however, an earnest effort has been made to repair some of the vast 
damage, and 40,000,000 seedlings have been planted through government 
and private initiative on the barren hillsides of Korea. After the Nor- 
mal School we visited an industrial school where the Koreans are learn- 
ing some of their old arts over again, and a few new ones, as the exhibi- 
tion of products, including everything from old gray pottery to highly 
(Continued on page 49) 




Throughout the country great markets or fairs are held in specified places on certain days of the month, and people travel from miles around to attend them. Most of 

the trade is carried on by traffic and barter of the commodities themselves 


At the dock these coolies crowd about, clamoring for baggage and pointing to their 
curious V-shaped packing arrangements 


Enjoying a smoke while he works. The length of his pipe does not interfere with 
the swing of his ax, as might be expected 



Photo by G. V. Buck, Wash., D. C. 


During the rather bleak winter months the White House is the scene of much brilliant entertaining, but as soon as the weather permits the gardens are used for less formal 
parties. Every Easier morning the grounds are thrown open to the children of Washington, and here every year takes place the quaint ceremony of egg-rolling 




Foxcroft Davis 

WASHINGTON is not merely a place of amusement. It is one 
of the storm centers of the world. Every interest except that 
of money making is represented in Washington. Every person who 
goes there from any part of the world finds a segment of his own 
circle there, and the city is so small that it is not easy for anybody to 
get lost in the shuffle. Although the multi-millionaires have captured 
the town and hold it, and have established a style of living that puts the 
noses of the Cave Dwellers out of joint, yet there is a fascinating society 
in Washington, made up of men and women of brains and polish, who 
are not rich. They have as much social life as the multi-millionaires, 
but it is far simpler. And everybody in Washington has social life. 
In other cities all the entertaining is done by a few rich persons. In 
Washington everybody entertains in some way or other. As for dinner 
giving, Washington is the dinner place of the whole world. It has all 
the elements of a great government concentrated in a little pocket. 
Nobody is more than fifteen minutes away from anybody else. In the 
great capitals of Europe the mere question of distance and the cost and 
time of transportation, added to the enormous size of society, breaks the 
circle into segments. In London, Paris or Berlin, if one goes to dinner 
at a military house, one is apt to find all military persons; at literary 
houses, all literary persons; at a scientist's house, all scientific persons. 
In Washington every profession is represented in society, and the Wash- 
ington dinners are made up of statesmen, soldiers, sailors, scientists, 
officials, diplomats and many other varieties of men and women. Every- 
body in Washington goes out to dinner every night, and the status is 
very much like that described in the Gilbert and Sullivan opera, where 
the natives of a barren island earned a precarious living by taking in 
each other's washing. It is a saying that a diplomat arriving in Wash- 
ington need only provide his coffee and rolls in the morning, and the 
citizens of Washington will gladly give him all his other meals. There 

is no such thing as a dinner season in Washington. As soon as persons 
come back for the season and open their houses, they begin to entertain 
at dinner, and they keep it up until their houses are closed for the sum- 
mer. The barbarism of a householder entertaining a dinner company 
at a restaurant is practically unknown in Washington. It is said that 
it is not possible to give a dinner in New York without the subject of 
stocks being mentioned before all the guests leave the dining-room. In 
Washington, stocks and business are never mentioned at dinners. The 
table talk is of necessity exceptionally good, and relates to any and 
everything except money. 

Washington is thoroughly cosmopolitan, but it is in no sense metro- 
politan. It is a place for the attrition of minds, and that of itself makes 
society brilliant. 

This frequent and agreeable social intercourse is by no means confined 
to persons of leisure, but penetrates into every stratum, and lends an 
agreeable color to the humblest life. 

The atmosphere of Washington is not foreign, but American. There 
is no great army of workers there, chiefly imported, who slave all day 
and who find their recreation in parading the streets of evenings, whose 
idea of heaven is a cheap restaurant followed by a cheap theatrical per- 
formance. There is no capital in the world in which there is so little 
of street living, and where the people remain so much within their own 
houses. This gives a singularly deserted look to the town by day as 
well as by night, and is often remarked upon by foreigners. Sarah 
Bernhardt always complains of the triste aspect of the Washington 

The pleasures of the people, beginning with the very rich down to the 
workers for a daily wage, all have some social element. Even the ser- 
vants in Washington are great party-givers and party.-goers. This is 
the menu of a cook who gave a large evening party, and is by no means 



(C) Underwood & Underwood 

Photo by National Photo Co. 


In the stables at Mt. Vernon may still be seen the high coach in which Washington drove over the rough roads between his farm and Alexandria, 
more picturesque but less comfortable than the latest model limousines that are perquisites of the present Chief Executive 

uncommon : Chicken salad, stewed oysters, sandwiches, ice cream, cake, 
home-made candies, tea, coffee and chocolate. It would be considered 
good enough for a duke in Europe, and is, indeed, good enough for 
anybody. These entertainments are prepared at home, and therefore are 
not so expensive as they sound, but probably in no other city in the 
• world do persons in domestic service spend so much money in enter- 
taining. These parties are by no means rare, and at Christmas espe- 
cially, maids and cooks, butlers and footmen, live in a whirl of gayety. 
Formerly, every winter the private coachmen of Washington gave a 
coachmen's ball, and on that night the smartest people patronized cabs. 
Higher up in the social scale the dressmakers, milliners and shop girls 
have their dancing clubs and their social recreations of various sorts. 

Washington being a garri- 
son, and having a big cavalry 
post at Fort Myer, and a navy 
yard with one of the greatest 
gun factories in the world, has 
a large contingent of soldiers 
and sailors. The enlisted men, 
as well as the petty officers, 
warrant officers and "non- 
coms," always give a series of 
entertainments during the win- 
ter. The gunners' ball is a 
regular event at the navy 
yard, and a handsome supper 
is served; the music is by the 
Marine Band, which likewise 
plays for the President of the 
United States. The petty of- 
ficers have their balls and the 
warrant officers have theirs at 
the navy yard, while at Fort 
Myer, Fort Hunt and Fort 
Washington the private sol- 
diers have their dances and 
the non-coms have their balls. 

It will be readily seen that 
a shop girl who reports for 
work at eight o'clock in the 
morning and gets off at six, 
may lead quite a gay society 
life, dancing to good music, 
eating good suppers, and with 

(C) Underwood & Underwood 


At the left are the offices of the Senate. Many members of Congress prefer to live on Capitol 
Hill for convenience rather than move up town to the fashionable "northwest" 

as much decorum observed in her circle of gayeties as that of the smart- 
est of the smart set. There are in Washington no disreputable balls, 
and practically no drunkenness in social life. To look in upon one of the 
dances or entertainments of persons in a very humble rank of life shows 
many comely girls and pretty, if inexpensive, costumes, good music, good 
suppers, and closing at a reasonable hour. Every organization in Wash- 
ington appears to give a ball once a year. The twelve or fifteen hun- 
dred students of George Washington University give every year a 
beautiful students' ball. The German bands have their balls, and every 
girl in Washington, from the humblest up to the multi-millionaire's 
daughter, may, if she choose, belong to some organization to dance. 
It used to be said that Washington was a bad theater town, and even 

now it is not one of the best. 
The theater is not so seriously 
taken there as it is in the large 
cities, and the universal din- 
ner-giving and dinner-going 
of the wealthy classes affects 
the theater audiences some- 
what. But all expensive per- 
formances are patronized, and. 
there are a plethora of good 
concerts, especially on Sunday 

In the great cities, where 
the individual is lost and 
where the size and distances 
prevent anything in the na- 
ture of a circle of neighbors 
and friends, persons, espe- 
cially of the working class, 
are forced to find individual 
amusement. In Washington 
the individual counts, the fam- 
ily counts, the persons living 
in the same neighborhood 
know each other, and the easy 
distances conduce to an inti- 
mate social life rather than 
the streets, the restaurants 
and the theaters. In the sum- 
mer, excursions take the place 
of balls. The postmen, for in- 
stance, have their excursions, 



Photo by National Photo Co. 

At the top are seen the Siamese Minister and his wife, escorted by John Barrett, leaving the Pan- 
American building after a diplomatic reception; and beneath is the Turkish Minister departing from the 
same function. The bottom picture shows Secretary Lansing and Monsignor Russell coming from the 
Pan-American Mass held every Thanksgiving at St. Patrick's 

and trips down the Potomac of clubs and associations 
are very frequent. 

The most distinguished subscription balls that are 
given in Washington are the three Bachelors' balls. 
The Board of Governors is made up of men of the 
highest-- personal as well as social standing, and to be 
ii vited to receive at a Bachelors' ball is esteemed an 
honor of the first order. At the first Bachelors' ball of 
the season of 1910-11, Mrs. Taft received the guests. 
This is the first time a Lady of the White House ever 
performed such a function at a private subscription 
-ball. These affairs resemble the old Patriarchs' ball 
in New York in the days of the late Ward McAllister. 
One of the events of the season is the presence of Mr. 
John Drew at a Bachelors' ball — generally the first. 
Mr. Drew has not missed an attendance in many years, 
and is always among the gayest dancers. 

The dignity of the ballroom is very strict, and the 
infringements are phenomenally rare. Some years ago 
a young man of one of the best families of Washington 
appeared at a Bachelors' ball one night, and had ob- 
viously looked upon the wine when it was red. He 
was hustled out of the ballroom, and the next morning 
the world looked black to that young man. Not only 
was he dropped from the Bachelors, but by a very close 
shave, and solely on account of the esteem in which 
his father was held, he escaped being dropped from the 
Metropolitan Club. A member of the Board of Gov- 
ernors, who had served twenty-four years on the Board, 
said it was the first time in all those years he had seen 
a man at the Bachelors' ball in such a condition. No 
similar case has happened since. The next most sen- 
sational thing that occurred was when a seventeen- 
year-old boy, a son of a prominent Washington banker, 
dressed up as a girl, making an extremely pretty one, 
and under the wing of his beautiful, fascinating and 
madcap sister, went to the Bachelors' ball. The sister 
introduced several members of the big diplomatic corps 
to this supposed charming young debutante from New 
York, who hung her head down and looked the embodi- 
ment of timid grace, and mentioned casually to every- 
one that her young friend was an heiress in her own 
right to several million dollars. There never was a 
debutante more successful. The diplomats were stand- 
ing four deep around her, and she had to cut her 
dances into sections to accommodate all of the aspir- 
ants. There was a young Washingtonian who was 
excessively taken with her. Next morning the story 
was out all over town, and the young man was 
promptly rusticated by his father and promised a 
thrashing by the young American with whom he had 
flirted, while all the foreigners swore they had been 
grossly insulted and demanded blood. It was proved, 
however, that, like all the other pranks of the young 
sister, the line of modesty had not been overstepped, 
the young man had not gone near the ladies' dressing- 
room, and had simply chosen to disguise himself and 
dance when he was asked. The highly dignified Board 
of Governors was horrified, mortified, terrified, pet- 
rified and scarified, but the young man asked the ques- 
tion, like Boss Tweed: 

"What are you going to do about it?" 

There was no getting hold of him, not even by with- 
holding an invitation from him, because, being only 
seventeen, he was not old enough to be on the Bache- 
lors' list. As for disciplining the bewitching little sis- 
ter, that was simply out of the question, and so beyond 
a fierce parental lecture the boy got off scathless. 

The official season begins in Washington on New 
Year's day with the White House reception and a 
breakfast given by the Secretary of State to the diplo- 
matic corps. During previous administrations every 
week, until Ash Wednesday, there was a state enter- 
tainment at the White House, a reception and a state 
dinner alternating. Likewise, there are ten Cabinet 
dinners given, in honor of the President and the Lady 
of the White House. There is also a formal schedule 
of dinners and balls at the embassies and legations. 
{Continued on page 51) 




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5^ Sk 


/1| 1 £ l^tft| 


(C) Stereo-Travel Co. 

In Kobe, Japan's "fastest growing 
city," there is a pleasing combina- 
tion of brains and energy with the 
atmosphere of the old Japan 

(C) Underwood & Underwood 

Energetic Japanese women of Nagasaki turning an honest penny — not a 
great deal more — by coaling one of the ocean liners 

The versatility of this Japanese housewife, who does the family washing while carrying the baby 
• on her back, reminds us of the man who plays the "traps" in the orchestra 



An old man of the rural district north of Tokyo weaving sandals 
of straw 

(C) Stereo-Travel Co. 

A kiln in a cloisonne factory, where the smaller 
• pieces are fired 

(C) Stereo-Travel Co. 

Another "firing" scene — this time it is tea, 

which loses about three-quarters of its weight 

in the treatment 




Baseball originated in the United States', but it has been taken up by the Orient, and the Japanese in the large cities are especially enthusiastic about it. Here are the real fans 

in the bleachers, standing up for a stretch after the seventh inning 


Orientals are not renowned for their kindness to dumb animals, but here is proof that they are not all of the same stamp, for this horse's owner has arranged a paper sunshade 

over him. The device is occasionally seen in the United Stales 



(C) Stereo-Travel Co. 

The entrance to the Shinto Shrine of Tokyo, known as Gion no Yashiro, said to 
have been founded in the year 656. It is round about here that the Gion Festival, 
one of the three great annual processions, takes place in the month of July, with a 
great show of magnificent pageantry 

(C) Stereo-Travel Co. 

A typical street shop in Yokohama. In the purely native stores tea in tiny cups is 
offered to the visitors, and cushions are produced for them to sit upon. Where there 
is matting on the floor foot coverings are slipped over one's shoes at the entrance 

(C) Stereo-Travel Co. 

Statues of Buddha are seen in almost every out-of- 
the-way place in Japan. The religion came to 
Japan via Korea 

NOVEMBER, 19 16 


(C) Stereo-Travel Co. 

In a big city like Yokohama you are 
apt to see such jarring notes of Oc- 
cidental modernity as a steel bridge 
made in Pittsburgh, or a derby hat 
from Brooklyn 

A thrifty old Japanese who has 
been gathering faggots for his fire. 
We wonder if those symmetrical 
folds represent layers of coats or 
are merely a style of shirt front 

(C) Stereo-Travel Co. 

(C) Stereo-Travel Co. 

This picture's chief interest lies in 
the manner in which the laborers are 
bundling their goods to be shipped 
away to the city market by canal 

Fishermen on a small lake in the in- 
terior of Japan. No matter what 
part of the world it is, there 
seems to be something especially 
picturesque about fishing 

(C) Stereo-Travel Co. 

The Japanese believe that it pays to advertise, and 
so they have adapted their art and language to 
billboard publicity. Friends of ours who are able 
to read the characters tell us that the reading mat- 
ter is very uninspiring. This picture shows what 
a certain brand of food did for a wrestler who is 
advertised by his loving friends 

W "a; n 

'■'X'' i-Z 




Homer Croy 


A fisherman casting his net 

I T H the 
morning we 
drew into Honolulu 
and we were all up 
and dressed, many 
of us seeing the 
sun's matutinal 
glory for the first 
time in — let it be la- 
mented — years. It 
was the sweet hour 
of farewells, sad- 
dened by the part- 
ing of friends on 
whom still sat the 
glamor of the sea, 
mingling with the 
thrills of new sights 
and sounds. With cameras swung over our shoulders, we scribbled ad- 
dresses in little red books and shook lingering hands — with our eyes on 
Diamond Head. It was sweetness and sorrow in one cup, and we drained 
it with a tear and a laugh. And when the steward, always affable at 
debarkation ports, told us that in Diamond Head were waiting guns 
with apertures so cleverly hidden behind flowering plants and windows 
so painted to represent the cold gray of the living rock that we could 
not detect them with our binoculars, we stopped to wonder a moment 
and then turned to arrange a reunion with some sea-found friend in a 
Nipponese hotel that neither of us had ever seen. 

From nowhere the deck began to be peopled, and alongside our ship 
came swimming brown, laughing boys, who called to us in our own 
language to throw them nickels to dive for. It made us stare that these 
foreign-looking people could speak our English, and even our slang. 
It took us some time to realize that the Hawaiians had been so long 
under the flag that only the withering mother can now speak the tribal 

Only a few years ago these people died off like flies when measles 
swept among them. Measles is a most destructive, communicable disease 
among a primitive people, and when brought to the islands by a white 
ship it ravaged the Hawaiians. With their temperatures raging they had 
run to the cooling waters of the sea and flung themselves in, to die in a 
few hours by hundreds. Now these people were coming to welcome us 
— even to twit us — in our own language ! 

Down the gangplank we came, past the keen-eyed inspection officers 
and eagerly placed our foot on — by this time we didn't know which to 
call it — foreign or native soil. With the round-faced Japanese staring at 

A Hawaiian coast scene 

us unblinkingly, we 
felt that we were in 
an alien land, but 
when we turned to 
some native woman 
wearing a New Eng- 
land mother hub- 
bard, her face 
parted in bright- 
toothed welcome, we 
felt that after all we 
were merely in an 
unfamiliar part of 
the United States. 
The last doubt that 
we were on a for- 
eign shore was shat- 
tered when down 

the freight incline came a wagonload of Battle Creek breakfast food I 
We were simply in the New West. 

Life holds no rarer joy than that of the first hour on new land; the 
heart never beats faster and the brain never races more swiftly than 
when one is going from the dock to the hotel. The simplest signs over 
the most prosaic store, the sleepiest bakery horse, the emptiest face, 
are positively exciting; objects that in more familiar surroundings would 
be passed by with an unseeing stare, now absolutely demand that they 
be photographed. Whether we will it or not, our like or dislike of a 
new city is formed before the cab driver delivers us at our hotel. After 
we have lived there a few weeks, if by chance we stray along the same 
route again, the way seems stupid and uninteresting. By that time we 
have seen the real wonders of the place, which by comparison dwarf 
the first sights into nothingness, but the first hour everything pulsates 
with interest and seems wondrously different from anything we have 
ever known. 

Coming into Honolulu was, to me, like coming into a great, cheerful, 
somewhat old-fashioned sitting-room, with no end of windows. Not a 
place to get acquainted with, one to like bit by bit, to become attached 
to, but a place to feel at home in at once. I had not unpacked my 
trunks until I felt that I had always known this Honolulu — had lived in 
it some time, it may be in another creation. It was a room with plenty 
of windows, for Honolulu has the sky for its roof. It is a city of piazzas 
and porches and outdoors ; even the treasurer and secretary to the de- 
throned Queen has his office outdoors, with only a roof to keep him 
from the elements ; and the post office has its boxes on the outside of the 
building, so that standing on the sidewalk one may see if the steamer 



has brought him aught. The sidewalk is popular on steamer days. 

It is a big, healthful room; especially healthful. It was not with sur- 
prise that I heard indignantly of how the first mosquitoes were brought 
to the Sandwich Islands by the captain of an English tramp in 1812, 
and how the residents only wished they knew where his bones lay that 
they might do something appropriately disgraceful. Nor did it surprise 
me when they told me that on the islands there was not a snake, and 
that no wandering circus ever got nearer with its reptilian exhibit than 
the wharf. Snakes in such a paradise would seem extravagantly out 
of place. Nor does the bite of insect poison. Once a shipment of steel 
was unloaded for the construction of a sugar mill, and girders lay open 
to the rain for many months. Then one day a gang of workmen came 
to take them away, and in handling the rails the spiders, which had cast 
their fortunes in the accumulation, were disturbed. Several of the 
workmen were bitten, but wiped the wounds away and thought no more 
of it, for a spider's bite with them was no more dangerous than a mos- 
quito's with us. But before the morning had passed two men fainted, 
and before they had been borne away others had fallen and had to be 
rushed to the hospital. The rain, washing the dust from the rails, had 
given the heretofore harmless spiders the amount of iron they needed 
to generate their poison, for on these volcanic islands there is no natural 
metal, and without metal stinging arachnida are harmless. 

On every corner lot in Honolulu Americanism flourishes, the shouts 
being as loud and the slang as perfervid as on any similar baseball 
diamond in the United States, albeit the forebears of the battery may 
have come from Sumatra or Jodhpur. Watching the Hawaiians at base- 
ball brings one up with a start to remember that some three generations 
ago pious missionaries from Boston, 120 days around the Horn, were 
singing hymns and parceling out clothes to keep these same people from 

heathendom ; these people who now win athletic firsts at Brown and 
Yale. In those embryonic days, so the grandsons of the missionaries 
now tell us, there were not enough clothes to go around, so a suit was 
divided and spread among as many converts as possible, so that on a 
Sunday morning the pastor looked up many times to see coming down 
the church aisle a newborn soul in a pair of drawers, and another seeker 
less sartorially fortunate clad only in a pair of cuffs. But it seems that 
the pride of the parish was a pair of shoes sent from Beacon Hill which 
had to serve more than one wearer on a Sabbath morning. This was 
naively accomplished by the first wearer loudly squeaking down the 
aisle and taking his envied seat near the window, then quietly dropping 
them out to the next believer, who in turn passed them on to an endless 
procession of newly made converts, who would go properly attired of 
not at all. 

Other visitors never ceased to exclaim over and wonder at Honolulu's 
weather, but I took that as a matter of course, as a child does its first 
Christmas present; the delights, to me, were the unexpected glories of 
a motor tour. Oahu seems especially laid out by American Automobile 
Association topographers, containing as it does just enough of hill and 
hollow and speedway. Climbing a sharp road was a thrilling suspense, 
like the opening of a package arriving on one's birthday morning with 
never an idea as to what it contained. Whether it was to be another 
mountain still higher, or a crater still lower, I never knew until I 
achieved the summit. At the Pali I disengaged myself from my well- 
intentioned friends and wandered alone on the precipice, where a hun- 
dred and some years ago 18,000 soldiers had thrown themselves over 
the cliff when pursued by a larger and more determined army; thrown 
themselves over rather than surrender, and scratching among the accu- 
mulated weeds you may still turn up a whitened, dented skull. Would 

Photo by J. B. Allison 


Honolulu has a Very picturesque manner of bidding Godspeed to her departing guests. Around the necks of the outgoing passengers are hung leis, or wreaths, and as the ship 

leaves the dock the Royal Hawaiian Band plays the plaintive Aloha Oe, "Farewell till we meet again" 



(C) Underwood & Underwood 



The opening of the Panama Canal and the present impossibility of pleasure jaunting 
in Europe have greatly helped Honolulu's popularity as a pleasure resort 

(C) Underwood & Underwood 


Hawaii's wealth lies in agriculture and a Hawaiian plantation is a world workroom, 
for gathered here are laborers from all parts of the earth 

a Colonial army have thrown itself 
over a cliff, preferring self-adminis- 
tered death to capture? Hardly. A 
Massachusetts army would have died 
fighting, demanding an eye for an eye 
and a tooth for a tooth as long as 
breath was between their ribs. To me 
the whole history of the Kanaka is 
summed up in the tragedy of the Pali. 
They had not that something, which no 
one can put his finger on, that goes to 
make the white skin the bravest in the 
world ; that keeps a white finger pulling 
the trigger until it is blown off, and 
then changes the weapon to the other 
shoulder ! 

Dreaming over the valley of death I 
was roused by the sharp chet-chet of a 
gloriously beautiful bird, with two 
wondrous tufts clinging to its breast — 
the oo bird, which is dying even faster 
than the race. From these two yellow 
feathers kings crowned themselves, 
making elaborate headdresses that must 
have cost thousands of birds. In the 
Museum you may see their splendor 
still. Only a rare few of the species 
are now left, and this one was singing 
as joyously as if its history were just 
beginning, rather than being already 
written. On nearer approach it flut- 
tered a few feet beyond my hand and 
perched again as if it would not give 
up the privilege of exulting over the 
heap of heads below that had once paraded in its final feathers. 

I went to a plantation with a friend who was fortunate enough to 
be "in sugar," and watched the intricate process by which a stalk of 
cane may be cut from the field and seven hours later fall down the 
chute into a gunnysack, brown as a growing potato exposed to the sun 
and as soft as a baby's first hair. Out on the little toy railroad I rode 


Three genuine exponents of the terpsichorean art of Hawaii, from whom 

so many writers of musical comedy have recently drawn inspiration, with 

some of their instruments of rhythm 

with my friend, a railroad that hauls 
uncounted tons each season, through 
the unending fields where the cane was 
growing high enough to hide a man on 
horseback, the cars rattling and jolting 
till he could see the question in my 
face. "No, it never leaves the track," 
but just the same my vacuum bottle 
was in a thousand pieces when we 
reached the cutters. A Hawaiian cane 
field is a world's workroom, for in it, 
side by side, men and women of a 
score of nationalities reach out with 
their wicked, hooked knives and lift 
the bent stalks for the swift stroke that 
leaves a bare, surly stub. Hawaii is an 
ethnologist's treasure trove. Gathered 
here are representatives of nations 
great and small, and of lands without 
a flag; stolid, unemotional Chinamen 
working alongside quick-tempered, 
head-hunting Dyaks ; Portuguese eat- 
ing their black, villainous bread under 
the shade with Japanese eating their 
white, scanty rice. Of all the workers 
the Chinese are best ; the first to come, 
the last to leave, rarely breaking rules 
to slay each other with their corn 

It came to me as a shock to see men 
and women working together, babies 
bobbing on mothers' backs, till I re- 
membered that within ten minutes of 
Herald Square the same may be seen 
by taking the Long Island Railroad, shooting under the East River 
and coming up in the truck patches just this side of where millions are 
spent to send a tennis ball at the right angle over a flimsy net in an 
international meet. Sometimes I think that is why we travel — to be 
shocked ! 

With the cane lying free on the ground, the open-topped cars are 

NOVEMBER, 19 16 


(C) Unde 


lao Valley is the name given to the great crater of an extinct volcano on the island of 
Maui, the second largest of the group 

backed up, a deated board, like the runway to a henhouse, is placed on 
top of the car, and up this the dollar-and-a-quarter-a-day Blondins carry 
their burdens. Their arms open like oyster hooks and the cane clatters 
into the cars. No machine has ever been perfected to do the work, 
although millions await the genius who will breathe into the proper 
number of pipes. 

The little black engine, like the busy ant, darts through the overlap- 
ping cane, yanking its load after it. But at the mill all is different. 
No patchwork of faces there; no crazy quilt of nationalities. They are 
all white, for it is only the white man who has mastered machinery. 
The Chinese, Javanese, Burmese and other Easterners are competent 
so long as they have only their 
hands to think of, but steam 
is still their master. Some- 
times I think the only funda- 
mental difference between the 
Western and the Eastern man 
is the former's mastery of ma- 
chinery. The Oriental mind is 
just as good, their philosophy 
deeper, but about machinery 
they know nothing. Their 
burden is still on their shoul- 
ders, while we have shifted 
ours to the pistonhead. 

Coming home late that even- 
ing we passed a plantation vil- 
lage, pulsating with excite- 
ment, for a motion picture 
show was in their midst. A 
peripatetic showman had come 
with his curtain and his tent, 
and generating the power with 
his motor truck, was project- 
ing on the swaying screen a 
fervid battle between honest 
cowboys and bloodthirsty In- 
dians. Although the film was 
sadly scratched and torn, one 
could tell they were Indians 

Dod & Underwood 


Photo by J. B. Allison 


Sunset from Waikiki Beach, Honolulu. The dark clouds and the sea gulls flying in to 
shore for shelter contradict the calm of the Pacific 

Beretania Avenue, Honolulu. Hawaii early recognized the desirability of good motor 
routes, and throughout the islands the roads are numerous and well built 

by the fact that every now and then they would stop the battle to enact 
a war dance. At the end, when the white perforations danced on the 
screen, the Chinese and the varied workers showed their approval of 
the dripping film by calling out for another "Co'boy," with the accent on 
the last syllable, the same being as near as they can come to cowboy. 
For their brief hour they had paid twenty-five cents each. 

On a small rolling steamboat I had gone to the Island of Hawaii, some 
twelve or fifteen hours from Honolulu, thereby losing my hat in an 
excited attempt to see a whale — in the very seas that in the '40's had 
run red with leviathan blood ! — and at Hilo was met by a friend, who 
whirled me away to his sawmill miles inland. Here he, with his wife 

and boy and two hundred poly- 
glot workmen, lived and had 
their being, and sawed tele- 
phone pins for Kansas and the 
treeless prairies. It was with 
something of a thrill that I 
was thinking that, besides the 
family, I must be the only 
white person who had ever 
been there before, when my 
host began telling me about a 
strange man and woman who 
had once ridden up to his door 
and asked to be kept for the 
night. Eager for other Eng- 
lish voices he had kept them 
for a week, the couple always 
riding off in the morning and 
coming back again in the even- 
ing. Later my friend took me 
to the very outrigger and the 
fishing nets drying on the 
beach where Mr. and Mrs. 
Richard Walton Tully got 
their material for "The Bird 
of Paradise." So it is in trav- 
eling: often we think we are 
Balboas planting a flag on an 
{Continued on page 47) 



The grinning sentinels were doubtlessly designed to strike terror to the hearts of guilty entrants, 
and offer a good suggestion to wives whose husbands keep late hours 

APPENDED to a treaty between the Kingdom of Siam and the 
United States, last proclaimed during the administration of James 
Buchanan, one finds a lengthy compendium of dutiable exports, which, 
though purely commercial in character, sings itself to Occidental ears 
like a Walt Whitman version of the Arabian Nights' Tales, or a page 
from Oscar Wilde in his most exotic moments — the temptations prof- 
fered by Herod to Salome in the old Bible tale : "Ivory, gamboge and 
rhinoceros horns : sharks' fins and pelican quills; rosewood and ebony; 
turtle shells and birds' nests ; tigers' bones and armadillo skins." And, 
at the end, like a gorgeous climax of color, "king-fishers' feathers and 
peacocks' tails." Who would not long to visit a country where 
even the commonplaces of trade savor of romance ! 

At sunset, one breathless autumn night, we found ourselves 
at anchor before Paknam, Bangkok's gateway to the sea. Here 
all would-be visitors to Bangkok must wait the river's tide. The 
following morning, as the old Machew laboriously pushed its 
way along, in the gray light of early dawn, it seemed as if we 
must be the first adventurers into an undiscovered country, for 
there was not a sign of life anywhere. The only sound was the 
swish of the water as it eddied about our prow, sometimes brown 
and dull, sometimes hidden from view by huge carpets of spark- 
ling dew-sprinkled Java weed, figured with blossoms of pale blue. 
Both sides of the river are visible from midstream, for the Me 
Nam Chow, though navigable almost to its source, is exceedingly 
narrow. The shelving banks were draped by the dense foliage 
of the mangrove trees, their roots deep in the river mud. Far- 
ther back, on the low-lying plains, scattered groups of tall 
palms drowsily nodded their plumy heads and the smaller streams 
that joined the river on either hand seemed to come from the 
very heart of mystery, and were like painted brooks in the still- 
ness. As we proceeded slowly upstream, tiny huts thatched with 
attap palm began to define themselves amid the foliage fringing 
the banks, and down those silent little streams slid an occasional 
native shallop, disclosing a shining brown body bent to the motion 
of the paddle. 

As-we approached the city, toy-like huts gave way to ugly make- 
shift warehouses and pseudo-European dwellings, and the un- 
canny silence yielded to the hubbub of multitudes of unrestrained 
voices. Soon our ship began to thread its way among a motley 
collection of sea-craft. Everything — from the Siamese King's 
natty private yacht to heavily laden merchantmen and passenger ships, 
and all the stages between, down to the miniature native shallops, pad- 
dled hind-side-fore, their apparently unstable equilibrium in momentary 
ieopardy from the pert, insubordinate steam launches, dashing every- 
where, their shrill sirens shrieking like fiends. As the sun rose the sharp 
pinnacles of prachadees shot skyward like golden arrows, and the clear 
light of day brought out in unpleasant contrast ugly lines of Western 




Lucie Chandler 

Photographs by the Author 

architecture of the mid-Victorian period. Suddenly our 
steamer's propeller offers loud protests, and we turn slowly 
about in midstream, quite bridging the river, while yelps of pain 
— or is it pleasure? — bombard our ears, as coolies — Chinese, 
Siamese and Malay — offer assistance or resistance to our ap- 
proach. In the midst of this vocal din we draw alongside the 
dock, and in the sea of brown faces below us there shine out 
three or four pairs of English or German blue eyes. We strain 
our ears to hear a language that at least approximates our own. 
The Me Nam Chow crosses the city in two branches, while 
the tiny interlacing "khlongs," as they are called, take the place 
of side streets. To be sure, there are in Bangkok one or two 
broad, paved thoroughfares, introduced by foreigners and pa- 
tronized by rickshas, carriages, motors, and even an ambitious 
tram, but the natives still choose to travel by canoe along the 

Bangkok is a more than dual personality. This first Bangkok, 
of the port and docks, is the Bangkok of commerce, where merchants 
from Bombay and Burma ply their trade in teak ; where the mysterious 
packets of the Orient are despatched to foreign lands ; where the customs 
official is enthroned. Here the Chinese junks, weird pairs of eyes upon 
their prows, collect loads too heavy for river embarkation and transfer 
them to outgoing steamers farther down the river at Paknam. Here one's 
mind is confused by the closely drawn race distinctions of the East, 
for mingling with the Siamese customs officials and the merchants from 
farther India, are the Malay rice cultivators and ladylike Cingalese gen- 
tlemen with combs in their long black hair ; wizen-faced Madrassi, and 


Soldiers at drill in a temple courtyard. Whether it be because of military prowess or the 
protection of Buddha, the Siamese boast that they have never paid allegiance to an alien race 

bandy-legged Tamils from the south, presenting in all a motley collection- 
It is here in Bangkok that one sees the apparently first gentlemanly 
effort of the East towards trousers. To be sure, the male population of 
Japan has adopted the "human pant," but it is an adoption. The gar- 
ment itself is not indigenous. The mark of a true Japanese gentleman 
is the hakama, which errs on the petticoat side. In Korea the long, 
flowing coat of blue or white linen reveals but does not avow pretensions 


2 7 

trouserward. In China the ladies claim the right to two trouser legs, 
instead of one, and the pedal extremities of male China stalk along be- 
neath a long redingote-like garment of frivolous silk. In the Straits 
both sexes are frankly skirted. It is in Siam that the approved lines of 
.masculinity really find themselves. The garb of the Siamese is in other 
respects, as well, distinctly original. The entire costume in which a little 
Siamese boy indulges is a pair of silver anklets, close-fitting enough to 
stay on without the ends meeting. The little girls are equally free from 
fashion's fetters. The grown-ups drape around their waists about four 
yards of silk or cambric, meeting the edges in front, and rolling them back 
toward the body into a sort of tail, which turns backwards between their 
legs and is tucked under a belt at the waist-line in the rear. This tail 
divides the drapery into two baggy trouser legs. This garment is called 
a panung. A scarf about a foot wide and two or three yards long is 
thrown over the right shoulder and passes down across the left side. 
back and front, tying loosely over the left hip. Those who have come 
in touch with no other civilization wear only these two garments, the 
colors varying according to the days of the week. Lavender is Satur- 
day's color — lavender or purple or the shades between. For Monday 
is the traditional Monday color, blue. The Siamese dress is pic- 
turesque and suited to the life they lead, and in its own setting 
seems ample, but those who know something of the outer world 
feel its lack of dignity, and as a concession to civilization sup- 
plement the scarf and panung with the offerings of the foreign 
tailor. The men delight in tan shoes and white duck coats and 
the soft felt hats dear to the heart of the American under- 
graduate. A mustard-colored panung, topped by a white duck 
coat is amusing enough in itself, but when you add an elaborate 
necklace and a jeweled locket, dangling upon the white duck's 
manly bosom the effect is ludicrous in the extreme. The women, 
too, borrow Occidental accessories. Silk hose and slippers with 
the very highest of French heels form the foundation, and under 
the silken scarf they wear a sort of short frilled muslin dressing- 
sacque — the kind that grandmother used to wear, if the old-time 
fashion sheets are to be trusted. One elegant Siamese lady added 
to ring-laden fingers a gorgeous rope of rubies and diamonds about 
her neck, and across her breast serried ranks of brooches in daz- 
zling array; in their midst, for mere use, a common safety-pin! 
She was a lady of the old school and wore her thick, black hair 
cropped, while her teeth were 
ruddy brown ! 

Which recalls that they told 
us in Bangkok that the Corona- 
tion of the present King, bring- 
ing its influx of foreigners, 
wrought consternation in the 
land of betel nut chewers, and 
an importation of American 
dentists was the result. The 
nut is the fruit of the betel 
palm and is as popular in Siam 
as chewing gum is supposed 
to be in America. Every prop- 
erly constituted Siamese house- 
hold has its betel set — a tray 
bearing three small, covered 
boxes. They are of all degrees 
of simplicity or elegance — some 
of plain tin and some of ex- 

against the betel nut, those 
in authority recognize its 
loathsomeness and are 
trying to eliminate it grad- 
ually. To-day the children 
of the upper classes are not 
allowed to chew the nut at 
all, and this deprivation has 
a distinctly cosmetic value. 
The little girls, too, are 
forbidden to crop their hair, 
and with their leaders for 
an example, the general ap- 
pearance of the Siamese 
race seems bound to im- 
prove before many gener- 

The second Bangkok is 
the city of consulates and 

A citizen of Bangkok who has partially assimi- 
lated Western clothing, but still prefers the native 
panung to trousers 

Every Siamese portal has a guard of some sort, 

ranging from these "old salts" to white elephants 

and forbidding lions 

A rift in the wall of an ancient temple now 

overgrown by the jungle, showing the impassive 

Buddha still erect 


- ■ 

i:4 l ' ^ittia i 

L— : 

Two miniature shallops just large enough for one 
passenger each, a popular mode of transporta- 
tion in Bangkok 

quisitely wrought gold. 
One box contains the nut, 
one bright green leaves, and 
one a sort of lime. The 
leaf is smeared with the 
lime and the nut is rolled 
in the leaf, and this curious 
little package is sucked, 
rather than actually 
chewed, indefinitely. The 
mouth of the chewers are 
appallingly like big, red- 
brown holes in their dark- 
brown faces. The constant 
chewing also changes the 
shape of the mouth and de- 
grades the expression of all 
the features. While there 
is not a definite campaign 

foreign settlements, where fair- 
skinned Europeans in spotless 
white wear soldier-like pith hel- 
mets to guard against a tropic 
sun, and ride like nabobs in ag- 
gressive motor cars from some 
Western mart. 

Through consular Bangkok 
runs one long thoroughfare 
called "New Road"— symbolic 
epithet ! Along it plies a toy 
tram-car boasting of first and 
second-class compartments, the 
only distinction being the door 
by which one enters, the color 
of one's ticket and the price 
paid therefor. No clanging bell 
startles the leisurely pedestrian, 
jogging along a sidewalkless 
road ; ri"o shrieking whistle 
drowns the jingle of the Chinese bartender's metal cups, which he 
clinks rhythmically together by way of advertisement ; but faintly 
pierces one's consciousness at last, after repeated feeble blasts, the 
deprecating plea of a wee bicycle horn, toot-tooting against time, and 
there at one's very heels is the tram-car's fender docilely waiting 
for the traffic-disturber to move on. 

From New Road at one end branch a few similar but shorter ave- 
nues, khlong-bordered and tree-sheltered, and broad streets similar 
to New Road form the approaches to the palace grounds which are 
spread out over a wide flat plain. 

The palace — or rather palaces — inside a high white wall, outline 
three sides of a paved, rectangular courtyard. The central build- 
ing, a European structure in all but its modified Siamese roof, is 
approached by an imposing grand staircase which flaunts huge, 
clustered electroliers, in approved continental fashion. The orig- 
inal imperial domiciles of a past generation form wings on either 
side, and these, painted white and on strictly Siamese lines, appear 
more like temples than like dwelling places — even the dwelling 
places of kings ! In the foreground rich green shrubs of bay or 
box, displaying topiary work most unusual in design, stand out to 
great advantage against the luminous white walls, forming by far the 
most beautiful landscaping, albeit the most conventional, in the whole 
city. Before the entrances to the wings, giving a real Siamese flavor 
to the whole, and convincing one of its aloofness withal, stand not "horse 
blocks," but "elephant blocks" of vast proportions. Toward the palace 
side a flight of steps of easy ascent leads to the top of an aspiring plat- 
form, from which royal personages may step with ease upon the howdab 
of an elephant patiently waiting against the perpendicular side of the 

Along all the streets leading from New Road to the Palace crawls the 
tram-car, like a mechanical toy on the verge of a strike; here, too, dash 
pairs of tiny, mouse-like ponies, lashed into breakneck speed by seedy- 
looking drivers, who understand nothing but the abuse of the whip, and 
who lurch about on the boxes of the most uncomfortable Victorias ever 
evolved by human ingenuity for the torture of a cramped and terror- 
stricken tourist ; here imported motors tear recklessly in and out, in bliss- 
ful ignorance of all speed laws ; here, too, irresponsible Malay coolies 
wiggle-waggle dilapidated rickshas in the way of all other traffic, cursed 
by the man in the motor-car, cut smartly across the shoulders by the 



Fruit and vegetable 
daily rounds from 

merchants who make their 
one houseboat to another 

whip of the victoria-sais, bumped out 
of the way by the tram-car, and el- 
bowed aside even by the perambulat- 
ing Siamese restaurateur, who, re- 
gardless of all obstacles, trots dog- 
gedly ahead. Over the restaurateur's 
shoulder is swung a bamboo pole, 
from one end of which depends a 
portable charcoal stove, and from the 
other his box of condiments. He 
stops his jogging only long enough 
to sell his queer concoctions of curry, 
dished up in unwashed bowls and sea- 
soned by remnants of prehistoric 

The Bangkok of the Bazaars is 
called Sampeng. This is a narrow, 
irregularly paved street 
with small, blind alleys 
occasionally branching 
therefrom, and over 
all, stretched from side 
to side above the 
street, sheets of mat- 
ting, or even of cloth, 
more efficacious in 
keeping the bad air in 
than in keeping the 
sunlight out. Tiny 
shops border this nar- 
row street, their fronts 
quite open to the world. 
In his mercantile life, 
at any rate, the Sia- 
mese is most frank. 
The image-maker gilds 
his idols where all who 
run may read the story 
of his gods ; the tinker 
tinks before his open 
door; even the barber 
is not in the least se- 
cretive, but shaves his 
victims in the white 

light of the public square. Here in Sampeng pawnshops abound. In 
the pawnshop one finds the choicest of Siamese curios, household gods, 
sacrificed on the altar of necessity. Exquisite teapots and water-pots of 
a unique sort of Damascene never seen elsewhere — nor like the tiny 
Japanese objets d'art with their miniature scene paintings, but wonder- 
fully regular and unusual conventional designs, hammered into the steel 
in silver or gold by some method known only to the Siamese ; betel 
sets of dull pewter, quaint silver or wrought gold; snake-headed ank- 
lets and oddly shaped pendants, some merely ornamental, some fraught 
with charm against evil ; lace-like buttons, too, of ruddy gold, in shape 
like the Siamese imperial crown. Here, too, one finds multitudes of 
flower shops. Not windows decorated with potted plants and vases of 
cut flowers, but a small square of floor, slanting towards the street, 

laden with stemless blossoms and multi- 
colored wreaths, jasmine and roses and 
a sort of fragrant hybiscus. For 
flowers are a most desirable offer- 
ing at a shrine. There are many idol 
shops, too. And occasionally house- 
hold furnishings strike a contrasting 
note — of amusement chiefly — for they 
offer a motley conglomeration of gaily 
decorated Siamese pottery, cheap col- 
ored glass from who knows where, and 
enameled pots and kettles, doubtless 
from New England's Nutmeg State. 
Here in the food shops are offered va- 
rieties of shellfish, every manner of 
wriggly, crawly creature, with possibil- 
ities for curry. A delectable dainty one 
sees nowhere else but there is broiled 
banana. The Siamese banana is short 
and very fat, with a curious cit- 
rony tang. This luscious fruit 
the natives cook in its skin, on a 
small barred broiler over a 
handful of burning charcoal in 
a tiny portable stove. The fra- 
grance is most enticing, but par- 
ticipation fatal, since cholera 
lurks therein. We were just 
rescued from a sure-death party 
by the timely appearance of a 
good missionary, who led us 
away from temptation with 
dark but timely hints. 

More frequently than not in 
the shops of the East one bar- 
gains for one's souvenirs re- 
gardless of price or value, with 
resulting unfairness either to 
merchant or buyer, but here in 
Sampeng the pawnbroker 
weighs his articles of silver or 
gold with exceeding care. In 
one balance the bargained-for 
prize, in the other actual ticals. The price is the exact weight in money 
plus a nominal charge for the workmanship. The result is satisfactory, 
but the process not nearly so picturesque as in countries where craft 
is the standard in commercial enterprise. One's stay in Sampeng is 
gauged by one's capacity for withstanding bad air, for bordering the 
streets like a sort of gutter before the shop fronts runs an open drain 
which serves as sewer and garbage dump as well. The combination of 
odors from stagnant water, dead flowers and decaying vegetables, 
brewing together under a tropic sun, is far from alluring. 

But all this is of extraneous Bangkok, the Bangkok imposed by the 
foreigner. The real life of Bangkok is the life of the khlongs, bor- 
dered by floating houses and house-boats tethered to the bank and 
riding peacefully at anchor. Sometimes a row of "non-transferable" 

A Buddha at the door of his ruined temple, 
one of many shrines that have fallen upon 

il days 

A varied assortment of offerings before 
and a frescoed wall suggestive of early 


a shrine, 

A wing of the palace at Bangkok, showing part of the new central structure of quasi- 
European architecture, and the surrounding native buildings 

NO VEM BER, 19 16 


huts seemingly perched upon stilts, fol- 
lows the line of the khlong just back of 
the floating houses. The floating 
houses themselves are low, palm- 
thatched bungalows with wide porches 
that overhang the water. Often boxes 
of flowers adorn the window ledges 
and piazza rails. The houses are built 
on a sort of hull, like the body of a 
coal barge, and may be towed from one 
part of town to another, when their 
owners desire a change of scene. In 
front of each house, whether it borders 
a khlong or creeps up on the flat plain 
that approaches the palace grounds, 
there stands a tall bamboo pole, topped 
by a sort of bird house. These min- 
iature aerial domiciles are detention 
houses for the pees — the evil spirits of 
Siam. The superstitious na- 
tives believe that if furnished 
with a private residence out- 
side, the pees will refrain 
from encroaching upon do- 
mains so hospitably on the 
defensive. At night bright 
lanterns swing upon the 
poles, not by way of invita- 
tion, as in the daytime, but 
by way of a flaming sword at 
the gate. For the pees a 
quarantine by day, but by 
night complete exclusion ! 
The house-boats are real sail- 
boats, with roomy holds, 
where the owner keeps house, 
or even has a shop if he 
happens to be a merchant. 
One day we went a-khlong- 
ing, as they call it, and had 
a chance to inspect these per- 
ambulating domiciles at close 

range and study the life of the people from an intimate viewpoint. 
On the veranda of the house-boat are enacted many domestic scenes. 
There the family wash waves its yards of panting in the breeze ; there 
in the cool of the evening they sit, cross-legged, and partake of the daily 
rice and curry; there, too, proud parents watch the early aquatic efforts 
of their young or instruct them in the mysteries of the bath — much 
fresh water from the river, applied by the bucketful, with or without 
clothes, according to taste. 

The floating houses are not at all like the dingy, evil-smelling junks 
of the Cantonese, where thousands of Chinese live and die, without ever 
touching foot to land. Frequently they are as neat and homey and 
attractive as a New England fireside. 

But very far from New England's ideals is the life of Siam — the lazy, 
inconsequent life of a warm country where rice is "what men live by," 

An itinerant restaurateur, and his assistant, who 
will serve you with a repast of curry at any hour 

In the courtyard of a temple or ruat, showing the Siamese version of the pagoda. The 
temples are long and narrow, crowned with roofs of three or four tiers 

The rice paddies and palm groves beyond the 
city. The palms yield the popular betel nut 

and where that rice grows with a mini- 
mum of encouragement. Like all Or- 
ientals, the Siamese love to gamble. 
When the peasants come into the capital 
to sell their rice, as they do about once 
a week, they depart with almost as little 
in their purses as was there when they 
arrived. One night we went to a gamb- 
ling den — not nearly so wild a place as it 
sounds, by the way. Through a laby- 
rinth of dark alleys, bordering on Sam- 
peng, we were conducted to a huge, barn- 
like structure, where a few pennies, 
judiciously bestowed, procured an un- 
challenged entrance. The entire floor 
was covered with straw mats, arranged 
in squares, each square offering a dif- 

ferent game of chance, 

and around each, squat- 
ting on their heels, 
groups of Siamese, 
their bodies bare to the 
waist. Oil lamps with 
round reflecting shades, 
suspended from the 
rafters by long chains, 
hung about a foot and 
a half from the floor, 
just above each group 
of players, and the air 
was stifling. All one 
could see was a mound 
of small snail shells 
alternately scattered 
and gathered up by the 
long rake of a croupier, 
while the gamesters, 
each with a small pile 
of coins on the mat be- 
fore him, guessed at 
the probable number of 
shells and thereby in- 
creased or depleted 
their piles of coins. It seemed dull sport to the onlooker, but doubt- 
less the "ticker" on our stock exchange would fail to thrill the heart 
of a Siamese, particularly the uneducated peasant. 

And apropos of education, it was my privilege to visit the most 
progressive institution in the country — the Rajini School, the principal 
of which is a royal princess. It is interesting to note that when the 
Siamese government decided to establish this school, they .sent to Japan 
for a Japanese teacher, with Western advantages, to get the wheels in 
motion. One day I was invited to spend a day at the school, to visit 
all the classes and dormitories and to see the wheels go round, as it 
were. There were classes in Siamese, in geography, in mathematics, 
in embroidery, and drawing and English. It amazed one to see how apt 
the children were and the holiday spirit in which they took their edu- 
cation. They appeared to think everything a game and to enjoy it 
(Continued on page 46) 

The entrance to the modern palace, a combination of 
native and Occidental architecture 




The old Vor Frelsers Kirke, Christiania 

A street in the old quarter of Stockholm 


Charles Phelps Cushing 

Photographs by the Author 


IF you hunger for an array of hard facts and statistics about the 
capitals of Norway and Sweden, I have little to offer, and can only 
refer you to good guidebooks. These are, for the most part, impres- 
sions. Christiania and Stockholm left me with widely different reac- 
tions; but what I liked another traveler might dislike, and vice versa. 

I was fortunate enough to make the acquaintance of Norway in the 
winter time, and of all the lands I know she has the most delightful way 
•of introducing herself. How gratifying it is to find a foreign country 
looking just as she should look, just as she always looked, just as the 
■old geographies pictured her ! Your crestfallen imagination, which was 
-so shocked at the first sight of the coasts of France and of England 
(if you "made" the same ports that I made), now sits up and rubs its 
•eyes; there, sparkling in the winter sun, lies a jagged snow-topped wall 
of mountains, jutting dramatically into the sea. You behold just what 

the Vikings beheld 
when all the world 
was young. Let dis- 
appointment follow 
now if it must; your 

heart has known one glad hour at meeting and can endure disillusionment. 

All day we sailed beside this mountain wall; then, in the late after- 
noon, steamed into the mouth of a fjord and came to anchor at sunset 
in the sheltered harbor of Christiansand. The town was a little clump 
of lights at the head of a valley, with a single spire in silhouette. A few 
other lights gleamed from the wall of hills about, and from the highest 
crest a gun saluted. In the last dim glow of the sunset a tender took 
off mail and a few passengers. Then we steamed out again in the dark. 
When we woke next morning the ship was in port at Christiania. 

As we filed down the gangplank the air was nipping cold and a tinkle 
of sleighbells added a note of music to the general commotion caused 
by derricks, trunks rumbling down a chute and the pop-popping of 
taxicab engines. The drivers of the sleighs wear high fur caps instead 
of the expected derbies and ear muffs, and by this token you may take 
hope that a flavor of 
picturesqueness has 
managed to survive in 

A doorway in the ancient "city" of Stockholm, 

the original settlement, which dates back to the 

Middle Ages 

Looking down Karl Johans Gade toward the royal palace in 
Christiania. At the left is the Eidvolds Plads 

Typical houses of the old "city" quarter of Stock- 
holm and an out-of-doors Christmas tree decorated 
with crosses 


3 1 

"bordering the water, you glide away toward the center of the town. 

The old fortress of Akershus, capping the tip of a slightly elevated 
■spit of land, is the first conspicuous building and is also the best that 
Christiania has to offer in the way of antique structures. You are not 
surprised to find that the castle no longer possesses any military value 
"beyond that of furnishing shelter for an armory and a barracks, for that 
is the usual fate of old-time fortresses. Akershus was built more than 
6oo years ago and has had to undergo much restoration. When the 
venerable wooden city of Oslo burned (1624), King Christian IV de- 
creed that a new town on a new site should rise in the near neighborhood 
of the castle and under its protection. After parceling out the ground, 
he ordered that all the new buildings should be of stone. The city 
named in his honor has since expanded out over the site of Oslo, but 
the capital's oldest houses are a few neighbors of Akershus. 

In a few minutes you sweep around a curve and into a little square 
across it, then up a narrow street for two blocks to the north. There 
you suddenly emerge in the middle of the new city. 

A park, half a mile long and a block in width, is the pivot point in 

to an overage height of four stories and with very little adornment. 

You can take in the main part of Christiania at a glance from the 
steps of the parliament house, and like it at first sight. All simple and 
solid — it makes no attempt to impress you. It stirs your imagination 
but slightly, yet wins your admiration for its unassuming manners. You 
proceed to reflect that there are not more than 250,000 persons in all 
Christiania and not so many in the whole country as on the little island 
of Manhattan back home, and thereupon it appears to be a piece of 
fitness in art that the capital of Norway should make no attempt to put 
on style after the fashion of Paris, Berlin and London. 

After this introduction you are prepared for simplicity and democ- 
racy among the people — and you find it. The king, you hear, sometimes 
drops in for breakfast at the hotel across the street from the parliament 
house, and one day last winter, when he was out skiing on the Hol- 
menkollen, he took a tumble, even as you and I, and snapped his wrist. 
The Christiania policemen assume not half the airs of a New York 
crossing patrolman, and in winter time have the common sense to wear 
fur caps over their ears. A few dapper military gentlemen in uniforms 


Looking south toward Riddarholmen, one of the three islands upon which the original citv was built and where the buildings of the State Archives and the Court of Appeals 
now stand. At the left can be seen the dimly outlined steeple of the Riddarholms Kyrka, the burial place of Swedish kings and heroes 

the city plan. At the eastern end of the strip and so dingy that it can 
scarcely be seen stands Storthings-Bygning, the parliament house, a 
prostrate letter E lying face toward you, the central hyphen removed 
to furnish an attractive site for a three-story roundhouse. Karl Johans 
Gade, the principal street, bounds the long rectangle on the north. On 
the south side of the park is another business street, the Storthingsgade. 
At the upper end of the strip, on a little hill, sits the royal palace, a 
large, stone shoe box with an Ionic portico. It looks down upon the 
main street with quite as much dignity as any court house in a pros- 
perous county seat in Michigan or Wisconsin. In the center of the park, 
halfway between the parliament house and the palace, is the National 
Theater; across the street from it on Karl Johans Gade are the three 
buildings of the University. Hotels and shops and amusement places 
complete a wall of gray stone and granite about the Eidsvolds Plads 

of gray adorned with a great deal of gold braid are sometimes on view 
in Karl Johans Gade, but they are not quite splendid enough to be out of 
keeping with the rest of the picture. In the main, it is all homey and 
easy to appreciate. Pedestrians take their time, business proceeds in 
leisurely fashion, there are few motor cars to dodge, and even the trams 
are mild-mannered and unofficious. 

You are reminded of Stevenson's characterization of Edinburgh as 
"half a capital and half a country town." It fits Christiania quite as 
well, in the complimentary sense at least; for the Norwegian capital 
combines the virtues of a country town and of a capital. I can imagine 
nothing more delightful than the treat available to the citizen of Chris- 
tiania who can, without attracting public censure, strap on his skis 
and shuffle down to the National Theater to hear Carmen; then after 
the opera shuffle across the park to the cosmopolitan, almost Parisian 



"Boulevard Cafe" for his chocolate; then shuffle home again and finsh a 
glorious afternoon by taking the children out for a coast on the drive- 
way of the king's front yard. As for the small boy in this blessed 
capital, he can — and does — propel himself around the heart of the 
town on skis as joyously as a New York street gamin on roller skates. 

A market place or 
two and a few an- 
cient and narrow 
lanes in the older city 
are the best prizes in 
store for the seeker 
after the exception- 
ally picturesque. The 
tourist ought not to 
fail to see one of the 
Viking ships in the 
museum or to visit 
the busy Stor-Torv, 
or Torvet (great mar- 
ket), dominated by 
the statue of Chris- 
tian IV and the spire 
of old Vor Frelsers 
Kirke. To dispose of 
the rest of his time I 
would advise that he 
give it to humans, not 
to relics. 

Now one of the 
best features of a city 
such as Christiania, 
with an unpretentious 
plan and an architec- 
ture that is not over- 
attractive, is that the 
attention of the tour- 
ist is diverted from 
the landscape to the 
people. When, as in 
this instance, the peo- 
ple happen to be a 

democratic, hearty, upstanding citizenry, the result is most happy. You 
take that city to your heart for its humanity ; remember it not as some- 
thing pictorial, but as something living. You see the Viking ship, and 
an admiration for the Norsemen, not for the carving of the wood on 
the galley's prow, is what lives in your imagination. You forget the 
design of the unpretentious theater to remember Christiania in connec- 
tion with the name of Ibsen; and you recall the palace architecture less 
gratefully than its democratic king, who is not above breakfasting at a 
commercial hotel or taking a tumble from his skiis. As for the parlia- 
ment house, I would be willing to wager that it is so nearly obscured 
by protective coloration that many visitors do not recall seeing it at all. 

In people — there lies the Christiania tourist's treasure. A people bold 


Karl Johans Gade stretches from the main railroad terminal to the palace and is bordered by the park, the public 

market and the principal buildings of the capital 

and hale and thrifty ; a people who ever since the days of the Vikings 
have advertised themselves to the world by their staunch ships and skil- 
ful seamanship; a people who produce champions; who in art have sent 
to America a Jonas Lie — (now that we have started naming them) an 
Amundsen, a Miss Molla Bjurstedt, who carries off all our woman's- 

tennis trophies, and a 
Gil Andersen among 
motor car racers. For 
champions, we might 
note, are not folks 
who are unusually 
fortunate — they are 
folks with something 
unusual in their fiber. 
That the liquor 
traffic in Norway is 
under efficient govern- 
mental control, that 
women vote and sit in 
councils and that ex- 
treme wealth and ex- 
treme poverty are 
rare, are other in- 
dices of a people's 
spirit — a people who 
are amazingly near to 
Americans in their 
ideals. Do not go 
seeking mere out- 
ward show in Nor- 
way's capital, even in 
so highly picturesque 
a place as the suburb 
of Holmenkollen. Go 
deeper. A winter af- 
ternoon on the Hol- 
menkollen is a me- 
morable picture of 
of gayety — a moun- 
tainside glorious with 
snow and pine trees 
and alive with happy skiers and sledders — but the deeply impressive 
thing is still a vision of the animating spirit, the sturdy democracy of the 
Norwegian people. Norway seems to me to be nearer America in feel- 
ing than any other country of Europe. And that is why the spirit of 
Christiania is far more impressive to me than the richest sight the city 
has to offer in the way of the picturesque. 

In Sweden's capital there is more to see. It has 100,000 more inhabit- 
ants than Christiania, is older and richer, and has far more splendor. 
Stockholm bids for your admiration of its style — bids and wins. But 
the people themselves lose a little in attraction thereby; where there is 
a great deal to allure your eye from faces to things (and the time at 
your disposal is limited), "things" are likely to win the larger share of 


Boarding the car for Holmenkollen, a popular pleasure resort near the city. Along 
the outside of the car are hangers for the skis of the passengers 


In winter the hillside is crowded with ski-enthusiasts and sledding parties, 
February a three-days' national festival is held for ski-racing 



your attention. The penalty of splendor ! Stockholm is called the 
"Venice of the North" because of the broad canals that cut through its 
center. Its operahouse, its palace, its municipal buildings, hotels, beau- 
tiful avenues, higher spires, greater dignity, greater wealth of the old 
(which fascinates all Americans by the difference from what they see 
at home), distracts 
from learning much 
about the people. 
Where in Christiania 
the zest of the day 
was to gather about a 
table in a cafe and 
talk, human to hu- 
man, I spent the 
hours in Stockholm in 
the streets of the 
older "city," poking 
into old courtyards, 
studying coats of 
arms in the House of 
Nobility, admiring the 
shop windows of the 
Drottninggatan, or 
looking at pictures in 
the museum. I found 
myself breakfasting 
hurriedly in an auto- 
mat — sure sign of the 
curse of metropolitan- 
ism — and once even 
tumbling to the depth 
of watching Charlie 
Chaplin "movies." 
Cafes? I heard they 
had cabaret enter- 
tainments and 
shunned them there- 
after like a pesti- 

Stockholm is the 

The seven-arched Norrbro connects th 

capital and metrop- 
olis of a country a good deal like Illinois; Stockholm is Chicago, when 
Chicago has had time to realize a little more of its cherished vision 
of the city beautiful. You have left the mountain plateaus and come 
down to a fatter and richer and more populous country. 

As a final psychological factor in keeping your attention diverted from 
people to things, the street traffic, by some accident unexplained, copies 
the abominable system of London and keeps to the left instead of to 
the right. This keeps you forever dodging motor cars. 

A naive colonel from a little town in Mississippi was one of our party. 
In Christiania he had, like the rest of us, found his chief interest in 
the citizens rather than the city. When he arrived in Stockholm a 
sadness from the lack, of sociability began to oppress him, and he spent 

hours beside a window in the smoking room of a mammoth metropolitan 
hotel which overlooks the Grand Canal. How far his attention had been 
diverted from humans to things is symbolized by what he answered 
when I asked him one day what he was musing about. Gazing out at 
the canal and a procession of floating ice cakes, he directed my attention 

to some birds. 

"What kinda d'ahn 
fool buhd is it," he 
asked in infinite dis- 
gust, "that sits 
ahround on a cakea 
ice all day gettin' his 
feet froze? Down 
whah Ah live the 
buhds set in trees." 

Verily, the penalty 
of splendor! The 
traveler freely ten- 
ders to Stockholm his 
hearty congratula- 
tions upon what the 
city has to show, for 
on the score of the 
picturesque it is opu- 
lent. The massive, 
old palace, looming 
up on the choicest 
site in the most con- 
spicuous island, the 
noble bridges, the 
church spires, the 
older "city" set down 
in the midst of a me- 
tropolis almost as ro- 
mantically and grace- 
fully as the old town 
of Edinburgh occu- 
pies the heart of the 
newer Scotch capital, 
the cosmopolitan 
Grand Hotel which 
Arthur Ruhl characterizes as "the center of Europe,- in a way, these 
days," the magnificent six-story operahouse, the crowded main streets, 
the glittering shops, the soldiers that by their bearing and uniforms re- 
mind you of the Germans — to all these the traveler gladly proffers felici- 
tations. Not a minute of the time I spent roaming in the narrow, 
congested ways of the old town, or in the market places, would I care 
to forfeit. And yet — I wish I knew a little more about the Swedes. 

I guessed at them, but couldn't, somehow, get into touch with them. 
They were democratic enough, but, like all metropolitans, a little aloof and 
preoccupied. I had difficulty, too, to rid myself of an uneasy suspicion 
that they modeled a little too closely after Berlin. Eventually I bought 
an English cap, hoping to be mistaken occasionally for a Londoner. 


royal palace on the island of Staden with Helgeandsholmen, where the 
House of Parliament stands 


As is fitting in the home of Ibsen, the National Theater occupies a prominent site in 
the center of the park between the palace and the Parliament House 

The Norwegian Parliament consists of 123 members whose numbers are divided into 
an upper and lower chamber. Since 1907 Norway has had woman suffrage 




Situated on the edge of the Gulf of Mexico, embellished by palms and other tropical vegetation, and sweet with the odor of orange blossoms, Belleair is as beautiful a 
place as Florida can boast. Here golf is a glorified sport, for not only are the links technically perfect, but they offer the novelty of playing in sight of the sea 



Enos Whittaker 

Photographs by William Hale Kirk and Others 

WHERE shall I go this winter? The question is nearly as vague 
and quite as perplexing as it would be to ask, "How shall I 
spend my money?" The answer to each is logically the same, "It all 
depends upon what you want." 

The question was asked me only the other day by a banker. In reply 
to my counter-query as to what he wanted, he said : "What I need mostly 
is a complete change." "If that is all you want," I replied, "by all means 
get a job as chauffeur of a motor truck." Then he got down to brass 
tacks and said he wanted a change of air and scene, which, of course, 
I had suspected from the first. 

The man was tired and a bit run down. He needed a rest. His wife, 
on the other hand, wished to go away, but her desire to travel was 
prompted by other considerations, chiefly social, but largely that of curi- 
osity. Having received this comparatively concrete information, it didn't 
take me long to suggest several places whither they might go together 
and each get the wished-for change. ' 

The course of empire may, as the poet has pointed out, take its way 
westward, but in winter the tourist tide runs due south. I did not re- 
mind the banker of this, for I knew that it was merely a matter of pre- 
senting to him the comparative merits of the several regions on the 

nether side of Mason, Dixon & Co.'s well-known line of demarcation. 
The most obvious, as is generally the case, came first. 

"There is Asheville — glorious in November and thoroughly charming 
all winter. The place is conducive to rest, yet Society, with a capital S, 
goes too. There you can get what you go for, whether it is recreation 
or recuperation. Its 2,000 feet altitude makes for the change of air you 
need; its situation in the midst of some of the highest mountains east 
of the Rockies makes for the change of scene ; its hotels supply the best 
there is — so what more do you want ? But there is more in the form of 
such popular outdoor amusements as riding, driving and golf. I don't 
think I ever saw a finer links than that which spreads out in front of 
one of the hotels. Golf in the autumn in the Land of the Sky is some- 
thing to think about for a long time after." 

I knew I had touched a weak point in the banker's armor when I men- 
tioned golf, so I followed it up by mentioning Pinehurst, another North 
Carolina winter resort of the foes of good old Col. Bogie. 

"If you wish for a lower altitude, there is Pinehurst, which is, perhaps, 
a bit more fashionable and has a choice of four eighteen-hole golf 
courses. Of course, a man can play on only one at a time, but I mention 
this to show the tendency of the place. The place was named after 


The beach between Ormond and Daytona has for several years been used as a speeding ground for automobiles, and many world's records have been made on this stretch. 

No repairs are necessary to this natural road, for it is rebuilt twice every day by the tides 




Occasionally a few hardy folk in New York take a dip in the surf on New Year's Day, and the fact is duly chronicled by the press. There are few more enjoyable pastimes 
at Palm Beach than bathing in winter, but to get your name in the papers you must wear a new kind of frock or give an expensive party 

the pines in which the region is quite prolific. It is primarily a place 
with limitless opportunities for something to do, and one of the sports 
for which the resort is noted 
is trapshooting. Many of the 
most important tournaments 
in the country are held there, 
and the facilities for indul- 
gence in this recreation are 
excellent. Then there is Cam- 
den, S. C, 'the sunniest Amer- 
ican city,' where polo is one of 
the many picturesque attrac- 
tions. The United States 
Army is represented by some 
of its best players. 

"Now in this oration I am 
making to you I am not going 
to recommend any particular 
hotels, chiefly because they are 
all good — that is, those which 
are in the 'first-class' category 
— and it is easy enough for you to 
pick out the one that will suit you 
best. I am simply answering your 
question as to where to go ; you will 
have to decide where you will stay. 

There are two more towns that I 
must mention here, and they are 
Aiken and Augusta, the former in 
South Carolina and the other. just a 
few miles across the boundary line in 
Georgia. Here there is outdoor life the year round, but in winter espe- 
cially they are the resorts of Northern visitors, many of whom have their 

The upper picture shows a putting scene on the golf links at Palm Beach, while 
the inset below is a photograph of a polo game at Camden, South Carolina 

own beautiful estates, especially in Augusta. But they are both aristo- 
cratic, and the life during the height of the season is fascinating. In 

Aiken the athletic activities 
center largely around polo and 
riding to the hounds, but — 
as always where society con- 
gregates — there are golf links 
in the pink of condition. 

"I never saw anyone who 
was not enthusiastic about 
Augusta. For some reason or 
other it seems to exercise a 
spell over anybody who stays 
there for even a few days. 
This does not mean that Aug- 
usta is a somnolent old town; 
far from it. In size it is the 
third city of the State, and it 
is one of the big cotton centers 
of the South. But the com- 
mercial activities of the city 
do not interfere with its charm as a 
place to visit, for the hotels are out- 
side and elevated above the area of 

The banker and his wife are typi- 
cal of the tastes of those who go 
south in the winter. Of course 
there is the migratory class, who 
are continually pursuing summer, 
and they form a large part of the 
transient population of the resorts, but they are apt to go to the same 
places every season as long as those places are in favor. They do not 

The palm-bordered walk at Miami, Florida, showing 
a glimpse of Biscayne Bay in the distance 

The waterfront of Miami, showing how many of its winter visitors enjoy themselves. Aside from its value as an 
adjunct to sailing, the waters hereabouts furnish diversion to many enthusiastic fishermen from the North 




The mountains of western North Carolina are a never-ending source of delight to the out-of-doors 
lover. They are especially beautiful when the leaves begin to turn and the air is tinged with 

autumn haze 

ask, "Where shall we go?" but rather, "What clothes shall we wear?" 

The Virginias have three "cures" that are particularly worthy of a 

visit at this time of year, and they offer many diversions for those who 

are bent on recreation. Of these, White Sulphur Springs, among the 

The southernmost winter resorts of the United States are 
in Florida, and they comprise those of extreme fashion and 
those of more moderate pretensions. It is probable that 
more wealth is represented in that State during the months 
from January to April than in any other in the South, but 
hundreds of people in moderate circumstances spend their 
winters there. From Jacksonville to Key West there are 
towns and villages on both the east and west coasts, and some 
in the interior, that offer attractions to winter visitors, and 
these are so many and various that it is difficult to say what 
is Florida's chief lure. No doubt most of the visitors go 
there to escape the snow and sleet of the North and to ex- 
perience the pleasant sensation of balmy air while less for- 
tunate humans are going about with their coat collars turned 
up. But with only climate to offer, Florida would not retain 
its popularity; the sojourner must be contented. Let us see 
how this is accomplished at the various winter resorts. 

St. Augustine, the most northerly of the East Coast water- 
ing places, is unique for its Old World charm. Its Seven- 
teenth Century defense, known as Fort Marion, its celebrated 
Gateway, its narrow streets and its old houses give it a flavor 
of antiquity that is all the more pointed in that it is in con- 
trast with the very modern life of its visitors. The gayety 
of the hotels is an attractive feature of the place, and the 
opportunities for recreation in the open are almost unlimited. 
Ormond and Daytona, some seventy miles down the coast, 
are within a very few miles of each other, and are considered 
almost as one place. They are situated on the Halifax River, a lagoon 
which is separated from the ocean by a narrow peninsula, but the beach, 
celebrated the world over as the fastest natural automobile track, is very 
accessible. And where there is a beach there is bathing, so naturally 

Seabreeze is next to Daytona, but 

• • ..... • ^*m/%~ 


on the Atlantic Ocean, while Daytona is on the Halifax River. Here is an ardent golfer driving off from the first tee on these 

splendid oceanside links 

Greenbrier Mountains of West Virginia, is farthest from the coast. 
These springs have been known for nearly two centuries, and in the 
early days of their popularity people used to come by stage-coach to 
benefit from their curative properties. Among the worthies who have 
registered there are Stephen Decatur, Henry Clay, Franklin 
Pierce, and Edward, then Prince of Wales. To-day every 
advantage has been taken of the beautiful location of these 
springs to make it alluring to those who come, not in stages 
as formerly, but in Pullmans. 

There was a hotel at Virginia Hot Springs ten years 
before the Declaration of Independence was signed, and at 
that time the owner had to keep outposts whose duty it was 
to give warning of the approach of hostile Indians. And 
inasmuch as there were 6,000 visitors there in the summer 
of 1838, when most of the distance thither had to be covered 
by horse-drawn vehicles, it can easily be seen that the place 
has always had magnetic properties. It is an ideal place to 
rest, but there is every facility for outdoor sports. 

The third resort is a "cure" incidentally. Old Point Com- 
fort is best known for its life centering around Fort Mon- 
roe and the nearby Norfolk Navy Yard. Among the items 
of its popularity is its accessibility from the metropolitan 
district, and I can think of no better objective for even so 
short a stay as a week end. It takes only thirty hours from 
New York by boat, and less time by rail, so comparatively 
little time is taken up in traveling. Captain John Smith, far- 
seeing in his enthusiasm of three centuries ago, named the 
place well; and since then it has gained in age, point and 
comfort. The diversions offered are many, and include all 
the outdoor sports. 

enough this sport is in high favor. Many pleasure craft sail upon the 
waters of the Halifax, and every day you may see the enthusiastic fisher- 
men going out after seabass and pompano and the other species that are 
found there. The drives in the vicinity of Ormond and Daytona are 

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With such a wealth of material as Florida provides, the landscape gardeners have been able 
to effect the utmost in settings for the society that is drawn from the North 




There was a hotel at Virginia Hot Springs ten years before the Declaration of Independence 
was signed, and its popularity has been sustained ever since 

among the finest in Florida, for, besides the magnificent beach, there are 
excellent roads leading through semi-tropical scenery. 

At Palm Beach the Gulf Stream passes within a mile and a half from 
the shore, so surf bathing is made possible the year round. Partly on 

One of the newer winter resorts of Florida is Belleair, on 
the West Coast, a short distance from the city of Tampa. 
Situated on the edge of the Gulf of Mexico, embellished by 
palms and other tropical vegetation, and sweet with the odors 
of orange blossoms, Belleair is as beautiful and romantic a 
place as Florida can boast. Here golf is a glorified sport, 
for not only are the links technically perfect, but they offer 
the novelty of playing in sight of the sea. 

So long as the impulse to escape the rigors of winter re- 
mains among the human attributes of the genus homo — to 
eat strawberries in February, and, similarly, to do fancy 
figure skating in August — the State of Florida will draw its 
thousands of visitors. It is difficult to convey the charm 
of the place, either by word or picture, for much of its 
appeal is in its colors and its odors. You must breathe 
Florida to realize it. You must travel from the north to the 
south and from east to west to get its real conglomerate at- 
mosphere, and if you have a tendency toward the explorer's 
curiosity there is always a field in which it may be gratified. 
And then, after a sojourn in Florida, a few hours' sail 
will bring you to Havana, Cuba, where there is all the color 
and fascination of the capitals of Europe. With its tinted 
plaster houses, its narrow streets winding under overhang- 
ing balconies, fast latticed windows and half-open doors 
that reveal cool recesses of palm-bordered patios delightfully 
reminiscent of old Spain, Havana is different from anything 
in the United States, and the charm of a foreign tongue adds immeasur- 
ably to its lure. As a climax to a protracted tour of the South it is 

I have not mentioned all the possibilities for a delightful winter 


There are hundreds of miles of woodland roads in the Greenbrier Mountains hereabouts, and riding is one of the most popular diversions. The springs have been known for 

over two centuries, and in the early days the visitors used to come in stage coaches from long distances 

this account also is the character of the land more purely tropical than 
the rest of Florida, and full advantage has been taken of the adaptability 
of the soil and climate for the growing of trees and flowers that are 
indigenous only to the torrid zone. Art and artifice, however, have 
aided Nature in making Palm Beach the focal point in the 
tourist life of the East Coast. Society — to speak first of the 
artificial — is the vital spark of its long-continued popularity, 
but it was the place itself in the beginning that drew the 
aristocratic representatives of American wealth. The archi- 
tect and the landscape gardener have each contributed in 
no small degree to its beauty, for, aided by Nature on the 
one hand and great financial resources on the other, they 
have had a free rein in which to exercise their art. 

It is about a mile from the Atlantic Ocean to Lake Worth, 
the two boundaries of Palm Beach, so that within the pro- 
verbial stone's throw there is an unlimited field for water 
diversions of every kind. Lake Worth is a salt water la- 
goon; but it is still water, and is the rendezvous of yachts- 
men and devotees of motor-boating as well as fishermen, and 
the eighteen-hole links nearby meets the demands of the 
most ardent golfer. 

Miami, sixty-six miles farther south, adds to most of the 
foregoing attractions that of being within an easy boat trip 
of the Everglades and the Seminole Indians. It is, however, 
more of a city than Palm Beach, and a variety of industries 
is centered there. Boating, sailing and fishing are the favor- 
ite amusements, and its position on Biscayne Bay near the 
first of the long chain of Florida Keys makes it a particu- 
larly convenient center for those interested in these sports. 
Like all of the resorts in Florida, the hotel life is a feature. 

vacation in the Southland by any means. There are places for all 
kinds of people and all kinds of incomes; for trips of six weeks or 
for a week end; and if you know what you want, you will not have to 
ponder long over the question, "Where shall I go this winter?" 


Here the belles and beaux of both the North and South still dance the morning cotillions, just as 
they were danced by their grandparents 





Anne Bunner Ingham 

At ■■■■^a 

TO the west of Naples they lie, these volcanic plains — strange, 
"burning fields," the Gateway of Hell, the home of earthquakes, 
held in deep awe by the ancients, and well nigh ignored by the modern 
tourist who, with only a few days to spare, turns rather towards the 
superior attractions to the east of Naples — Pompeii, Vesuvius, Psestum, 
Herculaneum, and the far-famed beauties of the Sorrentine peninsula. 
And, indeed, there is no choice. If you have only a few days to give 
to Naples, you must go towards the east; but, if you have already made 
these trips, or if you are journeying leisurely, give at least one day 
to the Phlegrean Fields and you will carry away an impression of 
strange and terrible forces of the earth, and of time so long gone that 
Pompeii itself will seem but a city of yesterday. 

This district lies in a semicircle around the Gulf of Pozzuoli, stretch- 
ing from the Hill of 
Posilipo to the Cape 
of Misena, a narrow 
strip of fertile plain 
dotted here and there 
with volcanic hills, 
and backed by the 
chain of mountains 
that surrounds the 
Neapolitan Catn- 

The Lago d'Agnano 
is here, the crater of 
an ancient volcano 
which, during some 
cataclysm of the 
earth, was filled with 
water, and through 
the Middle Ages was 
known only as a lake. 
Years after, the water 
was drained and the 
lake now remains to 
us a fertile valley 
hemmed in with high 
walls of rock and 
lava left barren and 
blighted by long burnt 
out fires. Near its 
south wall is the 
Grotta del Cane, 
where poisonous 
breath destroys all 
human life. Farther 
along lie the Solfatara 
and Pozzuoli, Monte 

Nuovo, the hill that sprang up in a night, and Lago Averno, the fabled 
Gateway to Hell; then Baiae, that most brilliant Roman watering place 
of imperial times whose glory is so long departed that only a few deso- 
late ruins remain of its magnificent villas and sumptuous baths. Past 
Baise this sweep of coast ends in Capo Miseno, whose conspicuous crater, 
rising from the sea, is, according to Virgil, the tomb of ^Eneas' trum- 
peter Misenus. 

We are told by the guidebooks- that this ground may be covered in r jM 

different things ! needless to say, his was the most expensive viewpoint. 
Warned by previous experiences, we called two guards before starting 
on the Pozzuoli drive, and in their presence made an (as we thought) 
impressively binding contract with our driver to take us, stopping at 
certain points on the way, to Pozzuoli, where, ran the agreement, we 
were to pay him eight lira and dispense with his services. 

He appeared delighted with the arrangement, that gay little cocchiere, 
and we rattled off down the Riviera di Chiaia. As we scattered the goats 
and Italian babies and clattered along I wondered vaguely why, after 
such restricting terms, there was so much gayety on the front seat. 

The Hill of Posilipo, that spine of volcanic rock that bounds Naples on 
the west, abruptly intersecting the Campagna from the bay to the hills 
behind, is itself no part of the mountain chain, but is formed of volcanic 

ash, ejected under- 
neath the bay, com- 
pacted into rock by 
action of the water 
and upreared from 
the sea by some long- 
forgotten convulsion. 
There are two tun- 
nels through the rock 
and we drive through 
one, as the road over 
the hill takes much 
longer. At the face 
of the rock lies the 
little Piazza di Piedi- 
grotta, a place of pic- 
turesque poverty and 
amazing odors, a riot 
of gaily colored push- 
carts, tumbling babies 
and fish vendors with 
fish of astonishingly 
brilliant hues. There 
was one variety in es- 
pecial whose glitter- 
ing scarlet caught my 
eye. I hoped fer- 
vently that all was 
not gold fish that glit- 
tered — one is so ac- 
customed to thinking 
of them as cherished 
pets ! To the left rises 
the Church of Santa 
Maria di Piedigrotta, 
and to the left also 
diverges the old road to the Grotta Vecchia, the tunnel used by the 
ancients, old even at the time of Augustus. The hill is honeycombed 
with grottoes and caves, and is supposed by the superstitious natives 
to be full of buried treasure, for, according to their legends, these grot- 
toes were the haunts of a fabled people who dwelt in dark caves in the 
Phlegrean Fields and stored thir treasure in the Posilipo Rock, where 
it lay through centuries guarded by grotesque and terrible animals. 

A cleft in the crater of a volcano from which vapor is continually rising, one of the largest of the smoking rifts 

which give this region its name 

Here also, in the hill above and to the left of the old passage, is the 

day; but guidebooks are invariably optimistic in regard to one's mentaJ4: ancient columbarium that is shown as Virgil's tomb. There are many 

and physical capacity, and personally I should not consider that this% legends to make one think in this Hill of Posilipo, though so far the 

day's work marked out by Baedeker could be done in union hours ! only treasures that have been found in tunneling the soft rock are the 

Pozzuoli and the intermediate points are, however, easily seen in a shells and skeletons of fishes that were caught and imprisoned in the 

day by the laziest traveler. Pozzuoli lies about halfway between Po- 
silipo and the Cape of Miseno, and that half of the drive will serve to 
give a sufficiently impressive idea of the Phlegrean Fields. Pozzuoli 
is accessible by water or rail, or by foot if ;, ou care to walk seven and 
one-half miles ; but the pleasantest way of arranging your day is to drive 
out in the morning, lunch at Pozzuoli, and return to Naples in the after- 
noon along the road that skirts the bay, by carriage or by train. 

It is hardly necessary to say that it is advisable to have a distinct un- 
derstanding with your driver before you start, although even then you 
may find at the end of the drive that you and he "understood" quite 

upheaval when the vast hill reared itself from the bay. 

v'W e have no time on this occasion for Virgil's unauthenticated tomb, 
arip the cocchiere, whistling gaily, rattles us through the Piazza and 
into the mouth of the Grotta Nuova. 

A deafening noise greets the ears. It is as if all the sleeping forces 
that upreared the rock were awakened and raging within the tunnel. 
Along one side of the dimly lit space runs the tram line, and through 
the middle pass and repass endless chains of carts and carriages. 

On account of the acoustics even a sedate and orderly progress 
through this passage would make considerable noise, and when traversed 

NOVEMBER, 19 16 


in the festive manner of the Neapolitans, the racket is extraordinary. 
Apparently it is the custom upon entering the tunnel for everyone to 
raise his voice in song or imprecation. 

The cocchiere displayed remarkable versatility in his contributions to 
the general hilarity. He changed easily back and forth from triumphant 
song to vituperation of the driver in front, varied by a loud exchange 
of personalities with several passing vendors, and, to produce the maxi- 
mum effect in poise, he accompanied his efforts with a continuous 
cracking of his whip. 

After 800 feet of this terrifying progress we emerged into the com- 
parative quiet of Fuorigrotta. The driver also settled down into a com- 
parative quiet, and I thought hopefully that he seemed a trifle fatigued 
by his vocal exertions. 

I fancy that Fuorigrotta's unique claim to attention is its dirt. 

Its dirt strikes one as unusual even in southern Italy — too unusual to 
be dismissed with upturned nose and gathered-in skirts. One loses all 
sense of personal distaste and becomes absorbed in wonderment as to 
how such filth could have accumulated. The mud is all of a foot deep, 
so progress is necessarily slow and you can look into the wretched 
hovels that line the streets — dark holes with goats, children and chickens 
swarming in and -out of the doorways. Outside of each door sat the 
older members of the family — fat and scantily clothed women holding 
their youngest progeny and a few placidly sleeping men. 

Beyond the little village the road runs along for a short space between 
high walls that enclose vineyards. 

Now and then there is a glimpse of a villa, shabby for the most part 
and with a deserted aspect. Then the road climbs a short hill, whose 
brow commands a view of Lago d'Agnano, and the lane that ends is 
the Grotta del Cane. 

Seated on a stone at the point where the little line branches away 
from the road is a seedy personage, who rises with alacrity and an- 
nounces that he is the guide to the Grotto of the Dogs. The cocchiere 
beams upon this person and explains volubly the quite apparent fact that 
he has driven the visitors from Naples. 

It is a childlike and futile collusion this, for fifty paces from the road 
is a wall and a gate in the wall, beside which sits another guide, one of 
more apparent purpose, as he holds the key of the gate. Pass through 
the door and the ill-famed grotto lies before you, a long, dark, tubular 
passage in the side of a hill, hardly more than a man's height and of a 
length still undiscovered. The guide says hopefully that it connects 
with Vesuvius, but one gathers from his further conversation that he 
is not a qualified seismologist. It is an evil-looking passage, this Grotto 
of the Dogs. About the height of a man's ankles from the floor the 
heavy, poisonous gas extends in a misty white ribbon. The guide steps in 
to show how harmless it is — upon his ankles ! A few feet from the mouth 
the ground slopes down and the gas, maintaining its own level, reaches 
thigh, waist and shoulder high, and with another step the misty breath 
that destroys all human life would enshroud a man's head. 

It was into this pale vapor shroud of death that Nero was often pleased 
to send his erring slaves, and it was into this same shroud that, until 
recent years, dogs — 
and hence the name 
— were dropped to 
amuse and interest 
the tourist. However, 
sudden immersion in 
the waters of the lake 
was said to revive the 
dogs, and since the 
Lago d'Agnano has 
been dry no dogs 
have been submitted 
to the drastic ordeal. 

In lieu of this pleas- 
ant diversion the 
guide has another at- 
traction to offer. He 
lights a torch and 
thrusts it flaming into 
the white mist. The 
flame is extinguished 
at once, but after re- 
peating this several 
times the carbonic 
acid gas becomes im- 
pregnated with the 
smoke and flows out 
in rippling waves like 
a silver sea. The 

The sand just beyond the mouth of the cave is boiling and bubbling, and if a bit of paper be thrust down, dense 

clouds of smoke will immediately pour forth 

torch for this demonstration, it might be added, has a strangely inflated 
value — one franc one is told that they cost, these twists of paper ! 

And now the road leads onward through the Phlegrean Fields. To 
the right lie the far purple mountains that ring in the Campagna, to the 
left across a fertile strip of plain is the Bay of Naples. With the 
memory of that dark poisonous cave still fresh in mind it is easier to 
believe that under all that smiling beauty of sea and plain strange, 
terrible forces are at work. All this plain from shore to mountain once 
lay under the sea. Many centuries ago the round, green hills held burn- 
ing craters, now the fires in the hills are quiescent and a deep verdure 
covers the fertile soil, but out there under the tranquil waters of the 
bay there are spots where those great forces of nature are still in active 
revolt, and beneath the quiet blue ripples burning mouths are sending 
forth streams of volcanic ash. And when, driving past quiet fields and 
vineyards, you are tempted to forget these hidden terrors, look more 
closely at some fertile field. 

There is one such not a mile past the grotto, where a dilapidated 
house sets a few feet back from the road, and from a grass-covered 
bank beside it a puff of smoke curls lazily skyward ; a bonfire at first 
thought, and then one sees that this is smoke from no fire built by mortal 
hands, for there is neither stick nor leaf, but a little rift in the ground 
from which the smoke comes. 

The cocchiere waves a contemptuous whip towards it. "A little vol- 
cano," he explains airily. Not a "little volcano," perhaps, but a visible 
reminder of these active agencies beneath that makes one wonder at the 
confidence or temerity of the peasants who have dared to build their 
home within a stone's throw of the little rift with its ever rising curl of 

On again, and from now we can see the whole sweep of the shore to 
Capo Miseno, the bay an undreamed-of blue, and Ischia lying like an 
enchanted island against the horizon. Suddenly the cocchiere rouses 
himself and pointing to a hill — one of the many green cones that dot 
the fields — announces "Monte Nuovo, the hill that came up in a night." 
Between Pozzuoli and Baiae it lies, a short space back from the coast 
and rising to a height of about 440 feet. To the casual eye this youngest 
of the hills is not in any degree distinguishable from its elder sisters ; 
its sides are covered with grass and thickets of stone pine, and if we 
climbed to the top we should see a vast circular depression reaching 
almost to the sea level. 

This crater, reaching nearly to the base, is one of the marks of an 
early stage in the existence of a volcano, but its green-covered slope 
gives no sign of the untamed forces beneath. Numerous cones and 
craters thrown up by the same agency have sprung up around the 
Phlegrean Fields, but each one of these was known and accounted for 
by the ancient Greeks and Romans. Of Monte Nuovo alone they had 
no record, for this is a hill that sprang full grown out of the earth less 
than four centuries ago. 

For two years preceding the appearance of Monte Nuovo the coast 
had been affected by earthquakes which increased in intensity and 
reached a climax in the September of 1538. On the 27th and 28th shocks 

were felt continually 
day and night, and 
when day dawned on 
the morning of the 
29th the people in the 
vicinity saw a great 
depression in the 
ground on the site of 
the present hill. 
Water — cold, then 
tepid, then boiling — 
began to ooze from 
the ground. A few 
hours later the ground 
swelled slowly and 
opened, forming a 
great gaping rent in 
the earth through 
which the horrified 
people saw a lurid 
gleam of incandescent 
matter. The great 
fissure split still fur- 
ther asunder and 
great masses of stone 
and boulders, vast 
quantities of mud and 
pumice were ejected 
(Cont. on page 47) 

al^Sss -'i !:r ^| 





Photographs by George Wright Peavey, F. R. G. S. 

A Papuan of New Guinea, through the septum of whose nose 
have been inserted the tusks of a wild boar 

Oceania is equatorial, and the na- 
tives wear becomingly appropri- 
ate costumes that are adapted to 
warm weather. The Papuans 
are very fond of personal adorn- 
ment, but their particular pride is 
their hair 

The Sultan of Mokmer, one of the many islands in the region, 
wearing a woman's dress and a soldier's hat 

A native of Gisar, whose coarse, frizzly hair stands out from 

his head nearly six inches and is embellished wth a bamboo 


In the right hand of this Papuan is a decorated 

gourd in which he carries the betel nut and lime 

for chewing 

A young boy from the island of Mokmer, wearing the 

beads, armlets and necklaces that are decreed by local 



















■■'.-■ :■' ■■■■ :■ ■ ■ . ." ■ ■■w/K '. Tr' J 










Conservation in California 

WE have recently received a letter of 
whiqh the following is the more im- 
portant portion : 

"Dear Sirs: 

"There is more than an attempt being made 
to destroy two of the most magnificent water- 
falls in California by certain power com- 
panies owned and controlled in Colorado. 
This destruction can be prevented if the peo- 
ple of the United States will become suf- 
ciently interested to file protests, individually, 
to their congressmen, or through their va- 
rious organizations to the Hon. Franklin K. 
Lane, Secretary of the Interior, and the Hon. 
H. S. Graves, Chief Forester, Washington, 
D. C. : also to Governor Hiram Johnson, of 
California, and the California State Water 

"The waterfalls mentioned are the Silver 
Lake Falls and the Falls of Lee Vining Creek, 
situated at the eastern gateway of the Yose- 
mite Valley and in the National Forest. The 
Lee Vining Creek Falls are directly on the 
Tioga Road, that cost some $150,000, and is 
probably the grandest scenic road in Califor- 
nia. Both of these falls have a dropover all 
of approximately 2,000 feet, the Silver Lake 
Falls having a sheer drop greater than that 
of Niagara. These are the only waterfalls of 
any magnitude on the eastern slope of the 

"The scenery of the High Sierras is one of 
the State's greatest assets. The good roads 
movement and the automobile have made them 
easily available to the people of the United 

"The Yosemite National Park line should 
be moved a few miles eastward necessary 
to take in these magnificent mountains and 
waterfalls, which would make them safe for- 
ever. Owing to the conditions of the flow of 
the streams on which these falls are located, 
power storage will destroy the irrigation of 
some 90,000 acres of arable land, capable of 
supporting a large population. 

"The power companies are working under 
permits obtained from the Government under 
the guise of irrigation. Their application spe- 
cifically stated that they did not want these 
sites for power, but in order to irrigate the 
aforementioned land ; that power in this situa- 
tion meant bankruptcy. Before the permits 
were granted they had out bond issues and a 
prospectus showing six power houses where 
power meant bankruptcy. Their case has now 
been reopened in Washington for investiga- 
tion, but the work of destruction is going on. 

"These companies are not under the juris- 
diction of the State Railroad Commission or 
the Corporation Commissioner, not being pub- 
lic utilities, not selling bonds in this State. 
The House Public Land Records, the U. S. 

G. S. reports, and other statistics show that 
there are thousands of electrical horsepower 
begging a market in California. 

"If these companies are bound by their 
amended by-laws, which state in substance that 
they will not sell power in California, but in 
Arizona and the Republic of Mexico, then if 
these countries are in crying need of power, 
which is doubtful, an investigation will show 
that the Colorado River can furnish thousands 
of horsepower more than can be furnished 
from the above-mentioned waterfalls, reduce 
the length of transmission lines several hun- 
dred miles, and not destroy our scenery or our 
irrigable lands. 

"There is nothing to be gained by allowing 
speculative power companies to complete this 
destruction. It sets a bad precedent and tears 
down the work of years toward the proper 
utilization of our resources. 

"Your assistance toward getting a proper 
investigation (Congressional, if necessary) 
will help. This matter requires immediate 

"Yours very truly, 
"(Signed) Wallis D. McPherson." 

America First Campaign 

A plan for the Americanization of the im- 
migrant is being fostered by the Bureau of 
Education in the Department of the Interior, 
and blanks are being sent out for the con- 
venience of those who wish to enlist in the 
movement. An appeal is made to organiza- 
tions and individuals to induce one non-Eng- 
lish speaking immigrant to attend night school 
and learn the language of America. U. S. 
Commissioner of Education P. P. Claxton has 
organized the National Committee of One 
Hundred to further the scheme, and some of 
the country's most prominent officials in edu- 
cational lines have taken up the work. 

A Dam Across the Rio Grande 

The great dam across the Rio Grande, re- 
cently completed by the United States Recla- 
mation Service at Elephant Butte, New Mex- 
ico, is one of the monumental engineering 
projects of the world. It is 318 feet high and 
in storage capacity surpasses any dam ever 
constructed. The reservoir when filled will 
contain 856,000,000,000 gallons, enough water 
to cover the State of Delaware two feet deep. 
This is one-third more than can be stored in 
the great Assuan Dam in Egypt and two-thirds 
more than the combined capacity of all the 
reservoirs built or projected for the city of 

Greater New York. The dam is 1,674 feet 
long at the top, contains 610,000 cubic yards 
of rubble concrete, and weighs 1,000,000 tons. 
Placed on a city lot 125 by 25 feet, it would 
make a block of concrete lacking only fifty 
feet of being a mile high. Its cost was ap- 
proximately $5,000,000. 

Another Travel Club Dinner 

At this writing it is yet too early to give 
the exact date and a list of the speakers, but 
we are able to announce that during Novem- 
ber there will be another dinner given by the 
Travel Club of America. Due notice will be 
sent to members so that all will have an op- 
portunity to attend. Arrangements are being 
made for a larger and more comfortable hall 
than was had before, and some of the most 
eminent travelers and explorers of our time 
have promised to be with us. We are looking 
forward to a repetition of the very successful 
dinner held on April 27 last in honor of Mr. 
and Mrs. Carl E. Akeley, Mr. and Mrs. James 
H. Hare, Captain Robert E. Bartlett and Mr. 
Herbert R. Lang. 

New West Coast Ports Service 

The New York & Cuba Mail Steamship 
Company has recently inaugurated a regular 
direct passenger service between New York 
and west coast ports of Central America, via 
the Panama Canal without transshipment. 
New steamers have been built for this service, 
and they will leave New York every twenty- 
one days. 

Southern Motor Touring 

This is the season for motor touring in the 
Southern States, and the Secretary will be 
glad to send road maps and all possible in- 
formation to members of the Travel Club of 
America. There is absolutely no charge for 
this service. 

Add This to Your Hotel List 

A ten per cent discount will be allowed to 
members of the Travel Club of America by 
the Mount Royal Hotel, which is situated in 
the Canadian Rockies at Banff, Alberta. 




THE advent of the automobile, far from 
lessening interest in hiking, seems to 
have had the opposite effect. For motoring 
has opened up the country to the city dweller 

and made him desirous of continuing and en- 
larging his acquaintance with woods and field 
and stream. The New York Sporting Goods 
Company makes a specialty of suitable aids for 
women hikers. The cruiser's tote-bag is pho- 
tographed here filled to its capacity, showing 
how snugly it fits to the back. The top or 
throat-piece is pulled out, but may be turned 
in when smaller space is sufficient. The out- 
side pockets of the medium size tote-bag are 
large enough to carry two No. 3A kodaks. 
These bags are made of brown waterproof 
canvas, the cheaper ones having web straps 
and rope draw-string, as in the picture. There 
are three sizes, 32, 34 and 46 inches in circum- 
ference, $2.75, $3 and $3.50. With latigo 
leather straps and draw-string the bags cost 
$3.75, $4.25 and $5. This bag is lightweight 
and intended for men as well as women. 

The squaw pack made for young people and 
small women will carry a load of twenty 
pounds. It consists of a square bag with draw- 
string on top, 21 by 21 inches, of water- 
proofed olive drab "kiro" cloth, covered by 
flap with snap fastener. The shoulder straps 
are made of strong webbing and there is a 
bellows pocket. The squaw pack weighs only 
nine ounces and costs $1.25. 

Comfortable shoes are the best investment a 
man or woman can make ; this is particularly 
true of those who live an outdoor life. For 
the hunter and woodsman the barker without 
heel is desirable. This shoe is light in weight 
and is made of the finest quality of soft, thick 
russet or black 

The cruiser's tote-bag, for 
men or strong women 
hikers, extends at top like 
a duffle bag, and carries 
a generous pack 

Serviceable high boots 
for woods wear and 
still hunting, and moc- 
casin shoes that are 
soft yet support the 

Cut velvet and bead 
bags are a pleasing 
change from every- 
day leather, and will 
hold a variety of ar- 

leather, with sole of 
pliable, scored rub- 
ber. The men's 
barker is 10 inches 
high for $5.50; the 
woman's "waseca," 12 
inches, $3.50; sold by 
New York Sporting 

Primarily intended for desert travel, this 

cold water bag also meets a need of the 


Goods Company. Both are worth while boots. 

The Rangeley moccasin is pictured beneath 
the barkers. This is a combination of mocca- 
sin and shoe, having counters to support the 
sole and back and prevent bruising the feet. 
The sole is white double elkskin, and the top 
of soft brown leather may be oiled until it is 
practically waterproof. Men's sizes in this 
shoe cost $4, women's $3.75. Ideal for general 
woods use and for hunting. 

The self-cooling waterbag not only appeals 
to the desert traveler, but to the motorist, for 
it may be conveniently stowed under a seat 
cushion and is always ready to fetch and carry 
at the call of a thirsty engine or crew. This 
is a very ingenious patented device, for the 
heavy canvas bag may be opened entire and 
washed by removing the rod at top. The con- 
tents, when the bag is used for hot-country 
travel, keeps itself cool by its slow process of 
evaporation through the bag. Price, $1.35. 

Far removed from the sportsman's outfit are 
the dainty bags shown in the corner. While 
leather handbags are still in vogue, the more 
elaborate bags of velvet and brocades and 
beads are seen at all times of day and in all 
places. This is a Christmas suggestion, for no 
woman ever had a surplus of fancy bags. 
James McCreery & Co. have a handsome as- 
sortment of these pouch or draw-string bags, 
fitted with change purse and mirror. The two 
here shown are made of cut velvet in deep 
plum color and purple, embroidered with de- 
signs in cut steel. The round one may be pur- 
chased for $14.75, the one with the point at 
bottom for $11.75. 

Those who admire the handsome leopard 
and tiger-skin coats, but do not care for the 
heavy warmth of real fur, will welcome the 
soft, luxurious tiger-skin cloth, 54 inches wide, 
sold by B. Altman & Co. for $8.50 a yard. 
This cloth has the exquisite softness of seal- 
skin and. is very light weight, while even the 
leopard or tiger himself would be puzzled to 
identify his own spots if confronted with the 
real and the counterfeit. 


The accessories illustrated and described on 
this and the opposite page may be purchased 
either direct from the shops mentioned, or 
through this department. To travel comfort- 
ably is to travel efficiently. We shall be glad 
to advise regarding both wearing apparel and 
accessories for your next trip, without charge 
of any kind to our readers. 

The Efficient Traveler, 
31 East 17th Street, New York. 

This sturdy cowhide bag will stand much wear. Its 

generous proportions indicate comfort in traveling, 

including a "fitall" case 




MISSIONARIES report that even the 
Navajo Indian prefers the machine- 
made blanket to the product of ' his own 
squaw's loom. But he insists that his blanket 
be Navajo in design, and the manufacturers 
have made a very good imitation. These blan- 
kets are much appreciated as couch covers by 
the "young Indian" whom we have just sent 
off to boarding school, because they give that 
sporty look to his room. And, too, they are 
very useful in the automobile, being less bulky 
than the heavier rugs. 

The umbrella problem is partly solved by 
those with the new leather strap handles which 
slip so conveniently over the wrist, and cannot 
be left behind when the owner is shopping. 
They are made with short or long handles to 
accommodate the small or large woman. James 
McCreery & Co. show three designs, as pic- 
tured, one with braided side-strap, which 
makes the umbrella cling to the person, and 
a braided and plain top-loop. The handles are 
of malacca, and the silk is made for wear, in 
colors and black, $5 to $6. The end umbrellas 
in the picture are both noted for their "club 
foot." Many of the new umbrellas are made 
with this heavy ferrule end, which is most 
convenient and durable for use as a walking 
stick. The handle end is of decorated porce- 
lain in various shapes ; in black and colors, $7. 

No more useful present can be made than a 
fitted suitcase. This compact overnight case, 
sold by Reed & Barton at $32, is beautifully 
made of black grain leather, lined with twilled 
silk in colors. It contains all necessary toilet 
articles which fasten in securely. The case 
is so well knit together that it should last al- 
most a generation. 

For the woman who would "travel light" 
and for girls who should not be burdened by 
heavy bags, the telescope case, suitcase size, 
sold by Vantine & Co. at $2.50, solves a prob- 
lem. The case itself weighs but a few ounces. 
The corners are well protected by leather caps 
and the bag comes with and without a leather 
pocket on the Side to hold the owner's card. 
The picture shows a very small size. 

A most acceptable small gift a traveler as- 
sures us, in place of candies or fruit, is a box 
of crystallized ginger, as this may be eaten on 
boat or train without fear of consequences. 
Vantine's famous crystallized ginger, in tin 
boxes ready for traveling, sells for 30 cents 
a half pound, or 55 cents a pound. 

Another gift of a more useful character is 
Vantine's dollar box of wistaria blossom toilet 
goods, containing cans of wistaria powder, 
dental and toilet creams, together with a gen- 
erous square of oriental violet soap, attrac- 
tively boxed in eastern design. 

A utility collar made specially for the motorist, 
with the slide attached 

A most useful article for the general trav- 
eler as well as the motorist is a canvas rug 
roll. This protects rugs, pillows and extra 
wraps from dust or rain. With pockets for 
books and overshoes, a roll thirty inches wide 
and sixty inches long costs $10; without pock- 
ets, $6.50. 

A new kind of steamer trunk has made its 
appearance and bids fair to win considerable 
favor. Instead of opening with a top lid, this 
trunk has a "fall front," which when open dis- 
closes two complete drawers that may be re- 
moved at will, or just pulled part way as one 
would pull the drawer of a bureau. This ar- 
rangement makes it possible to open one's 
trunk without moving it from under a steamer 
berth. The trunk is also made with hatbox 
and two shorter drawers, instead of the two 
long trays. The covering is dark enameled 
canvas, with brass fittings. A 43-inch trunk 
costs $50 : with hatbox, $60. 

Two unusual features recommend to the 
traveler the Ameline collar (near-linen). It 
may readily be cleaned with a damp cloth, 
leaving the surface like dull linen, and it is 
provided with an ingenious combined fastener 
and tie-slide used in place of the back collar 
button. To the man who is particular about 
clean linen when motoring or traveling, this 
utility collar that will not wilt nor fray, that 
takes care of its own collar button and neck- 
tie, is indeed a friend in need. The collar is 
made in all styles at twenty-five cents. 

Capeskin seems to be the most satisfactory 
material for women's gloves now on the mar- 
ket, because of its affin- 
ity for water. One-clasp KI . 

INew styles in um- 

gloves of washable cape- brelIaSi with short as 
skin in white, coffee, tan, well as long handles, 
sand and gray are sold show straps for the 
by Tames McCreery & arm and club ferrules, 

useful as canes 

This fitted suitcase is built to 

stand much wear and tear, and 

everything is securely fastened 

in place 

Co. at $1.75 and $2, self-stitched or with 

The Belber fitall bag has the usual packing 
space, together with a removable pad and ad- 
justable strap under which the small toilet 
articles are placed and the straps pulled tight, 
holding them securely in place. 




1 M iHh 



I ^t 

i 1 



\ 1 



\ 1 


i \ 



A real Chinese straw telescope 
case is feathery light, and 
durable, with leather protec- 
tors. Below are traveler's 
presents of crystallized ginger 
and oriental toilet preparations 




THE RAMBLER overheard some one discoursing the other day 
on the subject of travel. The man's remarks were in the main 
devoted to his lack of opportunities for visiting foreign lands. "I have 
the soul of a circumnavigator and the pocketbook of a commuter," he 
said, "but aside from the money consideration, the matter of time alone 
would keep me pretty close to home. And yet I enjoy travel as well as 
anyone. I read every bit of literature on the subject I can find, I sub- 
scribe to the travel magazine, and I go to lectures, but I seem doomed 
to a commonplace and humdrum life." 

It seemed discouraging to The Rambler, too. Here was a man who, 
it was evident, could see only out of somebody else's eyes— the type of 
man to whom nothing is romantic except that which lies just behind the 
horizon. It wasn't wanderlust that made him wish to travel, it was 
ennui; and if a man is bored with life in New Jersey he is likely to 
be bored with life in New Guinea. Home is a good place to adjust your 

When he was a young man The Rambler 
wanted to travel. He had never been more 
than a day's journey from his home in New 
Jersey, and nothing new ever happened 
within such a short radius. By and by 
came the opportunity to go to California, 
and among the interesting things that State 
had to offer were the strange varieties of 
trees that he learned about. It seemed very 
picturesque to hear of acacias, umbrella 
trees, fan and date palms, eucalypti and 
pepper trees, and to be able to identify 
them. They were different from the com- 
monplace trees back home. One day he 
found himself discussing . the trees under 
whose shade he had been brought up and 
he mentioned a fine old oak that grew in his 
front yard. "What kind of an oak?" in- 
quired his friend. "Is there more than one 
kind of an oak?" counter-questioned The 
Rambler. "Oh, yes," the friend replied, 
"there are 300 species." Right here there 
was a seed — an acorn, as it were — planted 
in The Rambler's mind, and from it sprang 
a resolution that grew faster than any oak. 
Before he traveled again he would learn 
something of his native heath. Later in 
life he could compare with some intelli- 
gence the botany of his own State with 
that of the place in which he happened to 

It is safe to say that of all the Ameri- 
cans who visit Rome, sixty per cent know 
more about Roman history than they do of 
American. How many New Yorkers know 
of the battle that was fought in the Murray 
Hill section of Manhattan? Recent history 
is all that concerns them. They tell you 
of how the shopping district has moved uptown, of the building of the 
first subway, what their feelings were when the old Fifth Avenue Hotel 
was torn down to make way for a modern office building, and that it 
doesn't seem possible that the Hippodrome has been running ten years. 
The names of Henry Hudson and Peter Stuyvesant mean little more 
than a river and a telephone exchange to the thousands who hear them 
daily. V 

Travel is largely a matter of looking for pictures. History is always 
a background — interesting if you know its details, though not indis- 
pensable — but the foreground, without which there is no picture, is 
humanity. Take such a familiar object as the Capitol at Washington 
and view it when no one is passing. Then compare the workings of 
your imagination on seeing it during the inauguration of a President. 
Even vegetable life, properly composed, makes a picture where other- 
wise there would be none; the Capitol through a vista of trees is twice 
the building as when seen from the open. 

The Rambler spent several months on a farm a few years ago, and 
among the least attractive corners of it was the barnyard. It was not 
a sordid barnyard, but simply a mediocre sort of place having no interest 
whatsoever. But one night there was a windstorm that tore out some 
boards in the side of one of the sheds, and the next day The Rambler 
looked through this hole and the open door to a new barnyard. The 

The Rambler had seen this barnyard a hundred of times, but 
until the wind tore a hole in the side of the barn, he never 
thought of it making a picture. The frame, of course, made the 
picture — the frame and the viewpoint — and if you are keen, 
you can see a parallel to this that can be connected with travel 

frame it was that made the picture — that and the hired man who stopped 
to pet the dog by the wagon; and so it is that familiar things take on 
an air of romance when the viewpoint, which includes mental attitude, 
is changed. 

Panoramas have always been rather disquieting to The Rambler. 
Seen from an eminence, they are exhilarating, but as pictures they con- 
vey much the same impression as a three-ring circus with its maze of 
conflicting impressions. What the artist calls "composition" is lacking; 
there are a hundred "vanishing points," and as rule no one big center 
of interest. Seen, however, from where it is framed by the spreading 
limb of a tree in the foreground, it becomes a glimpse of the Beyond, 
a picture with a spiritual rather than a travel significance. Then, the 
eyes focused on the tree, detail in the distance is lost, and the picture 
is made up of color masses which, according as the viewpoint is chosen, 
may be harmonious in composition. The pictorial value of a panorama 
never reaches a maximum, because it cannot be properly framed ; a vista 

makes the finest natural picture, because 
the frame is self-contained. The "frame" 
of a picture only means its definite boun- 
daries, and not the mahogany, oak, or gilt 
crate that surrounds it. More often than 
not it is supplied by the imagination of the 
beholder; a frame of mind, so to speak. 

In the intervals of travel The Rambler 
has found it an interesting diversion to look 
for pictures. It is perhaps easiest to find 
them under arches, and there is hardly a 
town in the land that has not some sort of 
an arch. One of the most inspiring views 
in New York is of the Woolworth Tower 
from behind one of the Municipal Building 
arches. Maybe it was planned for the 
benefit of prospective brides and grooms 
coming out of the bureau of marriage 
licenses. Certainly these idealists give a 
happy human note to the picture. 

Any arch is good, even the square arch 
which is your own doorway. Seen from his 
own darkened hallway, a peddler of bright 
red geraniums in the sunshine outside re- 
minded The Rambler of a spring day in 
Rome, and the peddler swore softly in Ital- 
ian when he stubbed his toe, which height- 
ened the effect. Another time The Rambler 
was coming out of a subway -kiosk, and for 
a moment there was a picture, in which a 
newsboy, a smart motor-car and a police- 
man were composed against a gray build- 
ing opposite, that seemed to typify the me- 
tropolis better than any he had seen on 
canvas. He bought a paper from the news- 
boy, who said, "Thank you," and the illu- 
sion was instantly dispelled. But here had 
been a picture, plus an adventure, and into 
the day had crept the very essence of the travel spirit. The '"k you" of 
the London tradesmen, bus conductors and hotel clerks had always in- 
spired a pleasant reaction, perfunctory as it seemed, but a well-rounded 
"Thank you" from a New York newsboy enlarged The Rambler's already 
elastic conception of the infinite variety of the metropolis. 

The real rambler will find his travel interest at home as well as 
abroad. A pelting rain will soften the lines of a drab factory district, 
the half-light of a late autumn afternoon makes a fairyland of the gaunt 
trees and elfin sprites of the scurrying leaves underfoot. And what a 
magician is the snow ! The famed carpet of Bagdad is a bungler in 
comparison to the driving storm that changes the scene right before your 
eyes, and none save the least imaginative can fail to respond to the 
beauty of his back yard when it is clothed with a romantic mantle of 
snow. Here is a travel picture indeed. 

Real, downright, honest-to-goodness aspirations usually bring that 
which is desired. The Rambler believes that firmly. The man or woman 
who aspires to travel will travel. In the meantime it is not too early 
to get ready for it. The way to prepare is to know your own town — 
its people, its history and its pictures. And the greatest of these is its 
pictures, for they include to a greater or less extent a subtle combination 
of the first two items. 

Johnston Mackenzie. 




A Trip Exceeding All Anticipation 

YOUR enjoyment of fascinating Honolulu and the 
"Isles of Peace" depends largely upon the route you 

For the traveler who desires a fast, safe trip — with every 
comfort and luxury — the new de luxe service offered by the 

"Palace of the Pacific"— S. S. GREAT NORTHERN 

should prove attractive. 

This trip will prove a realization of your fondest travel dreams — 
the delightful ocean voyage on this $3,000,000 triple turbiner — the 
tropical climate, picturesque scenery, and natural wonders all com- 
bining to make it a trip never to be forgotten. 


Stop is made at Hilo, affording passengers opportunity of seeing 
the world-famous Volcano Kilauea both by day and by night. 

Mail the coupon below and let us give you full details of a trip to 
the "Paradise of the Pacific" via the "Palace of the Pacific." 

H. A. JACKSON, General Traffic Manager, SAN FRANCISCO 

H. A. JACKSON, General Traffic Manager, 

Great Northern Pacific S. S. Co., San Francisco. 

Please send me your free information and descriptive literature on 
the Hawaiian Islands. 

Name '.: 

Address - - - — 

City...- State 

SAILINGS ^m^m^^^^^^^^ Fares on Application 

From San Francisco 

Nov. 7, 27; Dec. 15; Jan. 

4, 23; Feb. 12; Mar. 5, 23. ^KF^^wS^*^ * * * 

From Los Angeles IBf^ ^W 1 Fr ° m THe Mainland 

One Day Later. l^fe\C^tate Til 


- j 

In writing to advertisers, please mention Travel 




{Continued from page 29) 

hugely. It was a yellow day, and during the 
recreation hour, when the children were flit- 
ting about in their gay scarves and panungs — 
ranging in color from deep orange to pale 
cream — the compound was like a field of 
lovely yellow butterflies in perpetual motion. 

The most amusing sight of all was the gym- 
nasium class, held in an open pavilion. Or- 
ientals do not take kindly to athletics, and this 
class was the only one which they seemed to 
regard as serious business. A superannuated 
piano haltingly ground out "Comin' Thro' the 
Rye" and the poor little youngsters gyrated 
like stiff-jointed puppets laboring under the 
burden of the song. I tried to be politely im- 
pressed and was glad to be rescued from un- 
timely mirth by a call to a repast of delectable 
lichi nuts and pink lemonade ! How oft have 
I been fed with pink lemonade ! Among the 
elect in those far-off countries, it seems to 
stand for the last word in American gastro- 

Education in Siam has its face turned 
towards the West, but Religion still looks 
Eastward. Need one state that Buddha is the 
inspiring spirit of zvat and prachadee? The 
prachadee is the Siamese interpretation of pa- 
goda and wats are not vegetable excrescences 
or electrical measurements, as one might 
suppose, but are the temples of Siam and quite 
unlike those of any other country. The build- 
ings are long and narrow, with pitched roofs, 
rather like an ordinary farmhouse in shape — - 
that is, so far as line is concerned. Here the 
likeness ends. The roof is telescoped in three 
or four tiers, one roof on top of another, the 
upper one always a little smaller than the one 
beneath, and the edge of each tier bordered 
by a sort of chain-lightning tracery. Some- 
times a temple is formed by two rectangular 
buildings bisecting each other and forming a 
perfect cross, the point of intersection crowned 
by a prachadee. The walls of the temples are 
usually of cement, painted white, the window 
frames decorated with mosaics of many-col- 
ored glass. The windows, sunk deep and with 
tremendous shutters, like the doors of a safe, 
are in the long sides of the building, and the 
entrance, a huge deep door gorgeously inlaid 
with brass or copper or mother-of-pearl, is at 
the center of one of the narrow ends of the 
temple, the altar opposite within. The inside 
walls of the temples are often decorated with 
frescoes, representing historic scenes, but, 
around the altar is heaped the veriest junk — 
cheap old-fashioned glass sugar bowls, jars of 
beans and colored candies, for all the world 
like the shelves of a country store, and funny 
glass-sheltered wax flowers of a species 
never known to man. Bricked terraces flank 
the temple on all sides, and beyond them in a 
hollow square stretch cloisters wherein are 
countless Buddhas eternally sitting. Curious 
unnamable winged creatures guard the gates. 

If one is up sufficiently early in the morn- 
ing one meets everywhere the yellow-robed 
monks with their alms bowls, collecting break- 

fast from those desirous of acquiring merit. 
On the streets there is always somewhere to 
be seen the flutter of a saffron-hued drapery, 
and the shallops that bear the begging priests 
upon their morning quests punctuate the long 
green vistas of the khlongs with bright periods 
of sienna. The landscape is dotted with pra- 
chadees, the Buddhists' materialistic plea for 
immortality, and on every side are the wats 
with Buddha envisaged and enshrined. 

The Buddha himself has the traditions of 
India and Burma and Japan, but wears the 
characteristic crown of Siam — conical in 
shape, like a miniature prachadee, the model, 
presumably, of the imperial crown. 

One Buddhistic tradition, the wickedness 
of taking life, is firmly rooted in the Siamese 
mind, and the result is trying in the extreme 
to a foreign housekeeper with a native cook. 
No egg can be poached or boiled or fried till 
the mistress of the household has damned her 
own soul by piercing the shell with a hatpin, 
thus killing the egg and absolving the cook 
from voluntary eggicide. 

Wat Poh, one of the most celebrated of the 
temples, is surrounded by gardens, cloisters 
and chapels. It borders on the palace grounds 
of the old king and is a small city in itself. 
In one of the chapels is a school for acolytes, 
and the murmured chanting of the pupils in- 
toning their texts stirs the balmy air like the 
drowsy humming "of bees and has a similar 
mesmeric effect. One drags drowsily across 
the courtyard, when suddenly a deep-set gate 
opens into an inner court beyond, and the 
snappy commands of an officer drilling some 
soldiers dispels the soporific influence and one 
stumbles across the irregular pavement at a 
quick pace, and enters a cavernous temple, 
blindingly dark and a bit creepy and clammy. 
Is this the tomb of a giant? It is not difficult 
to imagine so, for on a rectangular platform, 
the length of the entire building, reclines a 
mammoth statue of Buddha, 166 feet long and 
55 feet high. In spots he is shedding his 
golden skin, but the soles of his feet gleam 
with mosaics of mother-of-pearl, each inlaid 
square telling the story of a different incar- 

Out into the glare of the sun again and with 
a sudden leap from the sublime to the ridicu- 
lous we come upon a courtyard which boasts 
a most entertaining collection of statuary — a 
group of Chinese and European ladies and 
gentlemen in full dress. The top hat in sculp- 
ture is sad, but true ! 

On the opposite side of the river rises Wat 
Chang, in all its glory. Wat Chang is more 
a monument than a temple. In the sunlight 
it gleams like a huge carved opal and seems 
an evanescent thing. But more than true here 
is the old adage, "All that glitters is not gold," 
for upon close inspection the opalescent carv- 
ing proves to be most prosaic crockery — din- 
ner plates, tea plates, butter plates of every 
known color and design, broken into sections 
and applied to a background of cement, in ro- 

settes and medallions and assorted designs. 
The wat is pyramidal in form and is composed 
of terraces which grow gradually smaller in 
circumference as they ascend, and which are 
topped at last by a sharp golden pinnacle, up- 
held by a group of four royal white elephants, 
which form a protecting square around the 
Buddha's shrine. A flight of the steepest of 
steep steps bisects each terraced facade and 
offers a perilous ascent. Close to, it is an 
amusing conglomeration, but at a distance a 
thing of beauty and an eternal joy. 

At the close of the old fable, The Wolf and 
the Dog, the wolf piously remarks, "Better 
liberty and a dry bone than luxury enchained." 
Barring the homes of royalty and of a few 
denationalized plutocrats, there is little of 
luxury in Siam, and few of the complications 
of "Progress," but they are apparently a happy 
and a care-free people. The Siamese word 
"tai" means "unconquered." They boast that 
they have never paid allegiance to any alien 
race, and proudly call their country "the land 
of the free." 


About 95 per cent of the population of 
China is confined to one-third of the area of 
the country, with a density of 200 to the square 
mile. Five per cent of the population inhabits 
65 per cent of the area, with a density of 10 
to the square mile. Lack of transportation 
facilities and inadequate means of protection 
account for the sparseness of settlement in the 
outlying dependencies. About 40 per cent of 
China's population is in the provinces south 
of the Yangtse River, with a density of 230 to 
the square mile. This territory has twice the 
area of the original thirteen States of the 
American Union and four times the popula- 

There are no wheeled vehicles in use south 
of the Yangtse except on the Canton and Yun- 
nan Railways. There are therefore no roads 
in this section. Rice is cultivated throughout 
this area, and transportation is over paths 
rather than roads or by boats or waterways. 
In this section the water buffalo and oxen are 
the only animals used on the farms, and goods 
are carried on the backs of men rather than 
on pack animals or wheeled vehicles, except 
where the few miles of railways are in opera- 

Rice is often spoken of as the staple article 
of food for the whole of the Chinese people, 
yet tens of millions of people in China have 
never seen or tasted rice. Vast areas of the 
country in the north cannot grow rice, and 
even in the rice-growing sections millions of 
people are too poor to buy or use rice. 

In the outlying dependencies, constituting 
65 per cent of the total area of China, the 
density of population is less than that of the 
Middle West of the United States. — Com- 
merce Reports. 




{Continued from page 25) 

unconquered shore to find freight steamers 
are plying just around the reef. 

"Would you like to go cocoanut hunting?" 
asked my friend, and on my greedy accept- 
ance we shouldered rifles and set out, I won- 
dering what kind of tenderfoot joke was be- 
ing played on me, for although not an author- 
ity on the haunts and habits of cocoanuts I 
knew that ordinarily one did not go thus 
equipped to bag such a helpless thing as a 
pod of fruit. When we came to a grove and 
saw the cocoanuts hanging so far above us, 
and having the idea laughed out of me that 
trained monkeys threw them down, I under- 
stood how handy, even necessary, a gun was 
in filling a tonneau. To clip off a stem just 
as it reaches the nut is no bungler's task, and 
to shoot a hole through the nut, letting out the 
milk, was to bring down contumely on one's 

When my time was up and duties beckoned 
me back, I left the islands as one does a newly 
found friend, whom one feels he has known 
a lifetime. Conventionally I had my picture 
taken with lets around my neck — for what's 
the use of being in Rome? — and leaning over 
the rail of the ship watched the islands of en- 
chantment slip away as quietly and gloriously 
as they had come, turning to Diamond Head 
to try to pierce the carefully planted shrub- 
bery behind which waited the silent, grim 
guns, and turning my eye westward across the 
salt stretch, I wondered when they would 
speak — and to whom. 


(Continued from page 39) 

and thrown to a great height, the descending 
shower of matter fell back on the sides of the 
vent and a high mound began to form. For 
two days and nights this violent ejection con- 
tinued, and on the morning of the third day 
the convulsions ceased and on the site of what 
had three days before been a fertile field stood 
Monte Nuovo. 

To dwellers of our stern arid rock-bound 
coast, it does not seem possible that familiarity 
with volcanic forces should breed a contempt 
for them, but on the very day that these cata- 
clysms of nature ceased that newborn hill was 
climbed by numbers of the people who had 
witnessed the eruption. This intimacy, how- 
ever, was not encouraged by the volcano, as 
later in the day the eruption was resumed for 
a short space and scores of people who had 
ventured on the hill were killed. 

Pozzuoli is in full sight now, a colorful clus- 
ter of houses down on the edge of the shore 
towards which the road diverges sharply to 
left, and to the right, just before we reach 
the town, is the Gateway to the Solfatara. 

It is a somewhat surprising entrance to a 
volcano, being of a deep pink color and 

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The Crimes We Commit 
Against Our Stomachs 

By Arthur True Bus well, M.D. 

Eugene Christian 

A MAN'S success in life 
depends more on the co- 
operation of his stomach 
than on any other factor. 
Just as an "army moves on 
its stomach" so does the 
individual. Scientists tell 
us that 90 per cent of all 
sickness is traceable to the 
digestive tract. 
As Dr. Orison Swett Marden, the noted 
writer, says, "the brain gets an immense 
amount of credit which really should go to 
the stomach." And it's true — keep the 
digestive system in shape and brain vitality 
is assured. 

Food is the fuel of the human system, 
yet some of the combinations of food we 
put into our systems are as dangerous as 
dynamite, soggy wood and a little coal 
would be in the furnace — and just about as 
effective. Is it any wonder that the aver- 
age life of man today is but 39 years — and 
that diseases of the stomach, liver and 
kidneys have increased 103 per cent during 
the past few years! 

And yet just as wrong food selections and 
combinations will destroy our health and 
efficiency, so will the right foods create and 
maintain bodily vigor and mental energy. 
And by right foods we do not mean freak 
foods — just good, every-day foods properly 
combined. In fact, to follow Corrective 
Eating it isn't even necessary to upset your 

Not long ago I had a talk with Eugene 
Christian, the noted food scientist, who is 
said to have successfully treated over 
23,000 people without drugs or medicines 
of any kind, and he told me of some of his 
experiences in the treatment of disease 
through food. 

One case that interested me greatly was 
that of a young business man whose effi- 
ciency had been practically wrecked through 
stomach acidity, fermentation and con- 
stipation resulting in physical sluggishness 
which was naturally reflected in his ability to use his 
mind. He was twenty pounds under weight when he 
first went to see Christian and was so nervous he 
couldn't sleep. Stomach and intestinal gases were so 
severe that they caused irregular heart action and often 
fits of great mental depression. As Christian describes 
it he was not 50 per cent efficient either mentally or 
physically. Yet in a few days, by following Christian's 
suggestions as to food, his constipation had completely 
gone although he had formerly been in the habit of 
taking large daily doses of a strong cathartic. In five 

weeks every abnormal symptom had disappeared — his 
weight having increased 6 lbs. In addition to this he 
acquired a store of physical and mental energy so great 
in comparison with his former self as to almost belie the 
fact that it was the same man. 

Another instance of what proper food combinations 
can do was that of a man one hundred pounds over- 
weight whose only other discomfort was rheumatism. 
This man's greatest pleasure in life was eating. Though 
convinced of the necessity, he hesitated for months to 
go under treatment believing he would be deprived of 
the pleasures of the table. He finally, however, de- 
cided to try it out. Not only did he begin losing weight 
at once, quickly regaining his normal figure, all signs of 
rheumatism disappearing, but he found the new diet 
far more delicious to the taste and afforded a much 
keener quality of enjoyment than his old method of 
eating and he wrote Christian a letter to that effect. 

But perhaps the most interesting case that Christian 
told me of was that of a multimillionaire — a man 70 
years old who had been traveling with his doctor for 
several years in a search for health. He was extremely 
emaciated, had chronic constipation, lumbago and 
rheumatism. For over twenty years he had suffered 
with stomach and intestinal trouble which in reality 
was superaciduous secretions in the stomach. The first 
menus given him were designed to remove the causes 
of acidity, which was accomplished in about thirty days. . 
And after this was done he seemed to undergo a com- 
plete rejuvenation. His eyesight, hearing, taste and all 
of his mental faculties became keener and more alert. 
He had had no organic trouble — but he was starving to 
death from malnutrition and decomposition — all caused 
by the wrong selection and combination of foods. After 
six months' treatment this man was as well and strong 
as he had ever been in his life. 

These instances of the efficacy of right eating I have 
simply chosen at random from perhaps a dozen Eugene 
Christian told me of, every one of which was fully as 
interesting and they applied to as many different ail- 
ments. Surely this man Christian is doing a great work. 

There have been so many inquiries from all parts of 
the United States from people seeking the benefit of 
Eugene Christian's advice and whose cases he is unable 
to handle personally that he has written a little course 
of lessons which tells you exactly what to eat for health, 
strength and efficiency. 

These lessons, there are 24 of them, contain actual 
menus for breakfast, luncheon and dinner, curative as 
well as corrective, covering every condition of health 
and sickness from infancy to old age and for all occupa- 
tions, climates and seasons. 

With these lessons at hand it is just as though you 
were in personal contact with the great food specialist, 
because every possible point is so thoroughly covered 
and clearly explained that you can scarcely think of a 
question which isn't answered You can start eating 
the very things that will produce the increased physical 
and mental energy you are seeking the day you receive 
the lessons and you will find that you secure results 
with the first meal. 

If you would like to examine these 24 Little Lessons 
in Corrective Eating simply write The Corrective 
Eating Society, Dept. 841 1, 460 Fourth Avenue, New 
York City. It is not necessary to enclose any money 
with your request. Merely ask them to send the lessons 
on five days' trial with the understanding that you will 
either return them within that time or remit #3.00, the 
small fee asked. Advertisement. 

Please clip out and mail the following form instead of writing a letter, as this is 
a copy of the official blank adopted by the Society and will be honored at once. 

CORRECTIVE EATING SOCIETY, Dept. 8411, 460 Fourth Ave., New York City. 

You may send me prepaid a copy of Corrective Eating in 24 Lessons. I will either remail them to you within 
five days after receipt or send you $3. 



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marked quite plainly over the top with the vol- 
cano's given name, "Solfatara," written in 
black. Again one is surprised at such famil- 
iarity with forces that have hardly shown 
themselves to be friendly ! 

Through the pink gate a guide lies in wait- 
ing. He is necessary for our safety, he ex- 
plains, and indeed we are not minded to ex- 
plore the crater alone; the walking is too pre- 

At first sight there is nothing that belies the 
placidity of the pink doorway, only a little 
copse of wood carpeted with luxuriant grass 
and flowers. A path runs through this, a leis- 
urely woodland road that makes its way 
through the trees until suddenly there are no 
trees, nor grass, nor flowers, nor any touch 
of life, and abruptly where the wood ends the 
ground under foot becomes gray and blasted, 
and in a vast circle around rise up the walls 
of the crater. Stretches of tufa covered with 
a straggling growth of furze and ground pine 
.line the crater's sides in sheer heights of bar- 
ren gray earth and masses of jagged rock dis- 
colored and eaten into by the powerful acid 
gases given off by the slumbering volcano. 

And here and there from these grim, for- 
bidding walls are little puffs of smoke issuing 
from a cleft and curling upward. The ground 
stretches away bleak and blasted to the foot 
of the high, dark walls. Piles of discolored 
earth, yellowed with sulphur, are heaped about, 
and from a hole at the base of one pours a 
cloud of white smoke that ascends with a loud, 
hissing noise. 

A little farther along is a large level space. 
It is of a dull gray and looks like a stretch of 
newly laid asphalt. The guide urges us across 
this and points out the quite obvious fact that 
the ground beneath our feet is warm. It is 
warm indeed, and we are further assured 
that it is hollow. At this point he stamps vio- 
lently. The ground beneath quivers and gives 
forth a dull, hollow sound. A demonstration 
one would fain dispense with, for the ground 
continues to quiver in an alarming way. On 
you are led, skirting depressions in the ground 
'which are covered an inch or two deep with 
hot water bubbling up from the vast caldron 
below, on towards what looks like an ice hole 
in the quivering crust. The earth's surface 
here looks to be about two inches thick, and 
when you charily approach the edge and look 
in, there a few feet beneath the surface lies 
a seething gray lake of boiling mud, bubbling 
and hissing. 

It is not strange that Dante, who haunted 
these fields, had such an intimate conception 
of the Infernal Regions. The boiling lake is 
excitement enough for one morning, but when 
you tremblingly regain firmer ground you will 
be obliged to see what the guide proudly dis- 
plays as the most active part of the crater. 

From a cave at the base of the west wall 
puffs, of thin watery vapor are issuing. 
Towards this we turn our unwilling feet. At 
the opening of the cave the guide takes a stick 
and takes away a little of the sand at the 
mouth to show how the sand below is boiling 
and bubbling. Then, with all too insufficient 

50c. the case of 6 glass-stoppered bottles 

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warning of his diabolic intention, he lights a 
twist of paper and thrusts it far into the open- 
ing. Suddenly there is a hissing sound and out 
pour volumes of smoke. You are enveloped 
in a dense blanket of the white vapor, the 
guide, the cave, everything has vanished from 
sight, and when it lifts, up from the high walls 
around, from clefts in the rock, and from holes 
hidden in the furze, clouds of white smoke are 
seen rising towards the sky. After this you 
will be allowed to depart, and walk gingerly 
back over those terrible hidden fires. The Sol- 
fatara has been torpid for seven centuries, and 
one is told there is no immediate danger of an 
eruption, but for all of that I should not per- 
sonally elect to live in a pink house at the side 
of its crater ! 


(Continued from page 12) 

tinted soaps conclusively, proved. The after- 
noon ended with the inspection of a kinder- 
garten, where the gayest little celluloid pink 
and purple and blue babies you ever saw, most 
of them the sons of old Korean nobles, hopped 
around and sang shrill songs and behaved like 
kindergarten babies the world over. 

In one of the meaner streets of Seoul there 
is a shop where we discovered a candlestick. 
When we came in, this shop was filled with 
blue smoke and a number of men who in- 
stantly vanished into thin air, according to the 
prescribed etiquette of shops, and we were left 
face to face with the owner. As he came for- 
ward the light struck across his face in such a 
way that the glittering eyes were thrown into 
deep shadow, and the lines running down from 
the mouth towards the chin were strangely in- 
tensified. It was a face essentially tragic ; yet 
probably his life had never concerned itself 
with anything more serious than selling his 
amber and inlaid mother-of-pearl boxes at a 
good bargain. There are many such faces 
out here. We motioned towards the candle- 
stick, a tall iron affair with a butterfly-shaped 
reflector inlaid with silver threads in fine 
spirals and curves, and the thin yellow fingers 
so indescribably Oriental lifted it down from 
the shelf. 

"How much?" we asked, with the semblance 
of a half-hearted interest. 

He only shook his head enigmatically. 

"We wish to buy this candlestick. How 
much ?" we asked once more. 

Again he shook his head. Whether it was 
not for sale, or whether he did not want to 
sell it to foreigners, or to sell it at all, we 
were unable to discover. 

We were more successful as far as acquir- 
ing treasures was concerned at a dark, deep 
shop of old furniture around the corner from 
the hotel, just opposite the little palace where 
the old Emperor lives in retirement with his 
wives and concubines, as many as Solomon's. 
It was after seven when we happened to pass 
it, and the owner, a pleasant American, was 
closing up for the day, but he led the way 
back again into the cavernous depths, and, 

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Concerning the Adventures of the Human Heart 


A BOOK for the man or woman who finds pleasure in the company of people 
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"Once on a Time" in the Land of the Czar 



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candle in hand, escorted us on a tour of in- 
spection around among the musty smelling 
chests. Upstairs and down we followed him, 
examining chests, while the flickering light 
threw grotesque shadows about the room, and 
brass ornaments or darkly polished wood 
gleamed with unexpected reflections. That 
night we said good-by to Seoul and journeyed 
on towards the second great city of Korea and 
the more ancient capital, Pyengyang. We 
were due at the unearthly hour of four the 
next morning. Evidently a press notice had 
preceded us, for an important-looking official 
with some gold bands on his uniform and a 
fascinating lantern swinging from the end of 
a slender bamboo pole, met us and led us 
through the icy train shed, up some steps, and 
down the other side to a warm waiting-room. 
A message had come from Seoul to the Pro- 
vincial Government Office, and he had been 
duly delegated to do the honors. The station 
master had also received a telegram and had 
built a roaring fire in the great iron stove in 
the special waiting-room with red velvet hang- 
ings, where we were invited to make ourselves 
at home until morning. Pyengyang as yet 
boasts no foreign hotel. By this time another 
government official and a railroad representa- 
tive came in with lanterns, stamping their feet 
with the cold, and we all sat in a sociable circle 
around the stove drinking innumerable little 
cups of hot tea. We were finally left to 
stretch out on two sofas, warmly wrapped in 
our steamer rugs, and sleep away the remain- 
der of the night. 

The station proved to be two miles or so 
from the actual town, a bleak Siberian waste 
stretching between, with a few poor little 
stores, semi-Japanese, semi-Korean, at gaping 
intervals. A curious conveyance consisting of 
a kind of sedan chair strung on very wobbly 
tracks that did their best to overcome the es- 
tablished convention that two parallel lines 
should not meet, was waiting outside the sta- 
tion with a Korean coolie to push it on its 
way to the town. We should have liked to 
try the adventure of a ride, but rickshas ar- 
rived, and it seemed that our itinerary had 
been planned for the day, and that we were 
to go first to the old battle ground which 
marked the site of one of Japan's great vic- 
tories in the Sino-Japanese war. 

All along the gently climbing road we met 
trains of Koreans leading oxen with brass 
rings through their noses, literally buried un- 
der soaring piles of young firs and brush, the 
omnipresent fuel gatherers. At one turn we 
came upon an encampment with some thirty 
men squatting at the side of the road smoking 
their long pipes and chatting amicably, while 
the sad-eyed oxen chewed their cud and medi- 
tated. By and by it became too steep for the 
coolies to pull us, and we got out and began 
climbing the hill. A detachment of Japanese 
soldiers was occupying it, and the men were 
swarming up to visit the tomb of Kii Cha at 
the top, but just as we ourselves reached the 
top a bugle sounded and they all raced down 
pell-mell, to fall into marching line and start 
off for some unknown destination. Later we 
saw them marching away through the valley, 
like a toy army. Kii Cha was the founder of 

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the Kudara dynasty in the Eighth Century 
B. C, one of the great rulers of Korea, but 
the tomb was only erected over the supposed 
remains in the Twelfth Century. It was a 
dilapidated ruin, with the usual stone tablet 
upheld on the back of a great tortoise, and 
guardian animals of stone around it. 

We had come out on the old wall surround- 
ing the city, from where we could look down 
on the two great rivers that clasped it in their 
arms, giving it, in former times, its stra- 
tegical position, and in later ones its commer- 
cial importance. From here the path led down 
past a moldy summer palace and a ruined tem- 
ple to the Korean heart of the town. A pic- 
turesque group of women were washing 
clothes in the Daido River, and spreading 
them to dry on the stones of the great East 
Gate. The main street was alive with unsus- 
pected multitudes, and on the sunny side a 
thriving business was going on in brass, food, 
white clothes and braided straw shoes. We 
were consumed with the desire to linger and 
possess ourselves of old brass incense burners 
and candlesticks that we caught hurried 
glimpses of, but we were whisked along to 
be presented to the Governor, and after that 
there was barely time to catch our train. 

A few hours after we left Pyengyang we 
had crossed the Yalu River and the boundary 
that separates Manchuria and Korea. Behold 
suddenly, tall, pig-tailed Manchus, instead of 
the white-clothed Koreans, and, instead of the 
rambling Korean houses, mud houses with 
square walls and flat roofs and the startling 
red papers of the Chinese New Year pasted on 
every door, as though some virulent epidemic 
had broken out through the town ! Korea, 
with its changing fate, lay behind us, and 
ahead at the parting of the ways, Russia and 
the West — or China and the Farther East. 




{Continued from page 16) 

But these are merely a drop in the bucket. A 
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the newcomer waits to be called upon by the 

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NO VEMBER, 1916 


resident. However, as the social circle in 
Washington is ever-changing, one soon ceases 
to be a newcomer, and the ease and elasticity 
of society is so admirable that it is possible 
for everybody to know everybody else. There 
is no brick wall built around anybody. No 
one dominates Washington society ; it is 
strictly a republic. 

The disadvantage of Washington social life 
is its ever-changing personnel. The river 
rushes on so rapidly that life is a perpetual 
"Hail" and "Farewell." The charm of Wash- 
ington life holds many men after their term of 
office has expired, and the town is full of 
"Ex's." But an "Ex" counts for little in 
Washington. In ten years so many persons 
have come and gone, in private as well as 
official life, that the history of ten years ago 
reads like that of the Paleozoic age. 

It may sound odd, but there is practically no 
party feeling in Washington. Everybody's po- 
litical affiliations are known, and that is the 
end of it — everybody knows, but nobody cares. 
The absence of political antagonism is the first 
thing observed in Washington, where every- 
body must be a diplomat in order to get on 
comfortably. The sun shines in Washington 
more hours than in any city in the country, 
everybody wears a cheerful grin, and, on the 
whole, Washington is the banner town for the 
joy of living. 


The visitor who looks into the Grand Canon 
from the vicinity of El Tovar may, when 
the first overpowering impressions give place 
to particular observations, note the great 
series of nearly horizontal rock layers whose 
varied colors and cyclopean carving give 
beauty to what might otherwise be a gloomy 
and terrifying sight. He may perhaps won- 
der how these beds of rock were formed, how 
thick they are, and how long it took for them 
to pile up, inch by inch, on the bottom of a 
now vanished sea. He is not likely, however, 
unless he is a trained observer, to have his at- 
tention attracted by the dark, less conspicuous 
rocks in the very bottom of the canon or to 
see that these are very different in many ways 
from the stratified rocks above them. Yet 
these rocks — mostly tough crystalline granite 
gneiss and schist — which the river, after cut- 
ting through thousands of feet of the over- 
lying beds, is now battering and grinding with 
its boulders, have an interesting story for 
those who may be able to read it. They are 
the oldest rocks in the canon and, in fact, 
among the oldest in the world. They were in 
part deposited as sands and muds in a sea, in 
part accumulated as lava flows, and in part in- 
truded beneath the surface as molten rock. 
All these materials became solidified, and later 
they were slowly heaved and crumpled into 
mountains which were in time worn down by 
rain, rivers, and perhaps the waves of the sea 
to a nearly level land surface, This surface 
finally sank beneath the sea and became the 
floor on which fresh sediments began to ac- 
cumulate. Twice at least was this mighty 
cycle repeated in the Grand Canon region. 

Fifth Avenue, Neiv York, bejore the Hotel 
Plaza and the Sherman statue — the great- 
est automobile parade nvay in the world. 


Buy Goodyear Cords 
BecauseThey're Better 

There is just one sensible reason for paying 
the higher price for a Goodyear Cord tire. 

You can count on this tire to give you su- 
perior service — greater comfort, surer se- 
curity, longer wear. 

The explanation of such service is the con- 
struction of the tire itself — its extreme flex- 
bility, its high quality, its supple strength. 

The guarantee of such service is the 
Goodyear policy of full value to the buyer 
in every instance. 

Proof of both, if further proof were need- 
ed, is to be found in the everyday perform- 
ance of Goodyear Cord tires, and in the 
steadily growing demand for them in all 
parts of America. 

Goodyear Tires, Heavy Tourist 
Tubes and Tire Saver 'Accessories 
are easy to get from Goodyear Serv- 
ice Station Dealers everywhere. 





Carries the very breath of the Golden State 
to the reader's nostrils, and this without re- 
course to the hackneyed places and things 
usually described. Mr. Saunders pictures such 
delights as camping in the open, exploring the 
desert, and touring the back-country, and gives 
practical directions for realizing them. 
Illustrated. $2.00 net. 


The floral and arboreal growth of California 
is one of its chief points of interest, even to 
those who have no botanical knowledge. Here 
is a book that tells you what "that funny- 
looking tree" is, and the name of the exotic 
flowers of which so many are seen. It is in 
language for the layman, but equally of interest 
to the botanist. Illustrated. $2.50 net 


In writing to advertisers, please mention Travel 



Rock Island Lines 

100 Pound Steel Rail — Rock Ballasted Roadbed 

The Road of Safety Thru the Land of Plenty 

Automatic Block Signals Superior Dining Car Service 

Finest Modern All- Steel Equipment 

"Golden State Limited" and " Calif ornian" 

Chicago, St. Louis, Kansas City, El Paso and California 

"Rocky Mountain Limited" 

Chicago, Omaha and Colorado 

"Colorado Flyer" 

Kansas City and Colorado 

Superior service between all western gateways 
and the principal cities in fourteen western 
states — the " Rock Island States of America." 


Rock Island Travel Bureaus in all important cities. Our represen- 
tatives are travel experts. Consult with them before arranging 
your next trip or address 

L. M. ALLEN, Passenger Traffic Manager 


Room 740, La Salle Station, Chicago 



Efficient Living' 

II -iTrpk-p/zk t*1 ("*|1 says Truman A. DeWeese, the Shredded 

. VVV - /1 ^ / 1 IV^llj Wheat Company's director of publicity, 

"I would distribute about a million copies of the book entitled 'Efficient Living 
among the million Americans who I think need the sound wisdom and advice which 
it contains. I have never before seen so much wholesome advice pertaining to the 
problem of efficient living crammed into the pages of one book." 





British efforts to increase trade with Rus- 
sia after the war are taking the extremely 
practical shape of encouraging the study of 
the Russian language by young men training 
for commercial life. At Leeds University a 
chair for the study of Russian has recently 
been created through the generosity of Sir 
James Roberts, Bart. In his letter to the uni- 
versity offering £10,000 ($48,700) for the 
foundation and maintenance of a professor- 
ship of Russian language and literature the 
donor said: "It would be an illusion to expect 
that adequate advantage could be taken of 
Russia as an outlet for British manufactures 
unless we can be represented there by our own 
countrymen, equipped with a knowledge of the 
Russian language." 

Stirred, apparently, by the success of Leeds 
University, Manchester University recently 
made an appeal for £15,000 ($73,000) for the 
establishment of a chair in Russian, and it is 
to-day announced that £6,000 ($29,200) of the 
required sum has been contributed. It is 
hardly possible that the appeal will fail in a 
community where the business imagination is 
so highly developed as in Manchester. The 
suggestion that exchange professorships be 
established between Great Britain and Russia 
has also been warmly received. 

That there is much popular appreciation' of 
the value of a knowledge of Russian is evi- 
denced by the prompt and enthusiastic accept- 
ance of the opportunity offered by the London 
County Council. In its school in Bolt Court, 
London, classes in Russian are being eagerly 
attended by young journalists. In the City of 
London College Russian has been taught with 
success in the evening classes for some time, 
and it is to be taught next session in the tech- 
nical schools at Newport (Monmouthshire). 

The time is ripe for introducing the study 
of the Russian language into the commercial 
life of the United States. If this be done 
promptly there will be available within a few 
years a corps of young Americans speaking 
some Russian and capable of .taking important 
positions as representatives of American 
houses in Russia. — Commerce Reports. 


An ancient mine of Spanish origin, or 
earlier, has been uncovered near the old Ajo 
mission, in southeastern Arizona. It is said 
that a storekeeper of the neighborhood re- 
cently freighted a quantity of the ore, equal 
to a carload, across the desert ninety miles to 
El Paso, making a profit of $3,000. For thirty 
years a negro has been picking high-grade ore 
out of these ruins on the sly. 

The shaft of the mine is an incline and easily 
accessible. However, it was so full of rattle- 
snakes that the man who rediscovered the 
mine killed forty-seven of these reptiles with- 
in a few feet of the entrance. There was a 
great nest of them; so numerous and belliger- 
ent that the man backed out and filled the 
shaft with the fumes of sulphur. This settled 
the snakes, and prospecting has been resumed. 
— The Earth. 

In writing to advertisers, please mention Travel 

NO VEMBER, 19 16 







J. B. Lippincott Company 

Montreal patL.ADEX.PHiA London 



Mr. Pennell is notably a modern, and 
has found art in one of the greatest phases 
of modern achievement — the Wonder of 
Work — the building of giant ships, railway 
stations, and the modern skyscraper; giant 
manufacturing, marble quarrying; oil-wells 
and wharves — all the great work which 
man sets his hand to do. Not only in 
America has he drawn these things, but 
all over the continent of Europe, and has 
drawn them as no one else can draw them. 
In crisp, wonderful and inspiring touches 
of introduction to each picture as illumina- 
ting as the pictures themselves, Mr. Pennell 
writes of what he has seen. 

Profusely illustrated. Net, $2.00 



A stimulating volume with a "kick" 
upon the relation of books to life: the part 
great books play in our goings and comings, 
in the office, in the street, and in the market 
place. The relation of poetry to the 

Similar in size and style to those popular 
sellers, "Why Worry?" "Peg Along," etc., 
etc. Net, $1.00 


Book descriptions are long and advertising space 
short, hence our request that you ask your Bookseller 
for information regarding the following, just published: 
William Robertson, $1.25 net, is considered by English 
critics to be the best anthology published. OLD 
Lewis, $3.00 net, contains 75 illustrations in color and 
half-tone. A book the collector and expert will prize. 
SAINTS AND THEIR EMBLEMS, $10.00 net, is a pro- 
fusely illustrated cyclopedia of the names and em- 
blems of all the Saints. MARVELS OF AVIATION, 
$1.25 net, is another popular scientific volume in the 
Marvel Library for young people. KEEP-WELL 
$0.60 net, gives the information needed that will in- 
terest children in bringing about healthy, sanitary 
homes and country places. There are 30 illustrations. 
For sale by all Booksellers. 

~4n Advertisement by 
The Pullman Company 



the service 
of the Pullman Company it is not 
possible to secure in advance accommodations 
in a car never crowded beyond its normal capacity, 
but it is possible to enjoy, while traveling, comforts 
and conveniences usually associated only with the 
most modern hotels in larger cities. 

By building its own cars the Pullman Company has 
been able to test every innovation which might add to 
the convenience of its passengers. Constant ventilation, 
comfortable temperature, electric lights, electric fans, 
modern plumbing and other distinctive features of the 
Pullman car have been provided in spite of the difficulties 
arising from the natural limitations of car construction, 
and the fact that these conveniences must at all times be 
available while the car is moving from place to place. 

A brief comparison of the early Pullman car, with its 
oil lamps, coal stove and almost entire lack of conveni- 
ences, with the modern steel-armored sleeping or parlor 
car, sanitary, electrically lighted, automatically ventilated, 
steam-heated and supplied with every comfort and con- 
venience that ingenuity can devise, testifies to the progress 
which has been made by the Pullman Company in fifty 
years of continuous service to the traveling public. 




The paramount lesson of the present war for the United States is that this nation must 
have sufficient trained soldiers to guard against invasion or to check an invader until we can 
develop our latent resources. To accomplish this end without the dangers of militarism is a 
vital problem. This book, by its scholarly and explicit study of the Swiss military system, 
points the way clearlv and definitely by analogy to a realization of these aims by the United 
States. Certain significant chapters deal with compulsory service and industrial progress, 
and the effect of a citizen army on every-day life, with a concluding chapter on the special 
applicability of the Swiss system to the United States. This notable book, which is the first 
complete and authentic discussion of the subject, will prove of inestimable practical value at 
the present time. Illustrated. $1.25 net 

ROBERT M. McBRIDE & CO., 31 Union Sq. North., New York 

In writing to advertisers, please mention Travel 




nQnThoros Music in the House 
I ft Homo Sweet Home 

Someone has truly said that music completes the home and makes it a place 
worth living in. Is your home complete? Is it filled with the sweetest and 
purest of melodies just when you and your family feel most like enjoying them? 
Do you have music whenever you want it? 

The Jesse French & Sons Player-Piano brings this peace and musical contentment. It 
is a wonderfully versatile mellow-voiced instrument on which you — and each member of 
your household can play every kind and class of music. The — 

Jesse French & Sons 


"Unquestioned Excellence" 

— is shown in all its many styles and 
finishes in our Free Catalog. If you 
are interested in the purchase of a 
guaranteed player-piano (or an upright 
or grand piano) you should get this 
Catalog at once and learn more about 
these superb instruments that have 
been famous for almost half a century. 
If there is no Jesse French dealer 
near you, we will ship direct any one 
of our instruments on 30 days free trial. 

With a small amount down and pay- 
ments spread over three years, you 
can easily buy a genuine Jesse French 
instrument. Pay us for it while you 
are enjoying it. In many localities 
where we have no representatives, 
we are selling Jesse French & 
Sons instruments on this liberal 
easy payment plan. Why don't 
you get a Jesse French & Sons 
Player- Piano in this way? 

Remember that Jesse French in- 
struments are among the old and 
best loved in America and that every 
one is guaranteed to please. Get our 
Catalog. See for yourself. Tear off 
the coupon noixi and mail it to us. 

1611 Fifth Avenue, New Castle, Ind. 

Chicago Salesroom, "5S Republic 
Bldg., State & Adams Sts. 


Jesse. French, a name well 
known since 1875 


/ ' Name 
/ / 

' ' Address 



/ & SONS 

/ / PIANO CO., 

/ / , I6ii 5th Ave., 

/ , New lastle, Indiana 

/ / - Chicago Salesroom: 

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/ / Gentlemen: Please send meyoor 

. Free Catalog, easy payment plan 

/ ' and complete information about 

/ Jesse French & Sons instruments. 



HpHE next time you go on a tour please keep in mind the fact that Travel uses a 
■*■ great many photographs in which automobiles are prominent. Of course a 
camera will be a part of your equipment — that goes without saying — and you will 
photograph the points of interest along the road. I want to suggest that you take 
pictures in which the car is shown at the place; not family groups in and about 
the car. But always have a figure or two in the picture wherever possible. I shall 
always be glad to have such photographs submitted as possibilities for illustrations. 


31 East 17th Street 

New York City 



Winter Journeys in the South 


A fascinating book on the winter resorts of the 
South all the way from the Sulphur Springs to 
Palm Beach and St. Augustine, pictured by the 
author himself with new photographs taken 
especially for the work. 

Profusely illustrated. Net, $3.50 

Practical Book of Early American 
Arts and Crafts 


Author of " The Practical Book of Period Furniture." 
A thoroughly practical book for collectors, 
artists, craftsmen, archaeologists, libraries, mu- 
seums and the general reader. The volume is the 
result of great research and a wide knowledge of 
the subject. 

Profusely illustrated. Colored frontispiece Net, $6.00 



Author of " The Curious Lore of Precious Stones," " The Magic 
of Jewels and Charms." 

A wonderful book on finger rings in all ages and 
in all climes by America 's most famous gem expert. 
Everything about rings in one volume. 
Profusely illustrated in color and doubletone. Net, $8.00. 

Parks — Their Design, Equipment 
and Use 


Official Landscape Architect, Public Buildings and Grounds, 
Washington, D. C. 
The only exhaustive book on the subject and by 
the foremost authority on the subject. Contains 
many new hints from the finest European examples 
of Park work as well as American. 
Profusely illustrated. Frontispiece in color. Net, $6.00. 

Practical Book of Architecture 


Not only a book for the man or woman who 
wishes to build a home (and for whom it is more 
helpful than any work previously published), but 
a book which tells the general reader what he needs 
to know about architecture — about the buildings 
he sees in America or Europe, public as well as 

Profusely illustrated. Net, $6.00. 

Training for the Stage 


The author is the editor of The Theatre Maga- 
zine: the book is especially for those who have 
stage ambitions. The presentment will be of great 
value to amateurs as well as professionals and of 
interest to all outsiders who are at the same time 
interested in the theatre. Illustrated. Net, $1.25. 

Training for the Newspaper 

Business Manager of New York World 

Joseph Pulitzer's right-hand man was Don 
Seitz. This book is for the man or woman in- 
terested in or entering the newspaper trade as 
editor, advertising man, printer, or reporter. It 
tells what is required, what the business offers and 
the part it plays in life, illustrated. Net, 

The 1916 Holiday Gift Book 
Betty at Fort Blizzard 


4 illustrations in color and decorations by Edmund Frederick 

A sequel to "Betty's Virginia Christmas" and 
presented in as beautiful a gift book style. The 
scene is laid at a northwestern army post; modern 
in color and suggestion. The plot is a straightaway 
army love-story, realistic and yet as light as Betty's 
laugh. Net, $1.50. 


In writing to advertisers, please mention Tkavel 


William Dean Howells 


William Dean 


A delightful auto- 
biography of youth 
and young manhood. 
Not only a charm- 
ing picture of the 
early beginnings of 
our most distin- 
guished man of let- 
ters, but a vivid and 
graceful study of the life of the day in the Ohio 
town where Mr. Howells grew up. $2.00 net 


By Edith O'Shaughnessy 

"Letter- writing, as an art, has been pronounced 
dead. Prematurely, however, for the history of lit- 
erature affords few examples of the art superior to 
this volume of letters from Mexico by Mrs. O'Shaugh- 
nessy. ... It would be a wholesome exercise for the 
stay-at-home citizen to look for a little while at the 
Mexican problem through this gifted woman's eyes." 
— New Republic (N. Y.) 
Illustrated. $2.00 net 






Isaac F. 


Daniel Frohman 

The authorized life 
of the gieat manager, 
with a Foreword by Sir 
James Barrie. In these 
pages are shown 
Frohman's early strug- 
gles; his apprentice- 
ship days at the Madison Square Theater: prepara- 
tions for his first production; the rise of the star 
system; beginnings in England; his participation in 
the Syndicate; days of unceasing and prolific pro- 
duction. Illustrated. $2.00 net 


By Charles P. 



A constructive book on what lies before this coun- 
try — and what it can become — because of the Euro- 
pean war and the changed conditions which will pre- 
sent themselves to America, politically and industri- 
ally, at the close of the war. Mr. Steinmetz shows 
how organization and democracy can go hand in 
hand. $1.00 net 


By Sir Gilbert Parker 

The New York Times says: "It was a daring thing 
to inject a gipsy quarrel and feud into the plans and 
hopes and love of a Canadian captain of industry. 
But Sir Gilbert succeeds triumphantly in his auda- 
cious experiment. . . . The love story is treated with 
delicacy and charm and is notable for its effect of 
freshness and beauty." Illustrated. $1.35 net 


By Margaret Deland 

The Boston Transcript says: "Nothing in the way 
of fiction could be more thoroughly of the present 
day and hour than Mrs. Deland's latest novel. In 
'The Rising Tide' she lays bare the restless soul of 
the modern woman who is bound to be man's equal 
in all things. ... In 'The Rising Tide' Mrs. Deland 
has written a novel that is very close to human na- 
ture." Illustrated. $1.35 net 

HARPER & BROTHERS Established 1817 

The Rumor of my Death 
is Greatly Exaggerated" 

HE was to give a lecture that night in London. 
The papers printed a report that he was dead. 
They hastened to send messengers. 

He greeted the messengers himself and sent back 
these words: "The rumor of my death is greatly ex- 
aggerated." And the world breathed freely and 

The world breathed freely at that time, but it 
was a dark day a few years later when that bright 
and brave spirit passed serenely to rest. 


But he would not have you 
weep for him. He would have 
you find comfort in laughter, 
as he did himself. 

Many the day you have 
laughed yourself into serenity 
over "Huckleberry Finn" or 
"Innocents Abroad." And 
many a time your laughter 
has stuck in your throat over 
their pathos and thei truth. 

Even the sublime tragedy 
of Mark Twain's " Joan of 
Arc" shows a glint here 
and there of his whimsi- 
cal turn of mind, that 
makes clearer and bright- 
er the moct splendid 
x story in all the world's 
. ^ history. It is a long cry 
A from the ridiculous in 
"X^^^ "Tom Sawyer" to 
^■f the sublime in 
^ k "Joan of Arc," and 
the man who could 
write them both 
was great beyond 
our words to tell. 

He had a style so simple, 
so clear, so sure, that it does 
not seem a style at all. 

But beyond the style, there 
is a sane and true philosophy 
of life and an understanding of 
the human heart — greatness of 

That is why Mark Twain 
has been translated into all 
languages — why he is read 
in Chinese on the banks of the 
Yangste Kiang, why the por- 
ter at his lodgings in Vienna 
flew to do him service and 
showed him proudly his own 
set in German, why the King of 
England delighted to walk and 
to talk with him, why you and 
your children must have him 
where you can put your hands 
on him any moment. 

The American spirit of de- 
mocracy and simplicity seems 
to be fading away. Get it 
back for yourself through 
Mark Twain. 

Sale Closes 

This is Mark Twain's own set. This is the set 
he wanted in the home of each of those who love 

Because he asked it, Harper's have worked 
to make a perfect cet at a reduced price. 

Before the war we had a contract 

price for paper, so we could sell this set of Mark Twain at a reduced price 
The last of the edition is in sight. The price of paper has gone up. 
can be no more Mark Twain at the present price. 

There never again will be any more Mark Twain at the 
present price. Get the 25 volumes now, while you can. 

Every American has got to have a set of Mark Twain in his home. 
Get this now and save money. 

Send Coupon Without Money 

This is the first announcement of the final closing of 
the sale. Your children want Mark Twain. You want him. / 
Send this coupon today — now — while you are looking at it. 


There / Franklin Sq. 
New York 

Please send me 


WORKS. I may keep 

» this set for tea days for 

examination and return. 

it to you, at your expense, 

if I do not want to keep it. 

If I keep the books I will remit 

S2.00 a month until the $25 has 

been paid. Travel 11 




Extraordinary Photographs of a Little Known Mexican Fiesta 
New Glimpses of California - Tramping Around the Isle of Wight 

Across the American Desert by Motor 

I California 

America's most ideal Winter climate 
and economy are attracting thousands 
to Bungalow Vacationing in Sunny 
Southern California, especially this season. 

Take the entire family. Let all enjoy a 
Winter of ideal outdoor sport conditions. 
Splendid public or private schools and col- 
leges. In this land of plenty, seasonable 
foods are also less expensive. 


Two superb through trains from Chicago. 

Los Angeles Limited — Every Day 
Pacific Limited — Every Day 


Passenger Traffic Manager Traffic Manager 

Union Pacific System Salt Lake Route 


Or Representatives in All Principal Cities 


Get This 
Booklet and Also 
Another on "Inexpensive 
Bungalow Life in California" 

Write, telephone or call for illustrated book- 
let describing the scenic route and the 
luxurious equipment of the Los Angeles 
Limited and the Pacific Limited — from 
Chicago to California every day. 
Also illustrated booklet — with complete in- 
formation — "Inexpensive Bungalow Life in 

Don't Give Up Your 

Outdoor Sports 

— Always Like Summer Here 

Golf, polo, racing, motoring, ocean beaches 
—everything to enjoy for health and happi- 
ness of all the family here. 
There is unlimited choice of locations in this de- 
lightfully warm climate at or near America's most 
celebrated Pacific Resorts. 

The Big Season Is On 

Plan your trip and winter enjoyments in advance 
and be sure to take the ideal Union Pacific Salt Lake 
Route to California. 

Book Reminder Coupon j 

Please send me booklets on 9 

" Los Angeles Limited and I 

Pacific Limited" trains and J 

scenery. Also "Inexpensive J 

BujgalowLife in California." I 



There is no substi- 
tute for the man 
who is smoking 

He himself will tell 
you so. He finds 
no satisfaction in 
any other cigarette 
when he happens 
to be out of his 
special brand. 

It's as if there were a 
Rameses Club — an in- 
formal organization of 
men who are loyal to 
Rameses Cigarettes. 
They wear no emblem. 
They have their loyalty 
only as a common bond. 

They smoke only 
Rameses, "The Aristo- 
crat of Cigarettes," be- 
cause they find in no 
other brand the full 
flavor and distinctive 
aroma that Rameses 
alone possesses. 

No man who once becomes 
a member of this Club ever 
leaves it. 

Which ' is another way of 
saying: "Nobody ever 
changes from Rameses." 



"Hello Huck!" 

T> ECALL that golden day when you first read " Huck Finn " ? How your 
■*-^- mother said, " For goodness sake, stop laughing aloud over that book. 
You sound silly." But you couldn't stop laughing. 

Today when you read "Huckleberry Finn" you will not laugh so much. 
You will chuckle often, but you will also want to weep. The deep humanity 
of it — the pathos, that you never saw, as a boy, will appeal to you now. You 
were too busy laughing to notice the limpid purity of the master's style. 


When Mark Twain first wrote " Huckle- 
berry Finn " this land was swept with a 
gale of laughter. When he wrote "The 
Innocents Abroad " even Europe laughed 
at it itself. 

But one day there appeared a new book 
from his pen, so spiritual, so true, so lofty, 

that those who did not know him well 
were amazed. "Joan of Arc" was the 
work of a poet — a historian — a seer. Mark 
Twain was all of these. His was not the 
light laughter of a moment's fun, but the 
whimsical humor that made the tragedy of 
life more bearable. 

The Price Goes Up 


Novels — Stories — Humor 
Essays — Travels — History 

This is Mark Twain's own set. This is the set he wanted in the home of each of 
those who love him. Because he asked it, Harper's have worked to make a perfect set 
at a reduced price. 

Before the war we had a contract price for paper, so we could sell this set of Mark 

Twain at a reduced price. 

Send the Coupon Without Money 

The last of the edition is in sight. The price 
of paper has gone up. 

There never again will be any more Mark 
Twain at the present price. Get the 
25 volumes now, while you can 

Every American has got to 
have a set of Mark Twain in 
his home. Get yours now 
and save money. 

Your children want Mark 
~ . v ... / bend me. all charges 

Twain. You want him. / prepaid , a set of 

Send this coupon today / Mark Twain's works 

■ now — while you / in 25 volumes, illustrated, 

are looking at it. / bound in handsome green 

cloth, stamped in gold, gold 

tops and deckled edges. If not 

satisfactory, I will return them 

at your expense. Otherwise I 

will send you Si.oo within s days 

V>^$7 / and $2 a month for 12 months, thus 

^^ / getting the benefit of your half - price 

sale. Travel, 12 

A Real American 

Mark Twain was a steamboat pilot. He 
was a searcher for gold in the far west. 
He was a printer. He worked bitterly 
hard. All this without a glimmer of the 
great destiny that lay before him. 

Then, with the opening of the great 
wide West, his genius bloomed. 

His fame spread through the nation. 
It flew to the ends of the earth, until his 
work was translated into strange tongues. 
From then on, the path of fame lay 
straight to the high places. At the 
height of his fame he lost all his money. 
He was heavily in debt, but though 60 
years old, he started afresh and paid 
every cent. It was the last heroic touch 
that drew him close to the hearts of his 

The world has asked is there an Ameri- 
can literature? Mark Twain is the an- 
swer. He is the heart, the spirit of 
America. From his poor and struggling 
boyhood to his glorious, splendid old age, 
he remained as simple, as democratic as 
the plainest of our forefathers. 

He was, of all Americans, the most 
American. Free in soul, and dreaming 
of high things — brave in the face of 
trouble — and always ready to laugh. 
That was Mark Twain. 



Franklin Sq. 

New York 


Franklin Square, New York 

Xante . 
Address . . . . 

In writing to advertisers, please mention Travel 


■ Mri' j:,h'i.;,i'li. ,; M ii Lli'/l.i'^liLy.^Uli^JM.^^^Li.i-lia^iKl 


Where the social life 
of New York centers 
by day and evening 






With personal escort on steamships of the 
United Fruit Co. 's "Great While Fleet" 
leave New York during January, February 
and March. 24 day cruises. Fares include 
shore excursions, hotels, etc. 

Other Touts de Luxe 
SOUTH AMERICA— Feb. 3 and 17. 

to April. 

EAST— Jan. 16. 

Send for Program Desired 


245 Broadway, New York 

Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago, Los An- 
geles, San Francisco, Montreal, Toronto 

QueTieneVd ParaDeclarar ? 

What Have You To Declare? 

This question is troublesome enough 
when asked in a custom-house where 
English is spoken, but in South 
America where they speak only Span- 
ish and Portuguese it is a nightmare 
to independent travelers. 

Difficulties with foreign languages and 
custom-houses are unknown to those who 
travel on Raymond-Whitcomb Tours. 
An educated and experienced manager 
accompanies each tour to attend to the 
innumerable details of modern travel. 

Delightful tours to South America: Dec. 30, 
Tan 13, Feb. 10, Feb. 24, Mar. 14. To Japan 
and China: Jan. 27. Feb. 24, Mar. 24 Fas- 
cinating new tours to the South Sea Island? 
and Australasia: Mar. 7 and Mar. 13. 
Two Luxurious Cruises to the West Indies on 
specially chartered steamers: Feb. 10 and Feb. 24 

Send for Booklet Desired 
17 Temple Place Dept. 11 Boston, Mass. 
New York Philadelphia Chicago San Francisco. 



I Travel is an inspiration or an irritation, 
I an education or a weariness. It all de- 
I pends upon the wisdom with which it is 
I directed. Write for our 1917 Alaskan Booklet. 

| 917 Merchants' Loan & Trust Building 
| Chicago 


$130 HONOLULU r ™„n 

Leaving Los Angeles and San FranciscoIWeekly 



Hotel Seminole | 


Rooms, without Bath, $1, $1.50, $2 ! 

With Bath $2.00 and up. j 


iiinniniim m iw im nH H iirrmmrmimii 


A quiet, luxurious 
Residential Hotel, 
affording the Ex- 
clusi veness and 
Elegance of a pri- 
»r »-. vate Residence. 

,.- /Y - «^. Opposite the Met- 

ropolitan Club and the 5th Ave. Entrance 
to Central Park. Apartments, single or 
en suite, for long or short periods. 


HAVANA in cuba 

A city with the romance of Old Spain 
and the conveniences of today. Splendid 
hotels; a delightful tropical climate. 
Horse racing at Oriental Park. 


Blue skies and a perfect climate. The 
ideal place for polo, motoring, tennis and 
surf-bathing. Large modern hotels. 

Sailings Thursdays and Saturdays from 
New York. 


Regular sailings for Progreso, Vera'Cruz 
and Tampico. 

Through the Panama Canal 

West Coast ports Central America, and 
Salina Cruz, Mexico, direct. Regular sail- 
ings. Connections at Cristobal (Colon), 
for South America and the Orient. 

Splendid accommodations on roomy 
passenger steamers, sailing under the 
American flag. For literature and informa- 
tion apply 


New Y ork and Cuba Mail S. S. Co. 
Foot of Wall Street, New York. 

WI NTER TIME here is SUMMER TIME in the 
SOUTH SEAS. Arrangements should now 
be made to visit 


Honolulu, Suva, New Zealand 

The Palatial Passenger Steamers 

(R. M.S. ' 'NIAaARA")(R.M.S. "MAKURA") 

(20,00 tons) (13,500 tons) 

Sail from V ancouver, B. C, Dec. 20, Jan. 17 

Feb. 14 

Round Pacific Tour $337.50 up. 

Honolulu $135.00 Up. For further particulars 


Can. Pac. Ry., 1231 Broadway, N. Y., or to 

Can. Aust. Royal Mail Line, 440 Seymour St. 

Vancouver, B. C. 

Fi 1 111 IllllWIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIlllllllillllllllllllllllW 


Watkins, N.Y., on 
Seneca Lake, 

Wm. E. Letting well. Pres 


A Mineral Springs HEALTH RESORT and HOTEL 
known as 


Private Park with miles of graded walks for Oertel hill climbing. 




are directly connected with the Hotel 
and complete in all appointments for 

Hydrotherapy, Electrotherapy and Afecnanof/ierapjy 

The Bathing Springs are similar to the waters of Bad Nauheim 
in the proportions of Calcium Chloride and Sodium Chloride but 
are about five times as strong. The Radium Emanation from 
Brine Spring No. 1 averages 68 Mache Units per liter of water 
and is due to Radium Salts in Solution. 

Unsurpassed advantages for the treatment of Heart, Circulatory, Kidnev 
Nutritional and Nervous Disorders; Rheumatism, Qout and Obesity 


Our Illustrated Boollets and latest reports on our Mineral Springs Witt be mailed on request 




>:.\. mm 

li .'"1 '!-\' /,-,...*, 


r ^WI§^ 

At the 

Rainbow's End 

is Nassau-Bahamas 

a quaintly foreign colony, won- 
derfully rich in the romantic 
strangeness and astounding color 
of the Tropics. 

From December to April the climate 
is that of June, while but a short dis- 
tance away, cities in the United States 
are being racked unceasingly by storm. 

Wouldn't a month or two in Nassau 
with its marvelous surf bathing, big 
game fishing, tennis and golf — be a 
holiday to remember ? 

Wouldn't you come home wonder- 
fully "fit." 

Write today for "Nassau-Bahamas" 
and Hotel, Boarding House and Fur- 
nished Villa Register. The time to go 
is this winter, and the time to plan 
is NOW. 

Bahamas Government Agent 

450 Fourth Ave. New York City 

.---•-:~;KSr- -^ - 


■lix£ki*l*X*« v i ^ 

■ .^'TC!\'^*^^,«y»--'***" " 



Known Temperature 202° Fahr. 

Here are found the only Di-Sodium 
Arsenate natural steam caves in the 
world. Mud baths and steam radio- 
active. Altitude 2,000 ft. modern 
American plan hotel. Home grown 
table products. Every diversion. Only 
60 miles from Los Angeles. On 4 trans- 
portation lines. Write for folder and 

Southern California. 

To the Tropics 
- .« A-.Cruiser 

The American Express Travel Department 


A Cruise ttWest Indies 

Visiting Cuba, Jamaica, Panama, Costa Rica 
21RESTFUL DAYS away from Winter 
in the romantic American Tropics . 

Luxuaious steamer of the United Fruit 
Company — an American steamer under the 
Ameaican Flag. Numerous shore excursions. 

First Cruise: January 27 

Second Cruise: March 10 

$290 and upwaras 

Ask for Booklet 

4 5?.. Br .°? d . wa y' New Yor|< C| 'v 


American Express 
Travelers Cheques 

Boston Chicago San Francisco 

Spend the Winter Months at Virginia Hot Springs,the 
one spot in all America where "a cure" can be taken 
just as comfortably as in the Spring, Summer or Fall. 

The inestimable benefits of the healing waters (natur- 
ally heated 106 ) have won international recognition for Virginia 
Hot Springs as one of the world's most famous resorts where the 
climate, scenic beauty and general surroundings are unsurpassed. 

The completely equipped modern Bath House, con- 
nected with the Hotel by an enclosed sunlighted viaduct — the 
Spout Bath, famous for Gout, Rheumatism, Nervous diseases, Sci- 
atica, etc. — the exceptional medical attention and the opportunity for 
absolute rest, materially enhance the value of "the cure." 

Riding and driving over delightful mountain trails, 

Golfing on one of the sportiest courses in America and a variety of 
other sports give an added zest to outdoor recreation. 

The well known Homestead standard of equip- 
ment and service maintained throughout the year. 

The Homestead Book 

graphically illustrates and describes the many charms of this 
ideal winter resort and fully dilates upon the therapeutic values 
of the famous waters. Copies of these books upon request. 

Make reservations early 

H. ALBERT, Res. Mgr. 

Hot Springs, Va. 

*< / 


Sportsman's paradise. Golf links, 18-hole course, overlooking the Caloosahatchee River, hunting, fishing, tennis, riding. 
;-_•__ j -• : i icn n An „:..„*<, k„h.,. M.i.i n onj n™nn» Table a feature. The Hotel Royal Palm. 

driving and swimming pool. 150 rooms, 140 private baths. 
Booklet will be sent upon request. 

Music and Dancing. 

Babnbtt & Parent, Lessees^ 


Safer than Currency 

to carry 

has often been remarked j 
when talking of [ 

K.N.&L Travelers' Checks | 

Experienced Travelers 
Use Them. 

Checks not countersigned 
may be replaced if lost 

Considering the protec- 
tion afforded, their cost 
is insignificant, 

Denominations of 

$10, $20, $50 and $100 | 

at a premium of 50c on 
one hundred dollars' worth 

Get theraf rom your banker or 
write for full particulars. 

Knautf) -Nadjou & Kuljm? 



Tour leaves New York, Feb- 
ruary 3, 1917. Visit eight 
countries. Falls of the Iguazu, 
The Andes, Land of the Incas 
Panama Canal, Cuba, etc. 
Send for particulars and tin- 

WALTER H.WOODS CO., 54 Journal Bldg., Boston § 

[ The Belleview 

1 Belleair Heights, Florida 

Special Golf Privileges to Hotel Patrons 



No. 1 Course 6218 YARDS, No. 2 Course 5763 YARDS j 


| Forinformatlo^booUet. fl. D . SAXTON, MGR. ^TZlSso^^l 1 


Florida Everglades) 
Lake Okeechobee) 
Caloosahatchee River | 

See the wide beauty and strange I 
sights of tropical Florida by taking j 
the Scenic Route through the heart | 
of the Everglades, across Lake j 
Okeechobee, the largest fresh water j 
lake in this region, and down the j 
beautiful Caloosahatchee River. \ 
Make this trip the feature of your j 
sojourn in Florida this winter. | 
Boat connects Fort Lauderdale on j 
the East Coast with Fort Myers on ! 
the West Coast, passing en route | 
! through the home of the Seminole | 
I Indians, haunts of the beautiful j 
\ birds of plumage, and the famous | 
| Moorehaven and LaBelle farming 
; and grazing section. Florida tour- 
| ists should not fail to include this 
I attractive and unusual trip in their 
\ plans. Send for folder and rate to 

I Forbes Pioneer Boat Lines, Inc., Gen- 
I eral Offices, Ft. Lauderdale, Fla., or 
I Althouse Tours Co., 1333 Walnut 
j Street, Philadelphia; American Ex- 
| press Co., 65 Broadway, New York 
! City; Mr. Bonfield's Travel Service, 
[ Jacksonville, Florida; Thos. Cook & 
I Son, 245 Broadway, New York City; 
| Gillespie, Kinports & Beard, 309-311 
I Fifth Avenue, New York City; George 
f E. Marsters Co., 248 Washington 
I Street, Boston, Mass.; Raymond 
| Whitcomb Company, 300 Washington 
I Street, Boston, Mass.; Temple Tours, 
I 149 Tremont Street, Boston, Mass. 

4 WWtc Sulphur Springs 









Sulphur Water, Nauheim and all prin- 
cipal baths of European Health Resorts 
are given in the Bath House by 
sfrilled attendants. 




Sufferers with Tuberculosis will find 
Relief and Cure in this High Alti- 
tude and Low Humidity, provided 
they have the means to secure the 
proper accommodations. 

Sanatoria, Boarding Houses 
Cottages, Ranch Homes 

Albuquerque, N. Mex. 

New Mexico is a Wonder-Land of 
Beautiful Scenery, Hunting and 
Fishing Grounds that have scarcely 
been touched. There are New 
De'ights for the Tourist in Ex- 
ploring Our Old Cave Dwellings 
and Ruined Pueblos. Summer 
Climate Ideal. Write 

Albuquerque New Mexico 
Chamber of Commerce 



(JtdTK&k,/ ) 

Within a block a£ Sbarfn 
and Drlmomro't, the H«r- 
vard and Yale Guts, and a 
block and a half from Timet 


The transient dkntcle is from 
the best fc«»»«li— of Euro pe, 
Canada and America. 

Service and aiisn 
able with the beat dub*, ' 
with the advantage of hotel 
privileges and conventr net a. 

Moderate price*, Booklet 
on request. 



X JL Go there now! Voyage is delightful via Honolulu 

and Samoa. Splendid 10,000 ton, twin screwAmerican steamers 
every 21 days from San Francisco (Nov. 28, Dec. 19, Jan. 9, 30, 
Feb. 20, Mar. 13, Apr. 3, Apr. 24). Return 1st class, $337.50; 2nd 
class, }225; including China and Japan, 1st class, $575; to Honolulu, 
$65. Folders free. 

H. E. BURNETT, 17 Battery Place, New York, or 

669 Market Street, 
San Francisco. 



■ That Xmas Gift? Suggest a 1 

J Newton Trunk I 

CRETONNE LINED. PRICE; $20.00 to $85.00. g 

Send for attractive catalogue and price list. = 

Sold direct where no dealer. ^ 

W. H, NEWTON & SON, 231 Elm St., Cortland, N.Y. I 



Old Point Comfort 

NO European "Cure" surpasses and few compare with this 
luxurious American Resort Hotel — so wonderfully situated 
in the midst of a happy combination of land and sea diversions, 
and accessible from every point in the United States. 

From North and South, East and West, gather the guests 
of the Hotel Chamberlin to "Take 'The Cure," Electric, 
Nauheim and Radio Baths are prescribed for some — others get 
well by using Nature's remedies alone — the Sea, the Sun, the 
Salt Sands. 

Golf, Tennis, Riding and Motoring await the devotees of 
these sports. 

The Cuisine of Hotel Chamberlin is famous — the finest sea- 
foods in the world are found in the waters around Old Point 
Comfort. But perhaps the most fascinating side of all is the 
Social Life, for here the Army, the Navy and Society mingle as 

nowhere else on this continent. 

For illustrated booklets apply at all Tourist 
Bureaus or Transportation Offices, or address 



A new eighteen hole solf course just completed. Is very con- 
venient with Grass Greens and an attractive Club House. 
Owned and operated by Hotel Chamberlin. 

Along ocean front, with a superb view of strand and 
famous Boardwalk, the St. Charles occupies an 
unique position among resort hotels. It has an en- 
viable reputation for cuisine and unobstrusive ser- 
vice. 12 stories of solid comfort (fireproof); ocean 
porch and sun parlors; sea water in all baths; orches- 
tra of soloists. Week-end dances. Golf privileges. 
Booklet mailed. Newlin Haines Co. 



1. Men's Tan Washable Capeskin Gloves, Pair, 1.50 

2. Black Seal Belt with silver buckle 2.50 

3. Envelope Purse of Real Pin Seal, strap 

back; fitted with purse and mirror. 
Black. Blue or.Purple 5.00 

4. Envelope Purse of Real Pin Seal 1 .95 

5. Vanity Bag of Real Pin Seal, metal 

trimmed; five compartments 6.75 

6. Overnight Bag with 12-inch frame; side 

slides, lock and key; silk moire lined. . 5.00 

7. Caddy Bag of best grade Canvas — Mole- 

skin top and bottom; leather covered 
steel stays; lock and buckle; hood full 
hand-laced; extra heavy sling strap .... 9.50 
Complete with five clubs 20.75 

8. Solid Mahogany Smoker Stand 3.50 

Gift Suggestions 

9. Woman's Black Silk Umbrella, with Ster- 
ling Silver Cap; 26-inch length 2.95 

10. Woman's Colored or Black Silk Umbrella; 

Malacca handle with braided strap on side 6.00 

11. Limousine Case of Black Long Grain 

Morocco Leather; nine fittings 5.00 

12. "Favorite" Humidor; mission finish; por- 

celain lined; fitted with moisture pad . . 5.00 

13. Telephone Callist, Saffian Leather, in Blue, 

Green or Red, with indexed loose leaves 1.50 

14. Daily Notes, Saffian leather cover in Blue, 

Green or Red, with pad of Vellum paper 1.75 

15. Metal Bridge Lamp; base and stem in 

Brown or Green Russian Leather effect 
9-inch shade of satin, brass with white 
enamel lining 10.00 

16. Smoker's Stand of Mahogany with Cabinet 

for Smoker's Outfit; rubber tired wheels 10.75 

17. Solid Mahogany Smoking Set; Colonial 

Glass Cigar and Cigarette jars, with 

solid mahogany mountings 6.00 

18. Military Brushes, ivory finish; thirteen 

rows of extra stiff bristles Pair, 8.25 

19. Mirror, ivory finish; straight or ring handle 2.65 

20. Hair Brush, ivory finish; flat back; stiff 

bristles 2.50 

21. Comb, ivory finish, all coarse or coarse and 

fine 65 

22. Shoe Hook, ivory finish .25 

23. Nail File, ivory finish 25 

24. Nail Polisher with Tray; ivory finish .85 

James McCreery & Co 

34 th Street NEW YORK 5* h Avenue 

In writing to advertisers, please mention Travel 




1 December, 1916 

= Volume XXVIII 

Number 2 

ARIZONA Cover Design 

TOR, GREECE Contents Design 

CASUS Frontispiece 

NIA'S SKY-LINE. Charles 
Francis Saunders 9 

CHRISTMAS. Johnston Mac- 
kenzie 13 

OF MEXICO. S. C. Hulse and 
Sol MetzgER 16 

OF WIGHT. Herman Schef- 
fauer 22 

CASUS. Richard Hill 26 

Blodgett 31 

Randall Parsons 34 

DESERT. Charles J. Belden. 38 



ELER 42 

James B. Pond 44 

Published monthly by Robert M. McBride & 
Company, Inc. Union Square North, New York 
City; Rolls House, Breams Bldgs., London, E. C, 
25 cents per copy; $3.00 per year. For foreign 
postage, add $1.00; Canadian, 50 cents. Entered 
as second-class matter at the Post-Omce at New 
York, under act of March 3, 1879, and copy 
righted 1916 by Robert M. McBride & Company, 

Edward Frank Allen, Editor 

Travel assumes no responsibility for the 
damage or loss of manuscripts or photographs 
submitted for publication, although due care will 
be taken to insure their safety. Full postage 
should always be sent for the return of unavailable 



The churn is simply a clay cylinder, bound with iron at the ends and hung by ropes from a rude tripod, and is swung backward and forward by the operators. The workers 

»re Armenian peasants — the same race as the unfortunate victims of Turkish fanaticism, but under Russian government. They are the most progressive people of the Caucasus, 

from which it can be readily conceived how remote is this region from the enterprise and achievements of western Europe 







The road begins to double back upon itself as it ascends — an exhilarating climb with ever-widening views — until the summit is reached, a mile above sea level, and 

here for forty miles the road stretches along the crest of the mountain 




Charles Francis Saunders' 

Photographs by the Author and Others 

FROM the first of May, when the trout season opens, until the wet 
season sets in and mud and snow block the higher passes (which 
may be in November or early December), there is an unceasing tide of 
travel along the crest of the San Bernardino Mountains. Some of it is 
a-horseback, some of it afoot with a pack burro, a little of it by horse 
and carriage, but by far the most of it is by motor car. No outing in 
southern California is more cherished than this, and week ends and holi- 
days find thousands taking it. The San Bernardino Sierra is the one 
you cross when traveling to southern California by either the Santa Fe 
or the Southern Pacific Sunset Route. On one side of it lies the grim 
desert, on the other the country of the orange, the olive and the rose. 
The range has a general elevation of about 6,000 feet with numerous 
peaks rising to 8,000 or thereabouts, and two of about 11,000; and from 
the Cajon Pass to the Pass of San Gorgonio, its extreme limits, the dis- 
tance is sixty miles as the crow flies. Like all southern California 
mountains, the lower elevations and slopes are furred with the shaggy, 
perpetual green of chaparral; but the canons and upper altitudes carry 
a more or less heavy growth of the glorious conifers that flourish so 
heartily on the Pacific Coast — huge yellow, sugar and Jeffrey pines, 
white fir (aristocrat of its race), incense cedar, and big-cone spruce. 

Mingled with these are fine old specimens of California black oak, 
gnarled and weatherbeaten veterans of the storms, doubtless of centuries. 
Much of this timber is as yet undisturbed by lumbermen, and as the 
region has now, except for a few privately owned small tracts, been 
incorporated into the Angeles National Forest, the likelihood of de- 
struction by the axe has been removed. It is, in the main, a sunny, open 
forest, where icy springs well up to form cascading brooks that set out 
happily through thicket of fern, some towards the desert, some towards 
the fruitful plain of San Bernardino. Among the great charms of this 
noble forest are the frequent natural meadows, upon whose green stage 
the wild flowers hold a succession of colorful pageants from early spring 
till late autumn — blue wild iris and pink wild rose, shooting stars and 
scarlet penstemons, Indian paint-brush red as flame, brown-eyed helen- 
ium, monkey flowers in yellow and buff, and the pale false hellebore. 
Along the water courses, lilies, thimbleberry, wild pea, columbine and 
lupines play Narcissus, as in the youth of the world. Sometimes the dusk 
of the thickets is lighted by the white bracts of Nuttall's dogwood, re- 
minding you of the spring woods of your old Eastern home, and at its 
feet, perhaps, is a glow of red where crimson snow-plants break the 
mold. And then the views, now of desert, now of .valley, now down 




From a sheltered stretch of woodland, the road will suddenly emerge into brilliant sunlight and boldly jut out over 

some valley 1,000 feet below 

forest aisles dappled 
with sunlight ! Such 
news your motoring 
friends bring to 
town of the beauties 
of that high-moun- 
tain world, and some 
day with Mollie and 
the youngsters you 
go, too. 
They will tell you that the entire round of 101 miles from San Ber- 
nardino to San Bernardino again can be done with ease between break- 
fast and six o'clock dinner. So it can, but don't do it. Rather take a 
leisurely two or three days to it, if you can afford the time; jog along 
with your car, stopping as the mood impels you, and take to your heart 
the good cheer of the mountains. You need carry nothing with you 

Where the Crest Drive crosses Deep Creek Canon and the 
scene changes from green countryside to rocky gorge 

but your pocketbook, for there are several good public camps by the way 
and half a dozen gasoline stations; but if you prefer you may stow your 
blankets and "chuck" in the car and camp under the stars when night 
overtakes you. Many do that; but let the blankets be ample, for how- 
ever the midday sun may burn, those highland nights are cold, often 
frosty, even in midsummer. 

The city of San Bernardino behind you, there is first a five-mile spin 
across the plain to the foothills near Arrowhead, which offers an oppor- 
tunity for a worth-while stopover at the famous Arrowhead Hot Springs. 
Leaving there, you turn into Waterman Canon and for two miles at an 
easy grade follow up a bouldery mountain stream under the occasional 
shade of oaks, bays, alders and sycamores. From the banks sunflowers 
and yellow primroses toss you "howdy," the bees hum in the wild buck- 
wheat, the calls of quail and meadowlark come blithely down the wind. 
Then at a sign labeled "Mormon Trail" (which the Mormon founders of 
San Bernardino used for the ascent and descent of the mountain long- 



The public camps are a permanent feature of interest along the route — often real little villages of log cabins clustered about a central building that houses offices and kitchen. 
At Big Bear Lake there are three public camps and a large community of motorists who come each year and set up their tents beside their sheeted cars 


1 1 

At the beginning of Green Valley Road. 


The motorist will find gasoline stations conveniently located at half a 
dozen points along the route 

ago), the barrier of the sierra lifts itself abruptly above you. Here the 
"Switchbacks" begin. These are the zigzags of the road cut like an in- 
clined shelf that bends back and forth over itself as it rises, doing 2,000 
feet of elevation in about three miles. The grade runs usually from 
12 to 13 per cent, but occasionally rises above 20 per cent, and the wise 
driver does it at five miles an hour, cooling his engine at every water- 
ing trough. It is an exhilarating climb with always widening views. 
The crest of the range attained, at a mile above sea-level, you are in a 
world of pine and oak, with far glimpses of the Mojave Desert to the 
northward; to the west, through a filter of tree tops, the snowy cap of 
San Antonio, chief of the Sierra Madre, shows white against the blue ; 
and to the south the purple foothill tops float below you in rivers of mist, 
losing themselves finally in the level plain, with Redlands dimly seen 
amid her orange groves. For forty miles now your way will be along 
the mountain's crest eastwardly, winding and doubling on itself, rising 
and dipping and rising again — a road that cannot be lost, unless you 
persist in turning into the byroad that leads in three or four miles, to 

Little Bear Lake. 
But it ends there, 
and all you can do is 
to come back to the 
main road, the 
richer for the mem- 
ory of a pretty sheet 
of water ringed 
about with pines 
and summer camps. 
If you are driving 
for the enjoyment 

of a good roadway, the Crest Road will disappoint you; for it is just a 
dirt road, often too narrow for two machines to pass, and as the sum- 
mer progresses it cuts up pretty badly in places and becomes dusty. For 
a great part of the way it is hardly possible to drive faster than at an 
average of 12 or 15 miles an hour if you want to. This is a blessing. 

Castle Rock in Big Bear Valley, where the road makes. 

amends for its roughness by the picturesqueness of its 



In spite of the number of public camps on the San Bernardino Sierra, it is quite possible for those who wish it to escape the crowd. In the pine woods, for instance, not far 
from Little Bear Lake, the road passes "Squirrel Inn," the private estate of a group of people, to which it is impossible for an outsider to obtain entrance 

1 2 



On the descent of the Crest Drive. The forest is now past, and instead, the road winds down a chaparral-covered mountainside, among colossal rocks, strangely squared and 

piled one upon the other like some primeval masonry whose artificers were of titanic mold 

for the pace enables you to look around as you go — to note, for instance, 
the exquisite shadows flung across the road by the great pines ; to study 
the noble trees themselves, their trunks sometimes three or four feet 
through and rising seventy-five into the air; to linger at the points that 
jut out over the valleys, and bare your head to the cool Pacific breeze; 
to run your car now and then upon the brown needle carpet of the 
wood, eat your luncheon amidst the bracken and watch the tide of travel. 
All sorts of automobiles, of course — some out just for the day and loaded 
lightly, and others piled high 
with camping outfits, fishing 
rods, baby cages, the family 
cat on a string, and the fam- 
ily dog a-squat on the running 
board. Here, trailing clouds 
of dust, come a couple of ma- 
chine loads of those modern 
Thespians of the open air, the 
moving-picture actors (they 
staged an Alaska story in the 
snow up here last winter, and 
this summer a drama of the 
Tennessee Mountains — an in- 
teresting commentary on the 
inclusiveness of California 
scenery!). In their wake, 
perhaps, a desert prospector in 
a light trap drawn by a pair of 
burros jogs along, in company 
with a desert rancher in his 
lumbering farm wagon, bring 
ing his family to camp out un- 
der the pines and cool their 
Mojave-heated blood beside 
musical waters, chill from the snow. Here comes a merry squad of 
school boys and girls footing it in elkskin boots, their belongings on pack 
animals, others with theirs in knapsacks. Vaqueros in "chaps" and jing- 
ling spurs, their loose-knotted neckerchiefs fluttering in the breeze ; 
picnicking ladies from some mountain camp, sweaters dangling from 


The lake has been created by damming the outlet of a valley into which many streams flow 
and the result is one of the loveliest sheets of water in California 

their waists and wild flowers filling their hands; auto-trucks laden with 
supplies for the public resorts, and dusty auto-stages from San Bernar- 
dino, Redlands or Los Angeles, filled with only less dusty tourists — it 
is as picturesque in a Twentieth Century way as the Canterbury Pilgrims. 
The public camps are a permanent feature of interest along or near 
the road — often real little villages of log cabins, clustered about a central 
building that houses offices, kitchens, dining-room and dancing-hall. Sat- 
urday nights are festive occasions at these resorts. There is dancing 

and ice cream and soda pop — 
the day of alcoholic delectables 
is over — and besides the gen- 
eral gathering of guests in va- 
rious styles of negliges, there 
is frequently a more or less 
picturesque sprinkling of 
mountain and desert folk, for- 
est rangers, homesteaders, and 
so on. Dancing shoes have 
sometimes been forgotten on 
these occasions, I fancy, for I 
once saw a placard — posted 
conspicuously at a place of this 
kind — "Hob nails not allowed 
on this floor." Such resorts 
also have furnished cabins to 
rent to those who prefer doing 
their own housekeeping, and a 
grocery store is maintained to 
supply the needs of such. Do 
not mistake for a public resort, 
however, "Squirrel Inn," the 
sign of which attracts atten- 
tion a few miles from the west- 
ern end of the crest, for you will find it as difficult to secure lodging 
there as at that more famous Squirrel Inn in Mr. Stockton's whimsical 
romance of the same name. It is, in fact, the private estate of an asso- 
ciation of city people, who enjoy now and then a mountain outing in 
(Continued on page 54) 





Johnston Mackenzie 


JES' 'fore Christmas New 
York is as good as it can 
be. This is literally true, and 
not merely a paraphrase of 
James Whitcomb Riley's poem, 
for during the month that pre- 
cedes Yuletide the city, always 
the wonder place of the west- 
ern hemisphere, takes unto it- 
self a new and better spirit of 
which the tangible evidences 
such as buying and selling are 
not the only ones to be real- 
ized. I have an idea that New 
York is simply having the time 
of its young life in consider- 
ing what Christmas Day has 
in store for its friends; cer- 
tainly there is the joy of ex- 
pectancy in the crowds that 
throng the avenues, and I like 
to think that these people an- 
ticipate the giving rather than 
the receiving. If an account- 
ing could be made, I have no 
doubt that Goodwill would 
show a credit balance and 
Greed a debit. 

Always vibrant with life, 
the city at holly time becomes 
revitalized. With the first nip 
of winter the shops put on ex- 
hibition the wares that are cal- 
culated to set the public think- 
ing about the season. With 
the beginning of grand opera 
in November the hotels begin 
to bourgeon with representa- 
tives of the leisure classes 
from California, Maine and 
points between ; and between 
Thirty-fourth and Fifty-ninth 
Streets the violin strings that 
are worn out by hotel orches- 
tras during this season would, 
if placed end to end, reach 
from — Richard Wagner to 
George M. Cohan. It is at 
this time that you can realize 
the New York of the novelists, 
for your imagination, like 
everybody else's, is stimulated, 
and you objectify yourself, 
which is another way of say- 
ing that you become a char- 
acter in a story. 

After Thanksgiving appear 
the picturesque street-corner 
collectors of the Salvation 
Army and the Volunteers of 
America, the former being 

(C) Underwood & Underwood 

In the center of Madison Square you will see the biggest, splendidest Christmas tree you ever 
saw in your life. Standing almost at the base of the Metropolitan Tower, you would think the 
fifty-story building would dwarf it, but it doesn't. The tree is the largest, finest thing in all 

New York 

young women who are clad in 
long red cloaks and stand be- 
side a cauldron hung on a tri- 
pod to which there is attached 
the admonition, "Keep the Pot 
Boiling" ; and the latter men, 
disguised as Santa Clauses, di- 
recting the attention of pass- 
ers-by to a fac-simile chimney 
for the receiving of contribu- 
tions. The sight of these 
cheerful workers for the crea- 
ture comfort of the homeless 
and oppressed and the sound 
of the bells which they keep 
ringing from morning until 
night are without doubt a 
stimulant to generosity, for 
there is a continuous stream! 
of contributions from all ages 
and conditions of men and 
women. Santa Claus is al- 
ways ready to shake the hand 
of the youngster as he deposits- 
his penny in the chimney top 
and to hear what he wants 
most for Christmas, and the 
lassie beside the cauldron 
ceases for a moment from 
stamping her feet on the cold 
pavement to murmur "God 
bless you!" Last Christmas 
the Salvation Army handed 
out 5,000 baskets of holiday 
"eats" in Greater New York 
alone, which means that, with 
what the Volunteers accom- 
plished in this same field, 
about 40,000 waistbands were 
tighter on that day than on 
any other of the year. 

Contrast with this another 
form of "handout" — the sal- 
ary bonus. It finds its high 
water mark in the vicinity of 
Wall Street as a rule, and it 
is probable that a new record' 
will be established this year, 
for the prosperity in financial 1 
circles is as pronounced now 
as the depression was just be- 
fore the beginning of the war. 
This Christmas there will be 
bonuses of fifty, seventy-five 
and even a hundred per cent, 
which means that any young 
man fortunate enough to be 
an office boy in one of these 
organizations will get any- 
where from $200 to $400 in a 
lump. You may have an idea 



that the $2,500 a year man will be able to pay 
off his mortgage and take out a little more life 
insurance. Not so; for I am told that in the 
houses where the system prevails the men an- 
ticipate the Christmas money and adjust their 
living expenses with it in mind. And sometimes, 
alas, the amount does not come up to the ex- 
pectation ! 

The day before Christmas in Wall Street is 
a time of high spirits, and on the floors of the 
exchanges after the bell has sounded the signal 
to stop trading, there are frequently celebra- 
tions that partake of the nature of a carnival, 
with brass bands, vaudeville "stunts" and an 
accompaniment of confetti and streamers. The 
high tension at which the floor traders work 
■during the five hours of their business day is 
relaxed, and the reaction is tremendous. The 
bedlam is even greater than when the "shorts" 
are running to "cover" in a "bull" market. Joy 
is unconfined, and you would scarcely recognize 
in the noisy revelers on the floor the group of 
men whose buying and selling is such an im- 
portant factor — perhaps too great — in the com- 
mercial affairs of the nation. 

During the week preceding Christmas there is 
much to be seen in all parts of the city. It is 
not Fifth Avenue alone, with its gift-laden 
shops and its well-groomed shoppers, that has 
the Christmas atmosphere. All along the ave- 
nues from First to Tenth the stores are 
wreathed in holly ; on the river fronts huge con- 
signments of balsamy Christmas trees wait for buyers; pushcart vendors 
display every sort of stock that might be classified under the heading of 
gift, from trumpets and drums for the children to sacred emblems and 
figures for those who would remember the significance of the season. 

Photograph by Underwood & Underwood 



On the river fronts are great consignments of balsamy trees ready for distribution among 

the individual purchasers will make their selection 

the stores, from which 

for waiters in the hotels is New Year's Eve, their gratuities for the 
week previous are considerable. Tenants in the larger office buildings 
contribute to the cheer of the postmen, elevator operators, messenger 
boys, window cleaners and scrubwomen, and apartment dwellers are 

likely to find on their dumb-waiters 


I fl K 1 m i * 
I If if f .'. 

a delicately poetic 
thing like this: 

appeal, some- 

r Fifth Avenue is the chief shopping center of New 

York to-day, and it is here that the majority of Christmas 

buyers will flock 

Christmas is verily in the air, and the people seem all to be in a mad, glad 
rush to acquire the means of purveying happiness to others. 

There is an acceleration of courtesy on the part of those in service, 
but it is noticeable chiefly in apartment houses, hotels and office build- 
ings. I could mention janitors who have received several hundred 
dollars from tenants at Christmas time, and although the harvest time 

Christmas is near and turkeys are 

Please drop a dime in the butcher 

boy's hat. 

New Yorkers may be enrolled in 
the Society for the Prevention of 
Useless Giving, but they do not 
claim to be "spugs" in cases like 
these. They would as soon con- 
sider allowing their insurance to 

The pre-Yuletide interest cen- 
ters in the shopping district. When 
I was a boy I was taken to see a 
remarkable panoramic window dis- 
play at the corner of Sixth Ave- 
nue and Fourteenth Street, in the 
biggest department store in the 
New York of that period. That 
was not over a quarter of a cen- 
tury ago, but since that time the 
shopping district has taken its way 
northward twice. It has passed 
Twenty-third Street, where it 
reached a glory that was consid- 
ered the ultimate and attained to 
Fifth Avenue between Thirty- 
fourth arid Forty-second Streets. 
Here it is that we find the com- 
mercial heart of Christmas. To 
watch its pulsations, however, is to 
get a glimpse of the sentiment that 
actuates it ; and you can sense the 
spirit of the season by mingling 
with those who are there expressing the Christmas in their hearts. 

Take a walk with me on December 23 — for that is Saturday — down 
this crowded avenue from Forty-second Street. At four o'clock it is 
already beginning to grow dark. The weather is what we like to call 
Christmassy, for there is a keen bite in the air and a fine, dry snow is 
beginning to fall. It looks like a story. It sounds like a story, too, for 

Photograph by Underwood & Underwood 

One of the picturesque street collectors of the Salvation Army, which 
organization contributes much to the Christmas cheer of the poor 



(C) Underwood & Underwood 


Santa Claus, the representative of the Volunteers of America, is always ready 

to shake the hand of the youngster as he deposits his penny in the chimney 

top, and to hear what he wants most for Christmas 

there are bells on the air and the occasional clink of coins in the 
iron pot that the Salvation Army girl is keeping at the boiling 
point. Everybody is in a hurry, and some look worried, as though 
they had delayed their Christmas shopping until the last moment 
and forgotten the list of people to be remembered. 

The store windows splash out their light on the passers-by, and 
the snow sparkles on derby hats and fur boas and muffs and 
things. Across the street the white marble Library, for all its 
lighted windows, looks miles away. At present we are interested 
in human hearts rather than books. 

A motor-car draws up to the curb in front of a phonograph 
shop, and a last-minute purchaser has one of the latest model 
talking machines brought out to the limousine by two of the 
clerks. A small red-nosed boy goes whistling by with a package 
nearly as large as himself under his arm. Of the two, which do 
you suppose is getting the more fun out of it? Here comes a 
man in a big fur overcoat, followed by a dozen or more children, 
boys and girls, all talking excitedly at the top of their lungs. We 
shall never know whether he is a benefactor to an orphan asylum, 
or an indulgent uncle, or a latter-day Pied Piper, but the sight 
gives one a bit of a thrill, and we don't know whether to envy 
him or the children more. 

There are hordes of people about the windows and entrances 
of the big department stores, and ninety per cent of them are 
carrying parcels varying in size from a bottle of perfume to a 
drawing room lamp. At this late date the stores will not guar- 
antee delivery even in the city, so there is no alternative to 
carrying your purchases home. Everyone seems cheerful about 
it, though, possibly because they have noticed the tired sales- 
women and realized that the delivery men are just as weary. 

The Avenue seems more crowded with motor-cars than ever, 
and the hoarse bark of sirens bids fair to drown the tinkle of 
Christmas bells. When the semaphore of the traffic policeman 
indicates "Stop !" the street becomes a solid mass of vehicles — 
luxury by the cubic foot. In front of the shops and hotels they 
are lined in almost unbroken rows, and the whistle of the flun- 
keys who open their doors is heard constantly. For light and 
animation the Great White Way never compared with the Fifth 
Avenue of Christmas Eve. You may be a sentimentalist and 
think of the negative aspects of the season, of the homes where 
Santa Claus doesn't arrive, and all that, but there is no reason 

why you should not enjoy the scene before you. You don't have 
to be a chronic Pollyanna to be glad at this time — even Scrooge 
should have his day. 

And so we amble down toward Madison Square, looking in 
windows and into faces, listening to all the beguiling noises of 
the street and sidewalk, and taking deep draughts of satisfaction. 
Darkness has fallen, but the street lamps and the window illu- 
minations make it nearly as light as day. 

At Twenty-sixth Street look over to the center of Madison 
Square and you will see the biggest, splendidest Christmas tree 
you ever saw in your life, brilliantly lighted with hundreds of 
vari-colored lamps and surmounted by a huge electric star. You 
may have heard of this tree that a nameless philanthropist has 
given New York, and you may have seen pictures of it, but you 
can never realize what it means until you have seen it on Christ- 
mas Eve. It seems to stand right at the base of the Metropolitan 
Tower, and at first you would think that the fifty-story building 
would dwarf it, but it doesn't. At that moment the tree is the 
biggest, finest thing in all New York. Later there will be sing- 
ing societies beside it, and if you are fortunate enough to be pres- 
ent you will hear Christmas anthems and carols that will do your 
soul good. 

If you can spare the time, leave your hearthside on Christmas 
Day for a little while and see what a desolate place is New York 
out of doors. Utterly deserted in the business sections, it is 
Sabbath-like in the residence districts. The joy of realization is 
kept indoors, and the hurry and bustle of anticipation is over. 
Once again before the year is out will New York be in a furor 
of preparation on December 31 ; but better than the sound of 
popping champagne corks at the dawn of the New Year are the 
strains under the Madison Square Christmas Tree of, 

"Joy to the world, the Lord is come. 
Let earth receive her King." 

Underwood & Underwood 


The great size of this municipal tree may be appreciated by a comparison to the figures in the 
foreground. From the scaffolding workmen are trimming it with electric lamps for the 

evening illumination 



These Indians, whose interests are agricultural, held their rites in praise and thanksgiving for the expected crops. Their costumes consisted of bright red aprons and ribbons 
over everyday attire, and turbans banded with small mirrors and topped with artificial flowers. The malinche, or child dancer, in the center of the picture, was dressed 

in bright blue from head to foot 



S. C. Hulse and Sol Metzger 

Photographs by S. C. Hulse 

( i LIENOR," said Santiago, "you have my garantias." 

jl3 Well I needed them that May morning as we stood before 
the brilliantly lighted, and no less brilliantly decorated shrine in the 
plaza of La Boquilla, Mexico, amid a great gathering of natives who 
were celebrating the Matachines Fiesta. The crowd gave grudgingly to 
me, with surly looks, as I followed Santiago through it to witness the 
dancing. And the dan- 
cers themselves — Mexican 
peones — glowered at me 
as I clicked my camera 
while they shuffled back 
and forth in long rows, 
some in gaudy warlike 
costumes, brandishing 
machetes and bows. Small 
wonder I welcomed the 
"garantias" of Santiago 
and his deep bass har- 
angue to the people about 
me and my camera. 

Early in April there 
had been much dancing in 
the village ; sometimes it 
lasted all night and one 
occasionally had glimpses 
of weird and gaudy cos- 
tumes. I, curious, sought 
the cause and learned that 

it was in preparation for the Matachines, or sword dances; that the first 
public celebration of this Fiesta in a long time had been held the pre- 
vious year; that Diaz had proscribed it as a religious demonstration dur- 
ing his reign, and that it must be observed each year — openly if possible, 
but secretly if necessary. I also learned that an Englishman who had 
gone with his camera to the previous public celebration at La Boquilla 

had been glad to get 
away alive. And every- 
one told me to ask San- 
tiago about the Fiesta. 

This Santiago Aguirre 
was one of our labor 
foremen or cabos on the 
big hydro-electric plant 
we were building at La 
Boquilla. His standing 
in that community may 
be judged from the fact 
that once when Orozco 
sent some of his Colo- 
rados to execute the 
"twenty most prominent" 
Mexicans in the village, 
as a lesson to that Ma- 
deristic camp, Santiago 
was one of the discreet 
fifty "not present." 
Later, following the Ma- 


Devotion to the Cross stands out preeminently in the religion of northern Mexico, and every village of 
Chihuahua has its Calvary upon some nearby hill 



The upper picture shows an Apache chief, who, as the photographer later learned, 

was expressing his dislike of cameras in strong language to the mingled awe and delight 

of his audience. Below is one of the shrines, brilliant with many tapers and gorgeous 

with flowers, colored statues and paper decorations 

dero regime, when he was in the bad graces of the Herreras who sought 
him, he quietly effaced himself — or was effaced. I never knew which. 
He was a wily old Indian who had been mixed up in every disturbance in 
Chihuahua for fifty years past and — the Patron of the Matachines 
Fiesta — he had built the shrine. But it was useless to ask Santiago 
about this festival. 

When you seek information of a Mexican you must follow the cus- 
toms of that country, according to an old and unfailing proverb to do 
as the Romans when in Rome. Politeness and prevarication are Mexi- 
can fine arts. If your informant likes you, he tries to give the answer 
you desire — volubly. If he dislikes you, he is withal polite and his in- 
formation is as worthless as voluble. Santiago possessed these charac- 
teristics in a superlative degree. A direct approach was useless. What 

One day Santiago's gang unearthed a pump (a recovery we were all 
interested in) which had been buried in the heel-trench of the big dam. 


It was difficult to believe that the huge Comanche leader in scarlet and yellow, who 
danced with frenzied abandon, was one of the peones who worked every day in the 
big quarries. The handkerchief was tied over his mouth to keep out the fine dust 
stirred up by the dancing. At the left is one of the viejos, who are the clowns of 
the festival and whose duty is to amuse the crowds 

What more natural than that I should stand him beside it and take 
his picture ? It was done too quickly for him to sidestep. The prints 
were all I had hoped for and I put several in my notebook and waited. 
A few days later Santiago came to me, uncovered smiling and interested 
— in the pump picture. He had worked hard, very hard, to unearth this 
pump and he but wished a photograph. I gave him one. In less than 
a week Santiago was beseeching me to take pictures of the Matachines. 
He would provide every opportunity and guarantee my safety. I con- 
sented — as a great favor to him. Thus I was enabled to make the first 
photographs of the Matachines at La Boquilla. 

This is a great religious festival celebrated throughout Mexico. In 
Chihuahua it is the greatest of the many. It has come down from the 
ancient Aztecs. It partakes of the spirit of our Thanksgiving. It is 
inextricably mingled with Roman Catholicism, particularly as regards 
the Legend of the True Cross. It is all of this and more, as it is known 
that the cross was a symbol of worship in Mexico before the coming of 
Cortez, although its place in the prehistoric religions of this continent 
has never been satisfactorily established. In northern Mexico this fes- 
tival shows traces of Comanche and Apache influence. 

Dotted all over Chihuahua are flat-topped buttes, surmounted by 


The Indians of the Palm shuffled back and forth in parallel rows, shaking their painted gourds in time to the music 
and occasionally varying their monotonous steps by crude figures 

The Apaches sprang into the air, whirled about, 
and massacred countless imaginary victims 

Now and then an Apache would stop and give voice to a curious roar which ended in a shriek as he sud- 
denly sprang at some spectator, who had to be nimble in escaping 

A malinche who, in spite of her youth, was the most graceful 
dancer of the Fiesta 

crosses, each the Cerro de la Cruz (Hill of the Cross) of its neighbor- 
hood. To them the people repair, singly and in numbers, to worship. 
Of late years, many of these hilltops have served a new purpose : more 
than once I have seen little semicircular breastworks of stone close to 
the cross and empty cartridge shells scattered about its foot. Sanctuary 
is not found here. 

As a class, miners are superstitious. In Mexico, underground workers 
rely on the Cross for protection from all dangers, real and imaginary. 
The Chihuahuanese place a shrine in a niche just inside the main 
entrance of all mines. If the workings are extensive there may be addi- 
tional shrines. On the altar stands a little cross of wood with perhaps 
some paper or china images of the particular Saint to whose considera- 
tion the miners wish to commend themselves. Before them burn crude 
lamps, or candles stuck in dirty beer or tequila bottles. And do you think 
they would do a tap of work if the lights were not burning when they 
went down? Not much!" said a mine superintendent. "And let there 
be an accident in the mine and the first thing is for one of them to see 
if the lights have gone out and made the Saint careless." Whatever 
be his belief the religion of the Chihuahuanese is a mixture. Whatever 
its proportions— and I doubt if the average peon could tell— the worship 
of the Cross stands out preeminent. Also, it is the predominating feature 
of the Matachincs. 

And so, here I was at the Matachincs Fiesta in the plaza of La Bo- 

quilla, making photographs. After my introduction by Santiago I was 
known as "el fotografo oficial." 

There were three groups of dancers — Comanches, Apaches and Indians 
of the Palm. Although the festival proper did not begin until midnight 
of the second, the enthusiasm of the people had broken forth early that 
afternoon. Before an opposition shrine, set up by a rival patron to 
Santiago, the Indians of the Palm were dancing. Both shrines were 
lighted with many great and small wax tapers, with brightly colored 
images and crucifixes and gaudy artificial flowers. The effect was im- 
pressive, brilliant. There was an orchestra which varied in numbers 
from two to three ; always one bass drum and one violin, sometimes two. 
And the music? I did not hear it at any time during the two years I 
was in Chihuahua, except at the Matachines. I was told it had come 
down from antiquity along with the Matachines itself. And no one 
seemed to know what that name signified. They said : "It is Indian and 
very old. It is 'the dance.' " 

The Indians of the Palm, who were strictly pacificos, as they repre- 
sent the agricultural interests, offered thanks and praise for the ex- 
pected crops, very much as, at Thanksgiving, we give thanks for the 
garnered one. Their costumes were most irregular, consisting of decor- 
rations over their everyday garments. Many wore bright red holiday 
stockings; their capes were beribboned and their aprons were of varied 
sizes, shapes, shades and sorts. All had head-dresses of artificial flowers, 



A vie jo holding the long whip with which 
he snaps the ankles of the crowd 

The Comanches circled about, shaking their rattles and bending to tap the ground with the ends of their bows. The short 

fringes of bamboo on the skirts represent scalps 

Villagers of La Boquilla watching the proces- 
sion to the Hill of the Cross 

The red costumes of the Apaches were decorated with bamboo "scalps," small mirrors and beer-bottle tops, their faces half 
hidden by streaming horse hair. Each carried a machete and a small shield 

streaming with ribbons, built upon a strip of gaudy cloth which fitted 
snugly around the head and were decorated with a row of small, flashing 
mirrors. Each carried a green painted gourd containing dried corn, 
and these, shaken in time with the music, lent rhythm to the dance. 
There were wands and bouquets and artificial pieces galore, making in 
all a color scheme to shame the rainbow. They danced back and forth 
in three parallel rows. Sometimes they faced about; sometimes each 
row doubled back on itself; sometimes they executed crude figures, but 
the back and forth formation in rows predominated. And they, as did 
all the dancers, used the shuffling step which we associate with the 
"War Dance" of our American Indian. 

The Comanches and the Apaches represented those warlike tribes 
which, not so long ago, had free range over Chihuahua, and it is not 
to be doubted that most of the dancers were the direct descendants of 
the savages whom they portrayed. 

The Comanche costume was the more elaborate. It was a blazing 
red from head-dress to sandals. Each wore a long apron, not unlike 
our slit skirts a few fashions back, with fringe, red tassels and many 
rows of short pieces of bamboo to represent scalps. The head-dress — a 
gorgeous creation of red, yellow and white feathers surmounting a 

helmet stiff with white beadwork and the ever-present small mirrors — 
was obviously of Aztec origin. From the back of each helmet streamed 
long hair, exceedingly thick and beautiful, a ghastly commemoration of 
the scalping custom of these Indians. In addition to the gourd each 
Comanche carried a small ceremonial bow and arrow. The arrows, when 
sprung, shot part way through the bows and stopped with a sharp click. 
They danced about in circles, shaking their rattles, clicking their bows 
and arrows, and frequently bending to tap the ground with their bows. 
Their chief, a tall and magnificently proportioned man, led them with 
his head thrown back, his eyes half closed and his whole being appar- 
ently lost in abandon. It occurred to me that if any of these savages 
were likely to work himself into such a state of religious enthusiasm as 
to show violent resentment against a foreigner, it would be this Indian. 
As the ceremony progressed he danced with more and more abandon 
until, swinging past, apparently in a trance of rhythm and fervor, he 
winked solemnly at me and I recognized a good friend from the quar- 
ries and ceased to concern myself with him. 

The Apaches were a fearsome-looking outfit. All wore red stockings. 
Above these came either red bloomers or white drawers, and red flannel 
shirts with the tails outside. The whole was topped off by a hideous 




After the services at the shrine, a procession formed and the crowd marched up to the Cross on the hill above the village. Here there was more dancing, following which 
the procession formed again and bore the Cross down to the shrine, where it remained during the three days' festival 

The plateau just before the arrival of the procession. The two women kneeling at the foot of the Cross have come 

most of the way on their knees as an act of penance 

The malinches typify the belief that young as 
well as old must serve God 

blackened face glimpsed between strands of horsehair which hung from 
a circular crest of stiffly erect black and white feathers. In addition to 
bamboo scalps and little mirrors, such as the Comanches had, the 
Apaches were liberally bedecked with tin beer bottle tops. Each carried 
a machete and a small shield with a center of bright tin. Their dance 
was violent. They sprang into the air, circled, postured and whirled 
about as they massacred countless imaginary victims. Now and then 
one would roar "Hub-bub-bub-bub-bah-h-h-h-h-h," accenting the last of 
it with a piercing shriek and following his outcry with a terrific indrawn 
snort, at the same time springing toward a spectator, who had to be 
nimble in making his escape. 

An amusing incident occurred in this connection the following year. 
The ice having been broken by Santiago's chaperoning me and my 
camera, the Mexicans extended an invitation to the foreigners to attend 
the next celebration. They were explicit in their assurances that the 
ladies need fear nothing. On the opening night a group of us were 
seated with much formality in chairs at the edge of the dancing space. 
One of the ladies, who had heard all about the dance, happened to be 

in riding costume. With malice aforethought she turned to another one 
who was plump of person. 

"Did you wear your riding boots?" she" inquired. 

"No — why?" was the unsuspicious answer. 

"Oh, because," and the speaker lifted her skirt slightly, "you know 
the Apache dancers sometimes run up and bite legs, and if you have 
on boots it does not hurt so much." 

Just at this instant a particularly ferocious Apache bore down upon 
the party, whirling, hub-bub-bah-h-ing and snorting like a hungry tiger. 
The plump person did not hesitate — she fled, amid the delighted shrieks 
of the Mexicans, to the consternation of the Reception Committee. 

Returning to the first dance, I must relate my own unpleasant expe- 
rience with this Apache Chief. I had taken a number of pictures of him 
while he was directly menacing me with his machete. Had I then 
noticed the expressions of the spectators, as they appeared later in the 
prints, I might not have accepted so confidingly the garantias of San- 
tiago. Whether it was deliberate or not I do not know, but while I was 
squatted close to his wildly dancing crew working the camera, he 

DECEMBER, 19 16 



Throughout the first night of the festival the Cross stood on its newly whitewashed pedestal, ablaze with electric lights; but in the early morning it was lifted down and 
carried to the village for the priest's blessing. The woman carrying the foot of the Cross is walking in her stocking feet as a mark of devotion 


The crowd in the foreground of the picture is preparing to dance before the shrine facing the plaza, while at the left can be seen performers on their way to the rival shrine. 

The dancing lasted continuously for three days 

whirled past and struck me fairly under the chin with the flat of his 
machete. I can only be thankful that it was not the edge. When I 
came to everyone was apologizing; it had been a most unfortunite ac- 
cident. As my camera also was intact, we let it go at that and took 
more pictures. I learned later that the Apache Chief and Santiago had 
long been "bad friends." 

A significant fact in connection with the Matachines is the presence 
of small children, known as Malinches, and of old men, known as Viejos, 
with the Comanches and the Indians of the Palm. They typified the belief 
that none are too young or too old to serve the Santa Cruz. The Ma- 
linches wore the costume of the group to which they belonged. One, a 
little girl of seven, was by far the most graceful of all the dancers. The 
young girl Malinches were the only members of their sex who danced 
in the Matachines. The Viejos were clowns. Their false faces and long 
white locks and beards represented extreme old age. Each carried a 
doll on a string and a long whip, with which he stung the legs of small 
boys, to the joy of everyone but the victim. As Malinche was the 
Aztecs' name for Cortez, it would be interesting to know just how this 
name applied to these child dancers. None of the Mexicans I ques- 
tioned would admit that he had ever heard of Cortez. Malinche, they 

said, merely meant a child who took part in the Matachines Fiesta. 

Each night of the Fiesta there were dancing and services at the shrine 
of Santiago. Women were the immediate congregation ; men were 
grouped on the outskirts. Following the service the priest read "The 
Legend of The True Cross." During the whole ceremony a cracked 
locomotive bell tolled at intervals and there was an occasional shooting 
of bombs. Santiago particularly wanted a picture of this ceremony, he 
being of the impression that photographs could be taken equally well 
at all times. The idea of springing a charge of flashlight powder on 
the congregation seemed to me a bit unorthodox, to say the least. San- 
tiago said this would make no difference, and he reiterated his gar- 
antias, while I looked about for the Apache Chief. Santiago was quite 
right. Hardly a head was turned when the flash was fired. Even the 
priest did not blink. Afterward it occurred to me that the people re- 
garded this as a new sort of firework, and quite appropriate. 

Following the service, which was the official beginning of the Mata- 
chines, the dance continued until daybreak, when there was a grand pro- 
cession to the Cerro de la Cruz. All night long the Cross on the Hill 
had blazed with many electric lights — such is human adaptability. It 
{Continued on page 45) 


T R A V E L 





'HE Isle of 
Wight lies 
almost within a 
stone's throw of 
the ports by 
which Americans 
reach England 
and from which 
they leave for the 
Continent. And 
though they be 
harassed by the 
fury of seeing 
things at cine- 
matograph speed, 
a visit to the pic- 
turesque little isl- 
and will repay 
the most strenu- 
ous and prosaic. 
In the days when 
Americans made enthusiastic pilgrimages to Tennyson's shrine, the 
island was marked in red on their itineraries. Since then it has 
been somewhat neglected and overlooked by the new generation of 
travelers — and most unwisely. The little isle is packed with historical 
interest and its scenery is full of pleasant surprises. A man may 
learn a good deal of England at large by studying the Isle of Wight 
in little. 

There it lies across the Solent and Spithead, some five miles away, a 
goodly chunk of the mainland broken loose — the island of an island. 
In shape it bears a rude resemblance to that symbol of English domestic 
life — the teapot. It is twenty-three miles long from east to west and 
thirteen broad from north to south. 
May and June show it at its freshest, 
though one may visit it even in win- 
ter and find it full of charm, favored 
by a climate less harsh than that of 
the mainland. 

The island is most easily attacked 
by way of Portsmouth. Your train 
from London will go plunging through 
the gardens and hop fields of mid- 
Kent and bring up close to the quay- 
side in dingy Portsmouth harbor. 
Here Nelson's old flagship, The Vic- 
tory, rides at rest, a school for the 
nation's budding Nelsons- Swift 
white paddle-boats ply between Ports- 
mouth and Ryde on the island. On 
the way over you pass the curious 
round forts set in the channel — like 
grim, gigantic and petrified wedding 
cakes. Of this warlike aspect of the 
south coast you will find still more 
evidence on the isle, where brutal bat- 
teries and hidden redoubts dominate 
the heights or furrow the hills — all in 
memory of Napoleon's threatened in- 
vasion — and in earnest of possible in- 
vasions to come. 

The island looms upon your bows. 
On the day we set forth to penetrate 
its mysteries it resembled some 

painted drop scene of hills and bluffs lowered into the sea and 
by the Channel mist and ghostly sunshine. 

The paddle-boat bumped her nose against the long pier at Ryde — one 
of those long piers culminating in a casino at the end without which 
no self-respecting English watering-place ventures to lure the traveler, 
tripper or tourist- A toy electric tram went banging up and down, but 
we disdained the modern, and so a lilliputian steam train with coaches 

Herman Scheffauer 

that were the latest thing in 1840, bore us and our ruck-sacks to shore. 

Ryde, with its 11,000 inhabitants, is the largest town on the island 
and protests its aloofness from the ordinary rank and file of English 
watering-places. There are the usual smooth esplanades, trim flower 
beds, cast-iron band stands and blank-faced sea-front hotels. They form 
the holiday part of the town, set out like the tempting array of some 
show window, and like the show window you may pass them unregard- 
ingly by. The real Ryde, with its shops and homes, lies behind this 
festive fringe, and along the shore or upon the slopes are imposing man- 
sions like Appley Towers, St. Clare and Westridge. The traffic of the 
town roars chiefly up and clown one street, Union Street, from the upper 
levels of which one catches glimpses of the floor of the sea rising level 
to the eyes and a leaden-colored cruiser or two poised betwixt sea and 
heaven between the walls of the houses. And here one might as well 
become acquainted with the classic joke of the natives. They boast, say 
they, of six peculiarities; Ryde, a place where you must chiefly walk; 
Cowes that you can't milk, Freshwater that you can't drink, Newport 
that you can't bottle, a Brook that you can cross dryshod, and Needles 
that you can't thread. 

You may use Ryde either as a starting-point or as a base in your con- 
quest of the isle. Here you may also determine upon your mode of loco- 
motion. There is a toy train that goes purring and bobbing around the 
island, there are motor-cars to be hired and excursions by motor char-a- 
bancs or tally-ho coaches. There are leisurely landaus, there are bicycles 
of motor or leg power, there is that best and most primitive method of 
subduing distance — your own stout legs and a stick. Or you may cir- 
cumnavigate the island on one of the steamers that make the trip daily, 
and feast on a changing panorama of town, hillside, chalk cliff and beach. 

Not being content with flashes or streaks of impressions, we had de- 
cided to walk. From Ryde we skirted the seashore for a mile, then 
plunged inland on the road to Brading. Brading village is sleepy, quaint 
and curious. It is very proud of its ancient stocks, which are preserved 



built beside a sheltered cove on the southern shore of the Isle of Wight, and its mild climate and splendid beaches 
have made it one of the island's most popular resorts 


behind iron bars, and of its old bull-baiting ring and some Elizabethan 
brick and half-timber houses, leaning very much awry. The villagers 
make much of "little Jane's cottage" and little Jane's grave, the former 
a romantic straw-thatched dwelling. Yielding to the sentimental mood, 
you inquire who little Jane was. Little Jane, they will tell you, was one 
of the Sunday School pupils of the Rev. Legh Richmond, author of 
"Annals of the Poor," and was by him immortalized in that work. About 

DECEMBER, 19 16 



There are many quaintly named villages on the island that are typical of the English countryside at its most picturesque, quiet places that are utterly remote from the noise 

and bustle of the outer world 

a mile west, at Morton Farm, if your tastes be archaeological, you may 
philosophize upon the "extensive remains" of a Roman villa^probably 
the finest in England. For you must know that the Romans, like the 
modern Britons, swarmed and settled everywhere, and long ago the 
island was known to them as Vectis. Wealthy Colonial Romans found 

the climate pleasantly moderate and built their country houses here. 
Leaving Brading we struck for the sea and climbed one of those 
peculiar humpbacked hills or downs which are one of the natural fea- 
tures of the island. Bembridge Down is covered with short grass — and 
"That's wild thyme ye've plucked," said an old woman who sat amidst 


Shanklin is now an extensive watering place, with the usual smooth esplanades, shops and sea-front hotels, but one of its chief attractions is the "Old Village," a charming 

cluster of thatched houses and ancient inns 



At the 

her sheep, as we gathered certain pretty little purple blooms. A fort 
glowers upon the hilltop and a huge obelisk erected to Lord Yarborough, 
the founder of the Royal Yacht Squadron. Lloyd's Marconi Station is 
perched near the edge of white and crumbling Culver Cliff. Below us 
splashed the blue sea, venomously gnawing away at those tall white 
bastions. The grass grows blithely to the very edge. Here and there 
along the margins of vanishing fields, the wheat and the barley nod their 
heads over the precipice and the old footpaths are fenced off by wire 
and marked "Dangerous." The pitiless battle between the land and 
the sea goes on forever ; incessantly the surges are biting away at the 
cliff base — the sea over which England is queen — the sea that is slowly 
devouring her queen. 

From the foreland of Culver Cliff stretches the great and noble sweep 
of Sandown Bay to Dunnose, a curve almost as perfect as that of the 
Bay of Naples. The road skirts the shore, the ruffled sea lies to your left 
with the gray phantoms of vessels blurring the horizon. As the road 
sinks, shore batteries are revealed striped like barbers' poles with "invis- 
ible colors." Then pretty little Sandown flings out its streets to embrace 
you. Sandown with 5,000, Shanklin 
with 4,500, and Ventnor with 6,000 
population, are the three chief resorts 
of the south coast. Here the mild but 
bracing air and sheltered shore have 
lured both invalid and holiday maker. 
It even aspires to the name of the Eng- 
lish Riviera, for it is the warmest re- 
gion of an island that lies bathed on 
all sides by the tepid waters of the Gulf 

These three towns have an air of 
quiet repose and but little of the blatant 
vulgarity common to Brighton or 
Southend. Each has its stretch of 
beach, with bathing machines and 
boats, its ornamental pier, its espla- 
nade, its marine view hotels. Each has 
trim, tree-lined streets of quiet homes 
and villas. In the windows of many 
of these you will see a card with the 

expressive word "Apartments." This betrays the fact that here, as else- 
where, one-half of England lives by boarding the other half. 

Shanklin we chose to reach by way of wading along the strand, and 
then climbing the steps up the cliff. It is a pretty place with a romantic 
air and one of its chief attractions is its "Old Village," a charming 
•cluster of thatched houses and ancient inns with a drinking fountain 
"bearing some verses of Longfellow's. Shanklin makes a great ado over 
its "chine," a local name for the steep and narrow gulches that carry 
the foaming little hill torrents to the sea. You may also stroll along 
the walk where Keats used to sit with death in his lungs and meditate 
upon his poetry. 

The cliff road from Shanklin to Ventnor dips and winds over meadows, 
past headlands and little rocky coves, with a huddled fishing village or 
two far below. It is a playful path and now and again surprises you 
by growing suddenly sober and plunging into darkling woods and copses. 
Then comes the well-behaved, broad road running straight into quaint 
old Bonchurch, a pretty village that is now a sort of suburb of Ventnor. 
Its deserted, moss-covered "old" church, scarcely larger than a fisher- 
man's hut, is set in a garden of roses and lilies that riot amid the crumb- 
ling headstones, the whole perched perilously on the edge of the brittle 
cliff. A heavy rain, a sudden fissure, and the ancient building with its 
dead and its flowers will slip gently and softly into the sea. We had 
cherished the romantic fiction that Swinburne had by his own express 
wish been buried in this doomed churchyard, and his passionate love 
of the sea gave substance to the belief. But it turned out that the real 
resting place of that fire-hearted, pagan singer was at the "new" church 
higher up the road. There a conventional family tombstone covers the 
body of one of England's immortal geniuses. 

Ventnor approaches. Immediately behind it St. Boniface Down rises 
sheer as a wall. It is the highest point of the island, 784 feet, and the 
whole of the Isle of Wight may be seen from the summit, extended like 
a map at your feet, with a portion of the mainland across the Solent- 
In Ventnor the "season" lasts all the year round, and like Ryde it forms 
a center for various excursions by sea or land. Four and a half miles 
north of Ventnor lies the quaint old village of Godshill, should you be 
moved to make an incursion inland. Or you may continue along the 
coast to Saint Lawrence and look your fill upon a toy church — the small- 
est in England. From here on the scenery grows both romantic and 
"paintable," as artists say. 

The road winds along the famous Undercliff at the foot of perpen- 

bathing hour the beach at Ventnor is lined with these bath 
turned so that their doors open directly onto the water 

dicular ramparts of variegated stone and curious strata, pitted with the 
nests of wild birds. The geological formations of these fortress walls 
of Mother Earth's reared high in defiance above her enemy, the sapping 
sea, lay bare some of the profoundest secrets of the world's foundations. 
At Blackgang the striped courses of clay and stone and the fantastic 
water-worn cliff faces give a dramatic accent to the panorama of sea, 
earth and sky. Then the road veers to the right into the hamlet of 
Chale. If you will invade the interesting old churchyard here, you 
may see an upright box tomb or two in which the smugglers used to 
hide their silks and spirits — this was the tale told us by the genial vicar 
of the place. 

We are now in a land quite free of the little railroad. From Chale 
the eye takes in a great flat stretch of farming land beyond which the 
cliffs of Alum Bay, some fourteen miles away, lift white and phantas- 
mal. From Chale one may take the somewhat monotonous coast-guard 
road which runs almost as. straight as an arrow toward Brook, or more 
wisely meander along the zigzag roads that lead past the old Jacobean 
or Elizabethan farmhouses, and so into Brixton, or Brighston. Brighs- 

ton is a rustic idyll redolent of all that 
is sweet in English country life. It 
has two or three ancient inns and va- 
rious hoary farms where you may put 
up and taste homely but excellent fare 
■ — fish fresh from the bay and coarse 
bread with the big pats of salt butter 
that are served so generously all over 
the Isle. The straw-thatched cottages 
ablaze with flowers remind you of some 
highly colored, cheerful aquarelle, or 
I the background of some comic opera 
setting when the "peasants" are sup- 
posed to come on and dance. 

Just out of Brighston, Mottistone 
;i Down rears up with its paleolithic re- 
, mains — a "barrow" in which the an- 
■ cient Britons buried their dead. Here 
s, we spent some hours digging up broken 
flint arrowheads and "knapped" chips. 
These arrowheads, or "thunder-bolts," 
as the country folk call them, exactly resemble those once made by the 
American Indian. 

The road to Freshwater, our next destination, goes skittishly along 
the top of the steep cliffs. A slip and a tumble would land you on the 
rocks and sands 150 feet below. Along these barren cliff paths Tenny- 
son used to stalk in his cape overcoat and slouch hat. And the waves 
still keep saying to us, as they did to him, "Break! break! break!" — and 
the chalk cliff obeys. Freshwater Gate is prettily situated in a peaceful 
cove in the white cliffs, at whose entrance frowns a sunken redoubt. 
The shore makes a bold sweep to the left here and dwindles into the 
jagged rocks of the Needles. 

There are no longer pilgrimages of adoring Americans to Farring- 
ford House, the seat of Lord Tennyson and his descendants. The old, 
creeper-covered mansion is almost buried in the midst of trees, as if 
the gruff old bard had sought to defend himself against his persistent 
worshipers by these leafy guards. But you may stroll for half a mile 
along his shady private walk if you choose. The farm of the present 
Lord Tennyson seems well kept. There were white peacocks as well 
as the ordinary sort strutting about in close 'familiarity with vulgar 
barnyard fowl ; there were brightly painted farm wagons, neat cottages 
for the farm workers and the scene of new-mown hay over all. 

Close by is popular Alum Bay, whose strange cliffs of fine colored 
sands made George Eliot eloquent. The bluffs that rise above the pebbly 
beach below the ruined hotel that stands with empty eyes in its old 
grounds seem to have been splashed by titanic brushes full of glowing 
tints — red, yellow, blue, white, purple, greenish sands, clays and chalks, 
mixed by some mysterious alchemy in the crucibles of the earth. To 
the left the Needles run out into the sea, a sharp, broken spine of snow- 
white chalk left by the eroding waves and winds. The outermost crag 
is hugged by a little, red-striped lighthouse. On the cliff above is the 
inevitable battery with guns — the lighthouse to save, the battery to de- 
stroy, ships. The little isle has never recovered from its scare during 
the days of the Armada nor from the threats of Napoleon at Boulogne, 
and any enemy submarines would find it well prepared. 

After Alum Bay .comes Totland Bay — we have now reached the north- 
west coast. This is a new district of brick villas and suburban shops in 
the throes of a boom. It seems strangely out of place and offensively 
cheap. The mainland approaches closely here., and the blazing beams of 
the Hurst Castle light revolve as it were but a stone's throw across the 
Channel. From Totland Bay the road winds merrily into Yarmouth, as 



The entrance to the ancient stronghold of Carisbrooke. Charles I was imprisoned 
here; and here his daughter Elizabeth died, it is said, from grief over his execution 

old and genuine as Totland is new and shoddy. A salt-laden, fish-scented 
breeze is the first thing to welcome you — and the reek of the marshes if 
the tide be out. Yarmouth is an old-fashioned fishing town with a huddle 
of picturesque buildings, a shabby castle and a tiny square. Toll in 
feudal fashion is levied upon every traveler on the bridge across the Yar 
ere he be permitted to enter the sleepy town. Yarmouth is another 
note in the varied orchestra of the island towns, a bluff, homely place 
that makes no pretensions like some of the showier holiday places, to 
being anything but what it is, a shipshape fishing port. 

At Yarmouth we left a large flat stretch of pretty but uninteresting 
country to our left and struck down the road to Shalfleet Village on our 
way to Newport. Shalfleet emerged from its immemorial nook — the 
first thing to greet our eyes being the remarkable square and squat 
tower of its ancient Saxon church, cracked and bound together by enor- 
mous iron bands, but good for another thousand years. The road now 
led on to Carisbrooke Castle and 
Newport, part of the way skirting 
the thick, dark Parkhurst Forest. 

Carisbrooke Castle is one of the 
most famous in England. It con- 
fronts you a mile out of Newport 
after you have passed down a lane 
bordered with cottages in whose 
doorways old women stand and coax 
you to have tea — with new-laid eggs 
and watercress. It was in grim Car- 
isbrooke that the hapless Stuart 
king, Charles the First, languished 
for ever eight months before he 
stepped out of the middle window of 
the banqueting house in Whitehall 
to lay his head upon the block. The 
place was originally a Roman sta- 
tion. There are also traces of early 
British earthworks. The castle, 
greatly enlarged subsequently, was 
founded by Fitz-Osborne, kinsman 
of William the Conqueror. A siege 
by King Stephen in the Twelfth 
Century brought the garrison to its 
knees simply because its water sup- 
ply ran out. Accordingly that wonderful well which still amazes the 
visitor hundreds of years afterwards was sunk 240 feet into the living 
rock. In the well house there is a ponderous wooden wheel some ten 
or twelve feet in diameter. The bucket (a fair-sized barrel) sinks into 
the depths. A little donkey then enters the open sides of the wheel and 
begins to run up the sloping interior — like a squirrel in his cage. The 

(C) Stereo-Travel Co. 

An auction sale, where the variety of 

is an important industry on the island 

Carisbrooke Castle is built on a steep hill above Newport, the capital of the island. 
Originally a Roman station, the oldest existing portion dates from the Norman period 

wheel turns, the rope winds up on the thick wooden axle, and at last 
the dripping bucket emerges. You give "Jacob," who has been hauling 
up buckets for over twenty years, a biscuit. The dark, liquid eye in 
the shaggy old head thanks you with a grateful glint. 

The castle and its keeps are largely in ruins, though some of the 
rooms remain, notably that in which the pretty little Princess Elizabeth 
breathed out her sad young life after the terrible blow of her father's 
execution. The lower part of the room in which Charles was confined 
still exists, as well as the window through which the doomed monarch 
looked sadly upon the sunlit hills or the forests dark with rain. The 
Castle is now the property of Princess Louise of Battenberg. 

Newport lies almost at the foot of Carisbrooke, a bustling little town 
of 11,000 inhabitants with a tidy trade and some manufactures. It has, 
consequently, a certain slum area distributed along the picturesque quays 
of the Medina, which flows due north to Cowes. There are several 

ancient and interesting buildings 
and monuments, such as the gram- 
mar school and the town hall. But 
there is something of the sordid and 
industrial in its air which sets New- 
port in dingy contrast to the bright- 
ness of the other towns of this pas- 
toral island. 

Four miles up the Medina, which 
widens grandly near its mouth, lies 
Cowes — East and West. You may 
row up the river if you wish, or go 
thundering up, as we did, in a 
wheezy launch run by the proprietor 
of the Ship and Launch Inn, who 
makes daily trips to the mainland 
with ducks and butter and returns 
with strawberries. Or, as a last re- 
source, you may go by the toy train, 
which pops up mysteriously once 
more. The riverway, as you ap- 
proach Cowes, is a sober contrast to 
itself in years before the war. Then 
the trim steam yachts of American 
millionaires, like snowy swans, lay 
side by side with black torpedo boats 
just launched from the ways or rusty tramp steamers loading and un- 
loading. Cowes was essentially a delectable port for the gay craft of 
pleasure and the corsairs of whim and wealth. Every year in August 
the famous regatta took place here. Then kings and emperors raced for 
honors, and there was much feasting at the clubhouse of the Royal 
(Continued on page 46) 

choice ranges from eels to clams. Fishing 




The house is built on one side of a small rectangle, the stable and kitchen filling two more sides, and the fourth being merely a mud wall with a gateway. In front of the house 
is a rude, clumsy cradle, and toward the center of the yard a native churn of the variety shown in the frontispiece 




Richard Hill 

I^HE lure of the East for adventure, romance and glamor has been 
well maintained for centuries, and many go thither merely for 
these things. Of far more value, however, is the study of primitive 
peoples that it permits and the human interest that a little close associa- 
tion with its varied population discloses. For this as well as for adven- 
ture no richer field can be found than the Caucasus. Virgin to a re- 
markable degree, its isolated valleys and rugged mountain fastnesses 

contain a greater variety of peo- 
ples than can be found on any 
other similar area of the earth's 

This reputation dates back 
many centuries, for both Strabo 
and Pliny remark on it ; the for- 
mer credits it with seventy dis- 
tinct peoples and the latter with 
one hundred and thirty. The 
Arabs knew it as "the mountain 
of tongues," and some- 
one in later years has 
referred to it as the 
potpourri of peoples be- 
cause of its multiplicity 
of tribes and races. 

The very mention of 
the word Caucasus sug- 
gests a country in 
which all is fable and 
mystery. Here it is we 
have the real home of 
antiquity, for when the 
Argos sailed for Col- 
chis, carrying its hardy 
crew of adventurers, 
the Caucasus was even 
then hoary with age. 

According to the cur- 
rent traditions of the 

ancients, on one of its towering rocks Prometheus had been chained, 
near it dwelt the man-hating Amazons, beyond it lay the mysterious 
boundary of the ancient world, the scene of mythological exploits and 

Here it was, in that far-away time, when history knew no Athens, 
and Rome had not yet begun to exist, that kingdoms and empires arose, 
that cities and towns sprang into being, the ruins of which remain to 
this day, as forlorn mementos of that visionary past- 

The history of all the old world empires is inexplicably wrapped up 
in that of the Caucasus, for from these rocky denies have gone the 
races which have founded those empires. It was through those splen- 
didly terrible gates of Dariel (the Caucasian or Iberian gates of Pliny), 
the gates of mankind, poured forth the tribes and peoples that settled 
Europe, establishing nations, kindreds and peoples. 

Not far from the thriving city of Tiflis, the capital of the Caucasus, 
is a mountain slope where people from seven different nations live side 
by side, each nationality retaining its respective characteristics and 
national customs. 

You journey away from the city in an old omnibus affair called a 
"tarantass," taking the fine macadam road that climbs the mountain 
back of the town, like a great white ribbon winding itself out of sight 
in the distance. The tarantass rattles on through scenes of rugged 
grandeur and savage beauty, over a route that perilously skirts steep 
precipices and seems at times fairly to hang in space. Frequently it will 
be just wide enough to permit your carriage to pass, high cliffs on one 
side and a yawning abyss on the other, over which you quakingly look 
down into the gully below, a distance of over 2,000 feet. It will likely 
enough be at this point, on a part of the road that slopes dangerously 
toward the precipice and where you feel certain that the old rickety car- 
riage with its four decrepit flea-bitten horses will slide over the side 
and toboggan you into eternity, that the driver will pull up and, with 
placid, expressionless face, point out the very spot where, a few feet 
away, a carriage with its horses and driver and three passengers went 
over the edge and were dashed to pieces. You quite appreciate his 
friendliness and see, too, what good copy his story is, but you wish at 
the same time that he had chosen another spot to relate his gruesome 

However, he finally starts up his horses again and the carriage leaves 



its complex character and its utter cosmopoli- 

First we have the well planned, well laid out 
streets of the Molokan Russian village, its two- 
storied houses with wide verandas plastered 
over with mortar and then whitewashed inside 
and out. This village has a long street running 
through it from end to end, the houses sitting 
back a bit from the street, often surrounded 
by trees, with the barnyard overflowing from 

The plows used in the Caucasus are of v\ ood, with an iron shoe for the 

point. Where the ground is stony or the pull is uphill, as many as a dozen 

cattle may be employed. Six yoke are not uncommon, and sometimes even 

ten yoke are hitched to a single plow 

the mountain pass to begin its tortuous way down the other 
side of the slope. On the road down to the plain you can see 
before you, across the valley, the tilled fields and vineyards of 
the mountain side which we have named the patchwork quilt. 

In appearance it differs little from many other such mountain 
sides. The villages that dot its slope are by no means unique, 
its fields and walled-in vineyards are just like the ones we have 
come through: bat to us its interest lies in the fact that it is 
the valley of the seven nations. Nestling in the depressions 
of that mountain side or huddling at its feet are seven Cau- 
casian villages in which are to be found seven distinct peoples, 
all with well-defined characteristics, differing in religion, cus- 
toms, speech and habits, living separate lives, indifferent more 
or less to those around them, feeling superior to all the others : 
tenaciously, passionately clinging to their own nation and 

It is this that distinguishes the Caucasus from all other 
places. There is no homogeneity, there is no cohesion, noth- 
ing of a common national spirit binding them together and 
making assimilation possible. Each of these peoples lives in 
a world of his own. They have social and commercial dealings 
with their neighbors; by no means are they at enmity one 
with another, but they retain to a marked degree their national 
characteristics and racial traits. 

The villages differ in structure and architecture almost as 
much as the people do in dress and face, for they represent 
varying stages of agricultural and material progress. In these 
seven villages we have in miniature the story of the Caucasus, 


In the mountainous regions the houses are built of stone and are more pretentious in style. Upon the roof a rude 
platform provides a refuge in summer from the mosquitoes and a place in winter for storing fodder 

A Persian-Armenian village street, the houses of which 
are built of mud bricks and generally consist of but one 
room, in which chairs, tables and beds are unknown 

the back to the side and crowding out to the 
street. This village is a prosperous one; the 
cattle wagons and modern agricultural equip- 
ment bear sufficient testimony to that fact; but 
it has an unkempt appearance, for the Russian 
is not noted for cleanliness and order. 

Next to this village lies a German colony. 
This little township of 2,000 souls is a replica 
of many such in Wurtemburg. Its houses re- 
semble the quaint, wee farmhouses of the 
Fatherland, its streets leading up to the square, 
where stands the severely plain German kitchen, 
make you feel that you are back again in the 
land of Luther. Its people dress much as did 
their forebears who a hundred years ago settled 
here and planted the first colony of Germans 
in the Caucasus. 


In striking contrast to the evident prosperity of these two villages and 
the evidence of Western progress is the Tatar Moslem village right 
across the ravine from the German colony. Most of the men work as 
farm hands and servants to the colonists. 

This village is as vivid a contrast as one could find, for it is the very 
antithesis of & all that stands for progress and improvement. The Moslem 
is a reactionary in every sense, and these Tatar villages through the 
Caucasus are living examples of that spirit in its people. The houses are 
built of mud bricks piled one on top of the other, for the most part one- 
roomed affairs in which chairs, tables and beds are unknown. Living, 
eating and sleeping are all accomplished on the floor. The methods of 
husbandry and farming are in striking contrast to those of their Russian 
and German neighbors. 

In close proximity is the Georgian, the original owner of the soil, 
who, owing to his naturally easy-going nature and general indifference 
to work, coupled with a very definite love of pleasure, is being crowded 
out in the race; the Occetine, who claims priority even to the Georgian 


is not the place to give a detailed account of those massacres, a descrip- 
tion of the way the Armenians live may be of especial interest at this 

They are one of the oldest races in history, and have inhabited their 
present home for a longer period than any other people. Ararat and all 
its precious associations is a page taken out of the history of the Armen- 
ians. Their king formed an alliance with Cyrus the Great, they fur- 
nished the neighboring nations with horses and mules in Ezekiel's day. 
Later on they were allies of Rome and for long years fought against 
Persia until at last they were subjugated and absorbed by that power. 
They were the first people who, as a whole, accepted Christianity. 

Gregory the Illuminator visited his cousin, the Armenian king, and 
by labor and preaching was able to bring him to accept Christ as his 
Savior. The help then given by the king to Gregory enabled him in a 
short time to convince the people of the truths of Christianity, and they 
publicly confessed themselves as Christians. Thousands of them were 
baptized at one time. They were formerly fire worshipers like the 


This famous peak, celebrated in Biblical lore as the landing-place of Noah's Ark, lifts its snowy crest over three miles on the edge of the plain of Erivan. 
capped the year round, and presents as marvelous a picture as can be seen anywhere, but its chief interest is in its history and legends 

but whose home is really farther up in the mountain ; the Armenian 
refugee from Turkey of many years ago, now firmly intrenched in his 
new home, and by his ability and hard-working qualities pushing to the 
front ; and the handsome, stalwart, mountain Leshghin, who, like his 
neighbor, the Occetine, is a wanderer from his native mountain fast- 

Here we have these seven people ruled over by the same government, 
forced into business and social connections, yet retaining to a marked 
degree their racial individuality. 

These seven are representatives of the various races in the Caucasus 
with the exception of one other, the Cherkess. Each one of these is the 
dominating and forceful representative of various groups which are 
again divided and subdivided into numerous clans and tribes, many of 
which, however, while belonging to the same parent stem, have different 
languages, varying and even divergent religions and customs. 

Of all these races, none holds the interest of the world like the Ar- 
menian. For many years this hapless people — that is, the branch that 
has been under Turkish rule — has been in the limelight, and to-day world- 
wide interest has been aroused by the terrible massacres that have taken 
place among them just over the border in Turkish Armenia. While this 

Persians, and their repudiation of the heathen deities brought upon them 
frequent wars with their powerful Persian neighbors. 

They are certainly the most vigorous race in the East, for both Church 
and people have maintained their traditions with extraordinary vitality 
against wave upon wave of alien conquest from every quarter. 

Geographically Armenia is one of the most interesting portions of 
the globe, especially that part of it in the Russian Caucasus. The empire 
at one time stretched from the valley of the Kura down into Persia, and 
from Lake Gotchka on the west clean through into Asia Minor over 
toward Constantinople. In recent times their empire has been divided, 
and. to-day the Armenian lives under the rule of Turk, Russian and 

However, the Caucasus can be called the cradle of this race, for 
much of their history, political as well as religious, is connected with it. 
For instance, old Ararat lifts its snowy peak on the edge of the plain 
of Erivan, which was one of the fountain-heads of the race. Beautiful 
and glorious she sits, snow-capped the year round, and presents as mar- 
velous a picture as can be seen anywhere. The stories and legends con- 
cerning that historic mountain are many and interesting. 

Not far awav, down toward the Persian frontier, is Natchewan, where 

DECEMBER, 19 16 



You journey away from Tiflis in an old omnibus affair called a "tarantass," taking the fine macadam road that climbs the mountain, back of the city, like a 

great white ribbon winding itself out of sight in the distance 


The threshers are made of roughly hewn planks, with pieces of sharp stone or flint driven into the under sides. They are slowly dragged round and round by oxen or 

horses cutting up the stalks of wheat and separating the grains 



the tomb of Noah 
stands. It is in this 
region that the sup- 
posed site of the Gar- 
den of Eden is to be 
found. Across the 
Erivan plain, under 
the very shadow of 
Ararat, is the town 
of Etchmeadzin. This 
place has been the 
seat of the Katholo- 
kis, the head of the 
Armenian Church, 
for many centuries. 
The old church, which 
sits in the center of 
the monastery square, 
lays claim to being 
one of the oldest in 
the world. They say 
that it was first built 
somewhere about 426 
A. D., and that, al- 
though it has been de- 
stroyed frequently in 
the chronic waves of 
conquest that have 
swept over that ill- 
fated land, parts of 
the original wall are 
still found incorpor- 
ated in the present 
building. The struc- 
ture is built in the 

style peculiar to the Armenians, with its painted cupolas and its severely 
plain architecture. The grounds surrounding it are very spacious, 
flanked by the monastery buildings, seminary and schools, which form 
the sides of a huge rectangle. Scattered throughout this whole country 
are the ruins of many fine churches which the traveler stumbles across 
in most unlikely places. The villages of the Armenians vary consid- 
erably both in size and in comfort, and the better class ones are not as 
numerous as one would like to see. For the most part these villages are 
poverty-stricken in appearance, many of them entirely built of mud. 
The majority of the houses are not only one-storied, but one-roomed 
as well, and without furniture of any kind. 

However, farther north, or over in the more mountainous regions 
where stone is plentiful, the houses are built of stone and are often 
more pretentious in style ; but even in these better built villages life is 
still primitive and simple. The house is built on one side of a small 
rectangle, the stable and kitchen filling two more sides, and the fourth 
being just a mud wall with a gateway. Upon the roof a platform is 

Caucasians winnowing the wheal into heaps, which are tossed into the air by large wooden shovels or "fans 
the Scriptures speak of them, the wind blowing away the chaff 

rudely constructed to 
provide a refuge in 
the summer from the 
mosquitoes and a 
place in the winter 
for storing cattle fod- 
der. Plastered on the 
wall, as likely as not, 
are large daubs of 
manure which, after 
being mixed with 
water and shaped into 
cakes, have been flung 
at the wall to dry. 
Later they will be 
piled in a conical 
mound, forming by no 
means the least con- 
spicuous sight in the 
courtyard. This is 
practically the only 
fuel the villagers use. 
Naturally enough, 
the daily methods and 
cooking devices are 
primitive to a degree. 
The churns, for in- 
stance, are made of 
clay built in a cylin- 
drical form, rein- 
forced at the ends by 
bands of iron, looking 
very much like a sec- 
tion of a sewer pipe 
with both ends closed. 
This casement is suspended on a tripod acting as a kind of a small der- 
rick and is swung backwards and forwards by the women. 

Their mode of transportation is also rather a simple and a safe one, 
for, while horses are used for horseback riding, few vehicles are to be 
seen except ox or buffalo carts. These latter are built entirely of wood 
— axle, wheels, body and shafts, even to the yoke, have not a nail in 
them — all the various parts being held together by wooden pegs and 
pins. The only iron or steel in the whole structure is the iron rim of 
the outer wheels. Upon these carts the ripened grain is placed at harvest 
time and the product taken to market- In case of a pilgrimage to some 
noted shrine or removal to another village, the whole family is placed 
on these lumbering Noah's arks, and there is a triumphant, if somewhat 
leisurely, progress.. 

The plows are also of wood, very heavy and clumsy, with an iron 
shoe for the point. Where the ground is stony or the pull is uphill, 
as many as a dozen cattle may be used; six yoke are not at all uncom- 
(Continucd on page 46) 

Here is an Armenian family in travel array. These carts are entirely of wood — axle, wheels, body and shafts, even to the yoke, not having a 
nail in them — all the various parts held together by wooden pegs. The wheel-rims only are of iron 

DECEMBER, 19 16 

3 1 


Except in the early morning there is little sign of life anywhere, but occasionally there are jack rabbits or 
cottontails, squirrels, prairie dogs, birds or lizards; very rarely a rattler or a gila monster 



Ruth R. Blodgett 

NO one can take an automobile trip across our 
American desert without feeling all the thrills 
of the early explorer. So remote, so strange, so un- 
real do things seem, especially to the Easterner, that 
it does not occur to him that anyone has ever seen this 
country before. Nor will he ever again accuse the 
desert of monotony. No two stretches of ten miles are 
similar. It is a series of surprises. 

No railroad has as yet directly connected Phoenix, 
Ariz., and San Diego, Cal- There is only the old 
Indian trail, which has been used in more recent 
times as a stage route. Even that use for it is now 
discontinued. The automobile, prairie wagon up-to- 
date, starts, loaded to the breaking point. Shovel and 
pick-axe must be carried, several of the indispensable 
canteens, canvas, food supplies and warm blankets. 
And, most important of all, on account of the glare 
and the heat, it is necessary to travel with the machine 
top up. 

For the first forty miles the way is a thoroughly 
civilized State road, leading from Phoenix west 
through the Buck Eye country, Palo Verde and Ar- 
lington. Phoenix is a most attractive city, with its 
splendid buildings and beautiful homes, and its broad 
streets shaded by date palms. This metropolis and its 
surrounding towns are a glowing tribute to scientific 
irrigation. Long stretches of healthy farm land, with 
fields of alfalfa and grain enclosed in rows of cotton- 
wood trees, gardens of vegetables, orchards of tropical 
fruit, herds of dairy cows feasting on the fragrant 
alfalfa, replace the dry, caked alkali soil and its cactus 
growth of only a few years ago. Here and there are 
still seen among the ranches tracts of the desert land 
intact, with some squatter's or homesteader's rude hut 
upon it. But all along little flourishing towns have 
grown up, and the farmer is finding close at hand the 
modern conveniences of an up-to-date community. In 
fact, the native Arizonian is beginning to view with 
horror the disappearance of his desert, and has asked 
for a government reservation of part of it. 

In the last lap of civilization, after leaving Arling- 
ton, there are strange sights. Great cliffs covered with 

One of the many varieties of cactus 
that are met in crossing the desert 

gigantic Indian hieroglphics hang over the road for 
about a quarter of a mile. It is as if the first settler 
must have the last word. And now they say there 
is no one of his tribe left, and this last word is left 

Finally the wheels make their last revolution in the 
cultivated country. The last irrigation canal is 
crossed and the road lies through the land as God 
has made it. But herds of steers, ranging over the 
desert, are still reminders of the country behind. It 
is poor pickings for them here. Many a one wanders 
too far from the water which spells life to him. This 
fact is brought home only too truly by the sight of 
the buzzard, scavenger of the desert, who circles 
round and round before the final swoop which marks 
his prey. 

Ahead stretch over two hundred miles of desert 
land. The little crooked road that unrolls until it is 
lost to sight among the mesquite and sage bushes 
does not look capable of accomplishing this lonely 
journey. And many a time, indeed, it does lose heart 
and disappear entirely in a sandy wash or on a rough 
table land. Sometimes it is only two feeble ruts. 
Even these are not always both on the same level. 
Occasionally it is buried deep in soft, silty sand; but 
always somehow, somewhere, it finally reappears. 

The best time to make the trip is May or early 
June, for then is the season of blossoms, when the 
desert is a riot of color. This particular portion of 
it, just outside the irrigated country, is very beautiful, 
and I do not think the use of the word "beautiful" 
requires even a cultivated taste. Great, soft, cater- 
pillar-like flowers dangle from the mesquite trees, 
whose branches at times actually form a golden arch 
under which the machine must pass. The grease- 
woods are covered with tiny, paler yellow flowers; 
the palo verde are yellow, too, looking like great 
shafts of sunshine at a distance. The ocatillas, of 
which the Indians build their wigwams, have fiery red 
tips to their long prickly stalks, and the sahuaros, or 
giant cacti, sentinels of the desert, here and there 
overtopping all other growth, stretch out long, awk- 


ward arms, as if in protection or benediction to the passing traveler. 

Even if an early start is made from Phoenix, which is fresh and cool 
in the morning, it is bound to be excessively warm by noon, but the heat 
does not prostrate. The road, which has been very smooth and gently 
undulating, begins steadily to climb as it draws near the purple hills, 
the southern foothills of the Big Horn Mountains. "Purple" describes 
them no longer. They are black and forbidding near at hand. No plant 
life grows on their sides. They are hardened masses of lava from old- 
time volcanoes. The machine has to do some hard pulling to cross the 
range, for the road is steep and vague. And on the other side it is 
decidedly disagreeable and harrowing. 

But reward awaits, a refuge from heat and dirt and weariness, in the 
baths of Agua Caliente. One ought not to miss the opportunity to 
visit these hot springs. They are celebrated for their curative qualities 
and are quite refreshing! Most travelers on account of this attrac- 
tion make Agua Caliente the end of their first day's run, although it 


But, except for early morning, there is little sign of life anywhere. 
Occasionally there are jack rabbits or cottontails, squirrels, prairie dogs, 
birds or lizards; very rarely a rattler or a gila monster. At night the 
coyotes rend the air with dismal howls, but they stay at a safe distance. 
Once in a while you pass another machine or a team hauled by mules. 
And right here I want to speak of the camaraderie of fellow travelers in 
this country. What you have you share with whomever you meet, and 
even the tramp gets the desired "lift." But mostly always it is only you 
and the chugging of your engine, and everywhere interminable distances. 

And now the road goes steadily down towards the Gila River, a slug- 
gish yellow stream 'way out yonder, with a half mile of desolate, sandy 
river bottom on either side. These steep clay walls, these uprooted 
trees, that bit of old road washed away, the new road farther in, which 
has been lately made, all explain the Gila River in the months of Janu- 
ary and February. Then it tears through the country, a wild beast awak- 
ened from its lethargy, leaving destruction in its wake. And every year 



The rivers of the Southwest are for the most part shallow, and excepting after the spring rains are easily forded by wagon teams, while motor cars are ferried across 

on flat boats propelled by man power 

is only ninety-two miles from Phoenix. But a stop at Palomas, twenty 
miles farther, would even up the mileage better. 

The hotel at Agua Caliente is an ancient shack of one story, made of 
adobe, with walls twelve inches thick. It seems rather on the order 
of a monastery in its barrenness and somberness. The bath houses, a few 
rods from the hotel, are dilapidated and dark. Their rickety stairs lead 
down into the water, which bubbles up from underground springs. Great 
hills cluster all about the hotel, and from a slight elevation the Gila 
River is visible. And the Gila River is the intermittent companion of 
the automobile for the next hundred miles or so. 

Whether or not Agua Caliente affords beds, it must afford gasoline, 
whether one can afford it or not (the price is as high as fifty cents a 
gallon), since this is one of the few replenishing stations of the trip. 

There is no time like the early morning on the desert. We made 
nearly all our starts by four o'clock, when the dawn was still struggling 
with the stars for mastery. Then the desert is more alive than at any 
other time. The quail, the road runner, the rabbit, and even the badger, 
are caught unawares. Everything is hurrying, pursuing or being pur- 

it eats up a little more of the desert, and every year, too, the hills are 
being worn away more and more. It is just a continuous tale of tran- 
sition and destruction. 

The newly made, none too smooth road follows the sleepy lion for 
miles and then leaves it for the time being. It turns north and climbs 
to the mesa. For ten miles the automobile rolls along on an asphalt 
road, as it were. No steam roller and gang of Italians could improve on 
this. The wind whistles through your hair, and the wind is fresh and 
cool in the early morning. 

Best of all, from the heights of the mesa with the first rays of the 
rising sun there unfolds ahead the most beautiful panorama. Two long 
ranges of hills seem to meet at a right angle. The Castle Dome Moun- 
tains on the left are a vivid heliotrope, showing all the beautiful orchid 
tints ; the Eagle Tail Mountains on the right are bluish lavender, shad- 
ing down to the deepest cobalt blue. It is almost unreal, a mirage that 
must fade away ! But with every quarter of a mile the reality becomes 
greater, the color more intense. It is hard to believe in these strange 
hues of clay and mineral, which are not local but a refraction of the 
sun's rays by the dust particles in the atmosphere. The hills are of 



r< .'. 









. ?h 

•T < 


, *« 

» ■* 


This deep bed of an Arizona river at low water shows with what force the swollen stream courses through the canon during the rainy season. The rivers of the Far West 

do not, as a rule, impress the Easterner unless seen at this time 


peculiar shapes, some of them with an architectural symmetry and beauty 
that make them seem like ruins of age-old castles. And in the center 
of the western range arises the perfectly formed Castle Dome above 
them all, the beautiful watch-tower of the desert. This is the goal, 
although at present the road is running alongside, instead of steering 
towards it. 

Encouragement is certainly needed by now. The asphalt road comes 
to a sudden halt- Evil spirits are in the machine. It bobs and jumps 
and trembles and tumbles and 
groans. It is a clever chauffeur 
that can make more than, ten 
miles an hour, and he must run 
the car mostly on low gear. 
The road is going at cross pur- 
poses with the desert and she 
treats it accordingly. It crosses 
all the little washes instead of 
running along with them, and 
goes up and down, up and down, 
with all these inclines and de- 
clines less than a couple of 
yards apart. Sometimes a wash 
serves as a road, and then often 
the right wheels must needs run 
six or eight inches higher than 
the left. Goodness only knows 
why the car does not turn turtle. 
These washes, looking so like 
the beds of streams, are often 
caused entirely by the wind. So 
this is life for a couple of hours 
and twenty miles, until the near- 
est point to the cobalt blue range is reached. Here the road turns to 
the left and starts off straight west for the lilac Castle Dome. 

Castle Dome is as symmetrically perfect at close view as at a dis- 
tance, and resembles the Castle of Sant' Angelo at Rome. For two miles 
the road winds about it, in order to strike the open country on the other 
side of the range. The first half-mile of this mountain road is an 
uphill pull in a sandy mountain wash. It makes one ache for the ma- 
chine, which heaves and snorts in its attempts to get a footing in the roll- 


Hub deep in the sand on the road at the app 
the motorist lets the air out of his tires 

ing gravel. At last, with a boiling radiator and a weary engine, the 
highest point is reached, and the wash turns into a hard bottom. Castle 
Dome disappears for a time behind another prominent peak, but from 
the open country and the table land beyond it still continues to be the 
most noticeable point on the landscape behind. 

In front lies a stretch thirty-five miles of straight hard road directly 
south to the Gila River; the kind of road where the speedometer reg- 
isters forty with scarcely a jar even on the back seat. And then comes 

our old friend the river again, 
still yellow and sluggish, and 
mostly bed, where inquisitive 
steers, out for the little fodder 
to be found growing in this 
sand, sniff at the strange ma- 
chine-animal as it snorts by in 
the soft sand. And, incident- 
ally, if you get stuck in the 
sand, the best remedy is to let 
the air out of the tires. Given 
a flatter surface they will move 

Ferrying across the Gila 
River is a novel delight. The 
ferry is run by four men of 
Mexican and Indian origin, one 
for each corner of the boat, 
and these worthies push it 
across the river, which has been 
called three miles wide and 
three feet deep. 

On the other side of the river 
is the little settlement of Dome ; 
a few huts and a store and hostelry combined, where soft drinks, tobacco 
and gasoline are sold. In the rear one finds surprisingly cool and home- 
like living and dining rooms, and also a delightful little garden. There is 
a marked difference between these small hamlets in Arizona and the ones 
in California, for the former are always respectable. This, it is to be 
supposed, is due to the strictness of the prohibition laws in Arizona. 
From here on to the Imperial Valley, about sixty-five miles, the road 
(Confirmed on page 47) 

roach to Imperial Valley. In a case like this 
as they do not slip so easily when flat 



Photo by Walter L. Huber 


"At last, with the day's work all behind us, we sat on an open promontory overlooking the lake. Always a place of bright enchantment, Rodger's Lake is particularly lovely 

at the close of day" 




Marion Randall Parsons 

Photographs by the Author and Others 

JUST over the northeastern boundary of Yosemite National Park 
lies a long abandoned mining region, rich only in lost hopes and 
wasted effort. Most of the claims were foredoomed to failure, not only 
because of the short working season granted by the snows of that alti- 
tude, but because of their re- 
moteness. They were reached 
only by long, steep trails 
from the east, from desert 
towns near Mono Lake, 
themselves inaccessible and 
far off the beaten track of 
civilization. One mining 
company, however, ventured 
to build its own road from 
Crocker's up and along the 
western slope of the Sierra 
for fifty-six miles and across 
its crest at Tioga Pass. It 
was a foolish and extrava- 
gant undertaking, of course, 
but not without the sublimity 
attending such efforts to cope 
with the wilderness. The 
Tioga Mine was abandoned 

"During the last month of my stay, the Dain 
traveled about with two pack 

almost as soon as its road was completed, and for thirty years the Tioga 
road was neglected and forgotten. But the building of a State road 
up Leevining Canon to Tioga Pass, and the increasing use of mountain 
roads by motor tourists, brought the old mining road at last into use 

again. In 191 5 it was pur- 
chased by the government 
and put into condition for 
automobile travel. Connect- 
ing with the State road from 
Lake Tahoe, it now forms a 
link in the great chain of 
transcontinental highways 
that is doing so much to 
make America known to 

The summer the old Tioga 
Road was reopened I spent 
three months in Tuolumne 
Meadows, happy at last to 
have the opportunity to ex- 
plore many corners of Yose- 
mite Park left untouched on 
former, more hurried, visits. 
During the last month of my 

ty Lady, the Corporal and I joined forces and 
mules and a packer all our own" 

DECEMBER, 19 16 


stay, the Dainty Lady, the Cor- 
poral and I joined forces and 
traveled about with two pack 
mules and a packer all our own, 
a most luxurious camping party, 
compared with the rough and 
ready mountaineering I had hith- 
erto enjoyed. 

Our packer was a half-breed 
Indian, a primitive creature with 
frontier characteristics strongly 
defined, picturesque, devil-may- 
care, handsome in a dark and 
rugged way, splendidly built, and 
riding his horse as if he and the 
animal were one. He wore 
leather "chaps" and Mexican 
spurs, gray sombrero, and blue 
cotton shirt, and always had a gay 
silk bandanna knotted loosely 
about his open collar. He never 
wore a coat, never was seen to 
wash, and chewed tobacco inces- 
santly. Abe had only one arm, 
but he could pack a mule, literally 
single-handed, quicker and better 
than any other packer I ever saw. 
His cinches never slipped, and 
his animals never developed the 
chafed spots and cruel sores that 
too often disfigure the stock of 
supposedly more civilized pack- 
ers; nor did his beasts flinch 
when he passed them by. 

Abe's attitude toward us at the 
start was one of cool aloofness. 
A Sierra packer has a curious 
code of his own. He is neither 
your guide, your servant nor your 
friend. As his employer you are 
expected to do the cooking, un- 
less a specific arrangement is 
made to the contrary. If he likes 
you he will help gather wood and 
carry water, merely as a social 
attention, not as part of the bond. 
If he doesn't like you, he con- 
siders his duties begun and ended 
with packing and the care of the 

After securing our 
commissary and pack- 
ing our belongings 
into dunnage bags, we 
were ready for the 
trail. Our plans were 
pleasantly indefinite. 
Our first camp was to 
be near Saddlebag 
Lake. The rest of the 
journey would shape 
itself from day to day. 
We left Abe packing 
the mules and started 
out ahead of him, 
planning to strike 
across country as far 
as the Tioga Mine 
rather than to follow 
his course over the 
familiar Tioga Road. 
Abe knew the country 
well and could be 
trusted to meet us at 
any appointed place, 

though as an old sheep man he knew it by 
rather than by geographical names and maps 
woods north of Lambert's Dome, past Dog 
easterly direction, following the course of 


One of the most beautiful parts of the Yosemite National Park, but little 
majority of visitors to the Park 

. > 

"A Sierra packer has 

a curious code of his own. 

localities and a sixth sense, 

We struck off through the 

Lake, and then in a north- 

a small tributary of Dana 

Creek. Not until we had left this 
stream and were crossing the 
open rock-strewn plateau be- 
tween it and the next watercourse 
could we see anything but the 
forest pressing close about us. 
But then a noble view began to 
unfold — all the white peaks of 
the Tuolumne -Merced Divide, 
from Lyell down to Cathedral. 
Soon we were in a high, barren 
region of little lakes and open 
meadows, rising, bench-like, one 
above another. 

As we stood on the shore of. 
the highest lake we were aston- 
ished to see on the mountain 
slope above us something that 
looked like a cabin. On climbing 
toward it our astonishment grew. 
It was a cabin, a remarkably well- 
built, well-preserved structure of 
stone roughly laid together with- 
out mortar. Its roof of shakes 
was still intact, its stone fireplace 
and chimney in perfect condi- 

Never before have I seen so 
wild and romantic a setting for a 
human habitation. Close to tim- 
ber line, shrubby albicaulus pines 
were the only available fuel. For 
water, one must descend a hun- 
dred feet or more to the lake, 
once the snow banks were gone. 
The mining shaft on the crest 
above and fragments of old ma- 
chinery scattered near it told the 
story of the cabin's building — a 
common one of hardship and toil 
and failure in the end. But, as 
we turned to leave the place, I 
wondered if among those who 
had lived in it there was anyone 
who carried away in his heart the 
undying memory of the glory 
spread daily there before him — 
the two alpine lakes, the high red 
pyramid between, ruddy Dana 
with its lingering fields of snow, 
the gleaming ranks of 
peaks along the hori- 
zon and the silvery, 
shining masses of cu- 
mulus clouds above 
them, all painted in 
the glowing colors of 
an atmosphere 10,000 
feet above the sea. 

This shaft, we af- 
terwards learned, was 
the first working of 
the claim later devel- 
oped as the Tioga 
Mine. Tioga Village 
lay just over the di- 
vide and down three 
or four hundred feet 
below, a group of 
tumble-down cabins 
built of tamarack pine 
boards weathered to 
a beautiful golden 
brown. The village 
had little of the ro- 
mantic aspect of the cabin above. It was more squalid, more desolate, 
spoke less of the high hopes and sturdy industry of the pioneer. 

A mile or two beyond the village, on the upper reaches of Leevining 
Creek, we found Abe and the mules. He had unpacked and was sitting 

to the 

He is neither your guide, your servant, nor your friend 




"A storm was gathering, and all over the jagged chain the shifting clouds were scattering now sunlight, now shadow, veiling distant mountain tops in gray mist garments, and 

sending little flickering sprites of sunbeams dancing up and down the canon walls" 

on the dunnage bags chewing meditatively — just waiting. We built the 
fires and set about preparing supper. Then the astounding thing hap- 
pened. The Dainty Lady said sweetly, "Now, Abe, you can carry my 
dunnage bag over to that clump of trees." The Corporal and I stood 
aghast. Things weren't done that way in the Sierra. But no explosion 
followed. Abe rose meekly, shouldered the bag and followed the Dainty 
Lady. From that time he was her slave. He heated buckets of water 
and carried them to her camp ; he carried her dunnage at night and 
helped her pack it in the morning. He even softened to the rest of us 
— carried my dunnage and helped in the commissary. 

In spite of his growing friendliness, however, he never ceased to be 
amused at us. He had the most naively frank way of laughing at us 
to our faces. On the occa- 
sions when mirth overcame 
him he seemed to feel some 
concealment was due for man- 
ner's sake, so he would lift his 
maimed arm before his face 
and shake and roar in uncon- 
trolled merriment behind it. 
This filled all demands of po- 
liteness, to his way of think- 
ing, and we soon felt no em- 
barrassment at his enjoyment 
of our peculiarities. He was 
particularly entertained by our 
desire to bathe in cold streams 
or lakes, and at sight of a 
bathing suit his arm would fly 
up at once. 

We left him to guard camp 
for us next day and set off 
afoot over a twenty-mile cir- 
cuit, over the old Dore Pass 

"On the shore of the highest lake was a cabin, 
hire of stone roughly laid 

trail to Lundy, and back by Mill Creek. The mountains to the east, 
south and north of Saddlebag Lake, which we passed in the early morn- 
ing, are mostly of red metamorphic slate like Dana. The group along 
the western rim of the basin — White, Conness, North and Sheep Peak — 
are of gray granite. The abrupt precipices of Conness and North and 
the beautiful cirque between them again and again caught our wander- 
ing attention. Dore Pass was a wild space of red pinnacled walls and 
a tortuous trail winding down among talus piles. Dana, a sharp tooth 
from this side, rose high to southward. In its warmth of coloring and 
scant vegetation the whole country about the pass seemed more a part 
of the desert ranges than of the gray Sierra to westward. 

Farther down the canon, at Oneida Lake, we came upon the abandoned 

mill of the May Lundy Mine. 
A dozen great wooden build- 
ings showed it to have been 
more ambitiously conceived 
than its neighbor over the di- 
vide, the Tioga Mine. A thou- 
sand feet or more above it, 
high on the bare, open face of 
the mountain, hung another 
group of buildings, evidently 
at the mouth of the shaft. A 
herculean task it must have 
been to pack lumber and ma- 
chinery up there — a heart- 
breaking task, proclaimed it. 

The "town" of Lundy was 
our next point of interest. 
One man still lives there. To 
our disappointment he had vis- 
itors, two men who had driven 
up from the power company's 
station at the lower end of 

a remarkably well-built, well-preserved struc- 
together without mortar" 

DECEMBER, 19 16 


Lundy Lake, so he was not disposed to be communicative about himself 
or the country. On the contrary, he and his friends wanted to discuss 
us, whence we came, whither we were going — above all, why we were 
■doing it. A certain animation was displayed when we asked about the 
store we had heard he kept, but on finding that we were interested only 
in food supplies he became lethargic once more. "Naw, I don't carry 
groceries," he said, and in explanation gave the somewhat curious rea- 
son that there was too much demand for them. "Yaas, I sold 'em all 

seemed like a gateway into a promised land. As we discussed the future 
course of our journey around the campfire that night, the desire grew 
upon us to cross the range at this point and strike westward into the 
region north of the Tuolumne Canon, into Virginia and Matterhorn 
Canon, perhaps to Rodger's Lake. Abe could return to Tuolumne by 
the Tioga Road, get an added supply of provisions for a more protracted 
journey, and meet us at Conness Creek. 

So it was decided. Morning found us skirting Saddlebag Lake and 

Looking across Matterhorn Canon to Matterhorn Peak, disappointing only for its 
uselessly imitative name 

out two year ago. Only got clo'es left — clo'es and shoes. Reckon you 
don't want them. They ain't your kind." This enterprising financier 
was the last of a population of several hundred that had brought a short- 
lived boom to Lundy when the power plant was building. He, too, was 
going to leave — when his stock was sold. 

Up Mill Creek we followed another old miners' trail, almost lost now 
under rock slides and encroaching growth of trees and brush. Several 
old cabins and abandoned shafts lent an air of romance to this canon 
too, a gloriously wild place with dark, rugged, precipitous walls which 
seemed to offer no chance to escape. The old trail finally struck straight 
up the southern wall and disappeared under a new rock slide. We 
scrambled up as best we might, emerging in a barren lake basin at the 
base of North Peak. The lakes, lovely little alpine tarns rimmed with 
rock and lingering snowfields, were shining in the golden light of late 
afternoon. Ahead a blinding radiance of sunset glory poured through 
the gap between North Peak and Conness. 

All day long that gap had caught and held our fancy, and now it 

What remains of the old May Lundy mine, the romantic monument of failure and 

lost hopes 

climbing up through the flowery meadows beyond it into the basin be- 
tween Conness and North Peak. After all, we did not cross through our 
gap, for we decided to scale North Peak (12,256 feet) instead. This was 
one of the most interesting ascents of the whole season, for we made it 
straight up the precipitous eastern face. It was all rock climbing, on 
the lower slopes along smooth glaciated surfaces, where we had to find a 
devious way among cracks and along ledges; on the upper part among 
massive boulders of granite, embedded often in loose, disintegrated gran- 
ite sand ; then at the last up a chimney to the summit. 

"Wasn't that great !" said the Corporal, as we stood triumphantly on 
the highest point. "Pretty stiff climbing, that was." 

And then the Dainty Lady paralyzed us anew. "Was it bad?" she 
asked. "You see, I never climbed a mountain before." It is not on such 
mountains that novices usually make their beginnings. 

Two months earlier in the season I had climbed Conness ; but glorious 
as its view was, to my mind this surpassed it. For here we had the 
{Continued on page 49) 



> ^ * • • ■ 

■ • '■ * F t * [ 

The olive press that stands in one of the open squares. Though date-growing is the 
chief industry of the settlement, the dry soil is very favorable for olive cultivation 

The houses of Siwa, which are built of a mixture of rock salt and mud, are piled one 

above the other in seven or eight stages, with no apparent regard for order, and suggest 

something between an Indian pueblo and a New York apartment house 



Charles J. Belden 

Photographs by the Author 

ALTHOUGH nearly everyone realizes how well we may apply, within 
the limited boundaries of our own cities, the old saying that 
"one half the world knows little of how the other half lives," few of 
us stop to think of the really crude and prehistoric modes of living 
that are still adhered to by hundreds of thousands of the world's in- 
habitants. In certain tropical countries human beings still reside in the 
trees in much the same manner as did their Darwinian ancestors, and 
the even more primitive habitation of caves exists in various remote 
localities of the earth, notably northern Africa and some of the islands 
of the South Atlantic. Near the southern boundaries of Tunisia in 
Africa there are certain tribes of troglodytes, or cave dwellers, that 
burrow in the ground in a manner not unlike the prairie dog, and their 
villages closely resemble the prairie dog towns of our western plains. 
One of the most ancient and curious of human habitations in exist- 
ence, however, belongs to a more advanced state of civilization than 
those of the Stone Age. This town, named Siwa, is located in the midst 
of a fertile oasis of the Libyan Desert, where grow thousands of date 
palms and olive trees, from which the inhabitants, not unlike a swarm 
of bees, derive their subsistence. The town consists of what is appar- 
ently a single building constructed on a huge rock. This fortress-like 
structure, however, is made up of separate houses built one on top of 
the other in seven or eight stages, with no regard to any particular 



All day long the picturesque natives squat before their primitive olive press, feeding the 

great wooden pestle and measuring out the oil, while beside them a stalwart laborer 

turns the millstone of the ancient grain mill — the whole a picture that would seem better 

dated B. C. than 1916 A. D. 

The material used in the construction of the houses is mostly rock 
salt and mud, which, although hardly suitable for a moist climate, seems 
to last indefinitely in this region of practically no rainfall. The walls 
are reinforced with palm trunks which serve to bind the houses together 
and form a solid unit. 

The so-called streets of Siwa are probably the most remarkable fea- 
ture of the town, and would hardly be recognized in the modern sense 
as a thoroughfare. These streets consist of narrow passages or tunnels 
running at random throughout the interior of the town, sometimes up 
and sometimes down, over rough, slippery steps, twisting to the right 
or to the left in a most bewildering fashion. Siwan streets are in either 
partial or complete darkness, the only source of light being occasional 
open spaces, as the houses are built both above and on either side of 
these passages. There was formerly but one entrance to the town, con- 
sisting of a narrow flight of stairs cut in the solid rock of the founda- 
tion ; but in recent years two or three other means of getting in and out « 
have been cut. 

The population of Siwa is about 4,000, most of whom still reside in 
the main town; but, following the trend of modern civilization, a con- 
siderable number have moved into individual houses in the "suburbs" 
below the town, on the plain. Eventually the old nest, which dates back 
to the Roman period, will be deserted, and the movement already started 
will extend to the construction of a city of more modern aspect, but of 
considerably less interest. The word "suburbs" is used without exagger- 
ation, for the oasis upon which the town of Siwa is built extends over 
twenty miles in length and is more than a mile wide, containing in all 
about twenty-five square miles of arable land which is chiefly given 
over to the cultivation of the date. The orchards are watered by numer- 
ous streamlets and small lakes, and there is an extensive marshy district 
which has still to be reclaimed. 

The streets of Siwa are dark, narrow tunnels that run at random through the interior 
of the town, sometimes up and sometimes down, and twisting continually to right 

and left 






THIS photograph was taken 
in Stockholm, Sweden, but 
the bundle of wheat and pretzel 
are typical of all three Scandi- 
navian countries. The sheaf of 
grain is for the hungry winter 
birds, and the kindhearted Scan- 
dinavian pokes his bundle in the 
most accessible place he can find 
for his feathered guests, usually 
in a tree or a chimney. The pret- 
zel that is suspended underneath 
signifies that the store over 
whose door it is hung is a bakery. 
The status of the shop can be 
learned by a glance at the pret- 
zel; if the proprietor is enter- 
prising and business nourishing 
the pretzel is brilliant with gilt, 
otherwise it is in one of the vary- 
ing stages of tarnish. E. J. 

INSTEAD of a polite 
caution to the pas- 

sengers against thrust- 
ing their heads and arms 
out of the car windows, 
the railway signs in 
India read: "Keep your 
feet inside." For the In- 
dian appears to prefer 
cold feet to a cool head 
and it is quite usual to 
see a train pull into the 
station with a row of 
feet hanging from the 
windows instead of a 
line of heads peering 
out. Upon consideration 
this seems a rather pleas- 
ant way of making a train journey, but hardly practicable in Occidental 
countries where certain prejudices exist in regard to traveling bare- 
footed. J. B. P. 


HE little birds that 
are hopping about 

in the 

picture were 


just a minute 


the camera 


from an appar- 

ently empty basket and a 
cloth with nothing in it. 
Itinerant conjurers are 
very popular in India, 
and our first adventure 
in Lucknow was an en- 
counter with this street 
entertainer, who squatted 
on the pavement and 
went through his tricks 
with his audience only a 
few feet away, their 
keen eyes ready to detect any slip. He placed the basket upside down 
on the ground, covered it with a cloth and muttered a few words. Then 
he lifted the basket and out hopped the birds. J. P. B. 

THE auto truck has not yet been introduced in Java and few of the 
inhabitants have read about modern efficiency, so a Javanese who 
wishes to transport his household goods simply sends for four men and 
a' couple of bamboo poles. The Javanese are slender and muscular, 
capable of a vast amount of hard labor, and this capability is kept in 
good condition under Dutch government. The furniture movers fasten 
the grand piano, or whatever they happen to be moving, to the bamboo 
poles and lift the ends of the poles to their shoulders. These bamboo 
supports vibrate as they walk, so it is necessary that they all keep step 
with the regular bending of the poles. J. B. P. 

IN sunny Spain the man on the water wagon has no such sinecure as 
the superior individual who may be seen in the cities of the United 
States taking his ease under a big sun umbrella while he amuses himself 
by sprinkling the luckless pedestrians who cross his path. In Spain he 
is the unfortunate pedestrian who is sprinkled, for the proper method 
here is to attach a rope to the end of the barrel pipe and swing it from 
one side to another while the horse jogs along, so that all the street can 
be watered. This picture was taken in Valencia, where, on account of 
the exceptionally dry climate, the street-watering department never gets 
a vacation. J. C. 

DECEMBER, 19 16 















n /■..'■>'', 

: l'li ; .,'; -/' .' '" -. '-''-- 





GEN. A. W. GREELY, U. S. A. 




A "See America First" Dinner 

THE first of a series of notable dinners 
that have been arranged by The 
Travel Club of America for the ensuing sea- 
son will take place at the Hotel Majestic, 
Seventy-second Street and Central Park West, 
on Saturday, December 2, at 7.30 P. M. A 
spacious ballroom has been engaged at the 
hotel for this banquet so as to insure ample 
space for so rapidly growing an organization 
as The Travel Club. Particulars of this din- 
ner in brief have been embodied in notices 
sent to each member of The Travel Club. The 
price of the dinner is $2 per plate and the 
members have the privilege of inviting guests. 

The guests of honor and speakers on the 
coming occasion will be Dr. William C. Far- 
rabee, F. R. G. S., of the University of Penn- 
sylvania; Mr. Harry A. Franck, a roving citi- 
zen of the world, and Mr. Leroy C. Jeffers, 
F. R. G. S., of New York City. While these 
gentlemen are all well known, some particulars 
regarding their experiences will undoubtedly 
be interesting to club members. 

Dr. William C. Farrabee is the most notable 
of South American explorers to-day, and has 
but recently returned from an expedition to 
unknown regions of South America which has 
been very rich in results. He was well 
equipped for this work by a previous expe- 
rience of three years in South America as 
leader of the De Milhau-Harvard Expedition. 
The last expedition which Dr. Farrabee 
headed was sent out by the University of 
Pennsylvania three years ago, and during 
most of this time Dr. Farrabee has been out 
of touch with civilization. Sometimes entirely 
alone he explored vast unknown tracts of 
South America, especially in the wilds of the 
Amazon Valley. It may not be generally ap- 
preciated, but it is a fact nevertheless, that 
the interior of South America is less known 
to-day than the interior of Africa. Dr. Far- 
rabee has visited tribes of people in the heart 
of the South American wilds that had never 
seen or been discovered by a white man be- 
fore. The explorer spent much time in study- 
ing these tribes and in taking pictures of 
them. Consequently, the members of The 
Travel Club attending the dinner will enjoy 
the novel experience of being introduced to 
some entirely new people, garbed in strange 
and extraordinary costumes, and possessing 
some very original, or perhaps aboriginal, 
manners and customs. Colored slides depict- 
ing the scenes of Dr. Farrabee's many adven- 
tures have just been made, and naturally Dr. 
Farrabee will first address the University of 
Pennsylvania, the institution which sent him 
out on his remarkable quest, and whose great 
museum the explorer has enriched with a 
variety of collections such as no museum in 
the world possesses. The address will take 
place on the afternoon of November 25 and 
in the evening a dinner will be given in Dr. 
Farrabee's honor. His second talk, profusely 

illustrated, will be given before the members 
of the Travel Club on December 2. His own 
story of his remarkable explorations and ex- 
periences is being looked forward to with the 
greatest interest by all. 

As a famous globe trotter, or rather globe 
tramper, the name of Harry A. Franck has 
only to be mentioned. No man living has cov- 
ered so much territory afoot. Among his well- 
known books which detail some of his expe- 
riences are "A Vagabond Journey Around the 
World," "Zone Policeman 88," "Four Months 
Afoot in Spain," and "Tramping Through 
Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras." After 
graduating at Harvard and taking post-grad- 
uate courses at the University of Michigan 
and Columbia, Mr. Franck started out to gain 
the wider education that travel and first-hand 
knowledge of the world afford. For four 
years he has been on the go, a great part of 
the time actually afoot, and, leaving out in- 
numerable side trips and visits to cities, has 
walked some 5,000 miles. The distance he has 
covered by other means of locomotion would 
be difficult to compute. Leaving out his Old 
World travels, Mr. Franck has covered most 
of Mexico and Central and South America 
and the majority of the States and provinces 
of each country. Mr. Franck will present the 
cream of his experiences in Central and South 
America, illustrated with many of his own 
striking pictures, to the members of" The 
Travel Club at the forthcoming dinner. 

Mr. Leroy C. Jeffers, who is the general 
secretary of the Allied Mountaineering Clubs 
of North America, will tell of mountaineering 
in the Canadian Rockies, and show some beau- 
tiful pictures of the mountains that he has 
climbed and conquered and practically cap- 
tured with his camera. Some of these pictures 
recently appeared in a finely illustrated article 
by Mr. Jeffers in the September number of 
Scribner's Magazine, entitled "The Call of the 
Mountains." Mr. Jeffers is a member of the 
Explorers' Club, the Harvard Travelers' Club, 
the Sierra Club, and of American, English and 
Canadian Alpine Clubs. His long experience 
as a mountain climber and his enthusiasm for 
the work peculiarly fit him for interpreting 
the attraction of mountains and the power of 
their inspiration. 

In addition to the attractive program of 
speakers, a number of moving pictures will be 
shown which will portray some of the most 
beautiful scenic spots of North America. The 
dinner, indeed, may be styled a "See America 
First" Dinner — not America in the narrower 
sense as confined to our own country, but the 
real America which embraces both conti- 
nents. The traveler would, indeed, have to 
travel far and wide and make many long and 
toilsome journeys to get glimpses of such 
varied and widely separated sections of 
greater America as will be brought for his 
edification about the board of The Travel Club 
of America on December 2 next. 



The National Forests 

Uncle Sam is preparing to open up new sec- 
tions for tourist travel by the construction of 
good roads through the National Forests. Hith- 
erto inaccessible areas will now be made easy 
of reach to the traveler. The National Forests 
comprise 156,000,000 acres and contain count- 
less scenic attractions which rank with the 
foremost in the world. There are 150 of these 
forests and the expenditure of a recent appro- 
priation by Congress of $10,000,000 for roads 
through these hitherto little known sections 
will make an open sesame for the traveler and 
allow him to penetrate to the heart of the vir- 
gin woods. There are said to be spots of won- 
derful beauty hidden in these forest regions 
which are almost unexplored and comparable 
in a scenic way to anything on this continent. 
Excellent hunting and fishing are other attrac- 
tions to be found in these wilds. Even now 
about 1,500,000 pleasure seekers and tourists 
seek such retreats of the forests as they may 
in their present 'condition. With the coming 
of good roads these numbers will be vastly 
augmented. "See America First" will be 
something more than a slogan when the Forest 
Service gets through with its work, for the 
act of "seeing" will be rendered much easier 
and far more pleasurable. 

Motorists and Good Roads 

Motorists generally are sanguine that the 
roads co-operation recently established be- 
tween the national government and the sev- 
eral states will accomplish a big step towards 
the evolution of a federal system of highways 
which will connect the different sections of the 
country as effectively as the French plan of 
national routes. 

See America First 

This slogan is being echoed all over the 
country, especially in the great Northwest, a 
section of rare scenic beauty. "True beauty 
dwells in deep retreats," sings Wordsworth, 
and there are many deep retreats in the North- 
west unknown to the tourist and traveler. Re- 
cently, meetings of representatives of organi- 
zations in Oregon, Washington and British 
Columbia, and of transportation lines, hotels 
and tourist agencies have been held for the 
purpose of exploiting the scenery and attrac- 
tions of the Northwest. It is believed that this 
cooperative campaign for the entire section 
will be productive of larger results than under 
the old method of each little district going it 

Such campaigns are needed, for the Ameri- 
can people by no means realize what a heritage 
of beautiful scenery they possess, surpassed 
nowhere in the world- The Travel Club is 
glad to lend a hand in this movement for help- 
ing Americans to appreciate their grand in- 
heritance. * 




THE Christmas shopper who is providing 
useful gifts, especially for the traveler, 
is invariably attracted by the display of leather 
goods in the shops. One of the handsomest of 
this season's traveling outfits is shown by Lord 
& Taylor in a rich black grain leather suitcase 
lined with heavy purple watered silk, with a 
large pocket, and twenty-nine white toilet fit- 
tings securely fastened around three sides and 
the top. This elaborate provision for the trav- 
eler's comfort sells for $75.00. 

Scarfs of all varieties are in vogue this year, 
the brilliance of color and thickness of the 
wool or thinness of the silk limited only by the 
taste of the wearer. There are screaming 
plaids and stripes, stripes of soft and delicate 
hue, and plain wools and silks. The three 
shown in our corner picture are of fiber silk. 
The Roman stripe, a smooth weave, is made in 
rose, Copenhagen, yellow, black and green, iy 2 
yards long by 9 inches wide, for $2.95. The 
black and white stripe is a half yard longer 
and 2 inches wider, a rough crochet weave, for 
$3.95. The darkest scarf is a very handsome 
combination of purple, green and gold, 2 yards 
by 12 inches, woven in rough crochet pattern, 
for $3.95. James McCreery & Co. 

Rogers, Peet & Co. show, as usual, a splen- 
did assortment of goods for men, among them 
the new skating shoe of black grain calf with 
smooth calf trimming. These, reinforced to 
hold the foot firm, and 10 inches high, are 
priced at $12.00. Their motor gloves are cut 
with special roomy thumb and broad palm, to 

A sumptuous suitcase with very generous mirror 
special provision for all parts of the toilet 

Delightfully soft motor gloves for cold-weather driving are cut with special provision for the work they have to do. 
The new skating boots are thoroughly reinforced and strongly built; and carefully fashioned wool socks are 

provided for the man with cold feet 

prevent tearing and ripping; gauntlets, with 
auto strap, lined with Chinese lamb fleece, are 
$7.00; and soft, short mocha gloves, squirrel 
lined, also sell for $7.00. The all-wool "fash- 
ioned" English -socks at $1.50 are made in 
black and mixtures for the man who likes to 
wear low shoes. 

B. Altman & Co. show two new shapes in 
traveling bags, one tall and thin, the other 
squat and plump. The thin bag of fine crepe 
seal is modeled on the man's Gladstone, and is 
capable of lying almost flat in a trunk or 
drawer, or of being well stuffed for use. The 
price is $23.00. The other is made of shiny 
enameled leather, keeps its plump shape 
whether full or empty, and sells for $10.00. 

Furs should be purchased at_ a most reliable 
place where expert buyers are employed. Gid- 
ding & Co. show handsome combinations in 
coats and separate pieces, among them this 
coat of fine seal in full length. The coat is 
made generously full and lined with heavy 
satin, made for real wear. The trimming of 
the coat photographed is kolinsky, the long tie 
belt of seal. This coat in various combina- 
tions of furs sells for $575. 

Christmas leather goods, large and small, 
are shown in great abundance and unique de- 
sign by Crouch & Fitzgerald and Mark Cross 
Company. These names guarantee good work- 

When fitting out for a special journey or 
sporting trip, it is well to consult an expert. 
The New York Sporting Goods Company 
makes a specialty of such outfits for men, 
women and boys, as well as Abercrombie & 
Fitch, while Rogers Peet & Co. have a special 
department to care for the needs of sportsmen. 

The shops are full of scarfs in great variety of color, pattern and weave. These are of sheeny fiber silk. 
Iwo new styles in traveling bags for women, one in a stiff form, the other in pliable leather, modeled after a man's 

Gladstone and taking up little room when empty 

The rich and luxuriant fur coat, in the prevail- 
ing loose cut, is shown in various combinations 
of short and long furs 

DECEMBER, 19 16 



The new black-and-white slipon gloves appeal to the well-dressed woman; they are useful for all occasions where 

a full dress glove is not required. This Roman scarf is all silk, and a beauty for color and softness. The toilet 

case for one's own articles appeals to many people more than a fitted case 

THE new "slipon" kid gloves for women 
are provided with the adjustable wrist- 
strap. James McCreery & Co. are 
showing two extreme styles, a black glove with 
a white strap and white gore set in the wrist, 
and a white glove with black strap and black 
wrist gore. The glove is also made in the 
popular new coffee shade for $2.75. The hand- 
some scarf pictured with the gloves is of 
thread silk, a gray ground with semi-subdued 
Roman stripes- The scarf is 1^2 yards long, 
17 inches wide and sells for $4.25. 
The Belber fit-all case pictured beneath the 

scarf and cap are shown by B. Altaian & Co. 
The old-time tam-o-shanter photographed is 
made of warm wool-plush, with satin-lined 
scarf to match, finished with tassels. The 
blotch plaid of black and white is striking in 
effect; price, $2.85. The other set consists of 
a long brushed-wool scarf, one end of which 
is silk-lined and forms the cap, the scarf being 
wound about the neck once or twice. In pur- 
ple, rose and Copenhagen, this sells for $4.25. 

For golfing and motoring Rogers Peet & Co. 
have made a Norfolk jacket of lambskin in 
either brown or gray, satin-lined, for $25.00. 
This is practically impervious to the wind and 
soft and delightful to wear, much like suede 
— in fact, much of the so-called suede of to- 
day is lambskin. 

The sweater is for women, being raspberry 
color with white collar, cuffs and tasseled sash. 
James McCreery & Co. sell this "slipon" 
sweater, in almost all colors, for $6.90. 

Everybody has a motor these days, and 

everybody likes to picnic; what more desirable 
Christmas suggestion, then, than a luncheon 
kit? The American Thermos Bottle Company 
has them, all complete, from the pint size for 
one person to the seven-passenger size, rang- 
ing in price from $2.75 to $60.00. The one pic- 
tured is a waterproof and dustproof restaurant 
for four, at $30.00, with two sandwich tins and 
a sugar box. The kit may be carried on the 
running-board or in the tonneau. The cover- 
ing is glazed waterproof duck, bound with 
hard vulcanized fiber, sewed on, and the lining 
is washable. 


The accessories illustrated and described on 
this and the opposite page may be purchased 
either direct from the shops mentioned, or 
through this department. To travel comfort- 
ably is to travel efficiently. We shall be glad 
to advise regarding both wearing apparel and 
accessories for your next trip, without charge 
of any kind to our readers. 

The Efficient Traveler, 
31 East 17th Street, 

New York. 


£ J J7 




4.'~~ t^c 



i 1 

1 1 ' -_^^l 


1 3? 

This compact luncheon-kit is dustproof and may be 
strapped to the running-board of an automobile 

Cigarettes for the fastidious smoker who wants to be sure 

of a good brand when away from home. A humidor is 

included with the purchase 

gloves shows the adjustable strap under which 
one puts one's own toilet articles, pulling the 
strap as tight as is necessary. The lining is 
a washable check, the cover of grain morocco. 
The price is $5.00 at Lord & Taylor's. 

The man who smokes cigarettes will cast 
longing glances at his fortunate friend who 
receives for Christmas the combination humi- 
dor with 100 Herbert Tareton cigarettes. This 
container is made of ivory opal ware, deco- 
rated in Delft blue relief. The regular price 
of the cigarettes is $1.25, and the handsome 
humidor is not charged for. A welcome pres- 
ent to any smoker. 

Two effective skating or motoring sets of 

For skating and motoring this black-and-white combination of tam-o'-shanter and scarf is most effective and very- 
cosy. The golf jacket for men is made in both tan and gray leather, soft and pliable, and the "slipon" sweater 
for women is easily adjusted over the head and conforms to the shape of the body 




TO The Rambler, Christmas is the one time of all in the year when 
traveling must have only home as its objective, and wandering 
must cease for a while. No matter how cheerful the welcome of your 
host, no matter how cordial the reception of the innkeeper, no matter 
how' elaborate the display of the steamer's steward, none of them can 
satisfy that inward longing for love and friendship as does the ofttimes 
more humble gathering at home. Ordinary things in the household 
shine with a new splendor, the fire in the hearth sparkles — oh, so mer- 
rily t_and the smile on the faces of all are the smiles of a heartfelt 
Merry Christmas, and not the expression of a world-wide custom. And 
The Rambler, wanderer that he is, loves to turn homeward as the year 

The land in which you have been traveling is perhaps a country of 
great charm ; its people may be the 
most hospitable in the world, and 
they may delight you with their 
quaintness; but when real love and 
comfort are to be found, it is to 
his own kind that man must turn. 
And so it is with the approach of 
Christmas. You suddenly feel an 
outcast in the strange land in 
which you find yourself; the in- 
teresting becomes strange and loses 
all appeal; wherever you go there 
is one vision that arises to obscure 
all others — a vision that to each 
of us is different, and yet we all 
call it by the same name, Home. 
The most hardened traveler can- 
not suppress the excitement that 
thoughts of home bring. One by 
one the little flock of tourists van- 
ishes and is gone. 

Even the colony of exiles melts 
away in some mysterious manner. 
Again and again The Rambler has 
marveled at having fellow passen- 
gers on his ship who a few months 
ago seemed piteously destitute of 
the good things of the world. You 
know that some great sacrifice has 
been theirs and you wonder what 
economies have gone to satisfy 
the tribute of the King of Home- 
sickness. Yet The Rambler has 
never found that such a fellow 
traveler considers money so spent 
as wasted. Everything else seems 
to lose value in the unconquerable 
longing for home at the year's 
gathering time. 

It is not the traveler in distant lands who alone gives up all for his 
return home. How many are there who are not outside of our own 
borders who count the days anxiously until they can start on their 
winter holiday? No summer vacation holds so much; for no other 
pleasure would they dare make similar sacrifices. The Rambler in the 
smoking compartment of his Pullmans listens to traveling men tell of 
the energetic work of the last few days, so that they could "clean up" 
in time to be home with the wife and kiddies. Their handbags so bulge 
with treasures from afar that they are like so many Santa Clauses. No 
appeal has had to be made to them to do their Christmas shopping early. 

The brimming bags, the consciousness of work successfully finished, 
of a short respite from worry and care, seem to put joy into all of 
their hearts. Everybody seems to be happy, for if disease is infectious, 
joy is too, and every train of homecomers is a train of happiness. Larger 
tips are left on the waiter's tray; porters who for once don't care 
whether they get a tip at all find remarkably large coins in their palms; 
even the taximeter seems honest and nothing matters at all now, for 
Christmas and home are near. 

Yet in all joy there is a drop of sorrow somewhere. What of those 
who can't go home ; of those especially who have wandered into the 
far away and the journey back is impossible? In the years of his wan- 
dering. The Rambler has been caught in odd places with other marooned 
souls, but never has the sorrow of these been allowed to leak through 
and mar the day. They keep their homesickness to themselves, while to 


In the southern latitudes Christmas comes during the summer, and the traveler from 
countries of the north finds the season topsy-turvy. This picture shows a road just 
outside the city of Adelaide, South Ausralia 

keep up courage they tell of their good fortune in being away, for to 
them they say, Christmas comes not once, but twice or maybe three 
times. Early in the year they plan to send gifts home : at such times it 
is certainly more pleasure to give than to receive. At home the gifts 
are much the same each year, but from every strange land there are 
new things to send. There are all sorts of curios and unique articles to 
be found in the far away, but in this sophisticated age we find examples 
parallel to that of the Moroccan chief who substituted American enamel 
water pitchers for the exquisite native jugs a traveler wished to buy. 

Then there is the receipt at Christmas time of the package from home. 
The things that once were common have suddenly become luxuries in the 
new life. How well The Rambler remembers receiving some of the 
home plum pudding; it was a rare luxury in that far Eastern port. It 

remained for that small package of 
pudding to bring the only tears; 
until that was received the lump in 
the throat could be held under con- 

Have you ever spent Christmas 
Day in a foreign land? People 
never seem to do things as you 
want them; their way never seems 
right; and you just slip off to your 
fellow countrymen to enjoy it in 
a "Christian" manner. But the 
way that is right to you is often 
out of keeping with the land in 
which you are, and is just as great 
a surprise to the local community 
as their ways are to you. The 
Rambler will never forget an in- 
cident in the Philippines. The 
American colony in a small village 
tried to decorate the American 
stores with a real Christmas-like 
dress. Christmas to them meant 
winter, so to create an effect of 
snow, package after package of 
absorbent cotton was used. The 
natives knew cotton only as a sur- 
gical dressing, and when they saw 
the enormous displays they asked 
if there were going to be a big 
battle and if the Americans were 
preparing for the wounded ! 

Christmas in the tropics is al- 
ways upside down and never seems 
just right. It was The Rambler's 
fortune to be in Australia one 
Christmas. Not only was it sum- 
mer on account of the southern 
latitude, but it was tropical as well. The people were all English, of 
course, and to them Christmas meant roast beef and plum pudding, holly 
and mistletoe. The first they could get, but the latter was very rare. 
So to create an effect of Christmas greens, small trees and branches 
were gathered and fastened everywhere. But the sun wilted them as 
rapidly as they were put up and they seemed to long for cooler climes, 
as did the perspiring people who had placed them there. Houses were 
all abustle in preparation for the coming feast. Pies and baked foods 
were perfuming the warm air, the spluttering of roast meat being basted 
could be heard as soon as any threshold was passed, while the boiling 
puddings pounded at the saucepan covers in a mad desire to get out 
and be eaten. At last it was all ready, and the tables were crowded with 
good things. The families gathered and started bravely. Started 
bravely, all of them; finished bravely, few of them. For tropical heat 
and roast beef do not go together, and almost all who ate suffered. It 
was a sorry town next day. 

Did anyone complain ? By St. Nicholas — no, sir ! The Rambler tried 
to find one penitent in the whole community and could not. What mat- 
tered it to them if they did feel ill? They had kept Christmas in the 
way the folks did back home and that tie had overcome the unfitness of 
things. If you have never been away at Christmas you will never realize 
the pull of the home festivities, but if you have been kept away, no words 
need tell you how strong it is. For neither wind nor rain, storm nor 
adversity, are strong enough to hold, and the highways at Christmas 
are crowded with returning love and joy. James B. Pond. 


{Continued from page 21) 

readily combines locomotive bells, dynamite, 
tin beer-bottle tops and electricity with rites 
long antedating the discovery of America. 

Your Mexican loves music, good music and 
plenty of it. Everywhere in Mexico there is 
a band and the average in Chihuahua com- 
pares more than favorably with its counter- 
part in the States. Sanctuary ? Yes, there 
was sanctuary in Mexico. The Santa Rosalia 
band survived capture and recapture, ad in- 
finitum, and at times when other "prisoners of 
war" faced the firing squad. This same band 
led the procession to the Cerro de la Cruz, 
followed by the dancers and the people. All 
the way there was a continuous explosion of 
bombs, "to scare away the devils" I was in- 
formed. I know that they accomplished their 
purpose because the air was filled with sting- 
ing bits of dirt and gravel, and the particular 
devil which possessed my pony (all bronchos 
have devils) manifested great terror through 
the medium of the pony. 

The pedestal upon which the Cross stood 
was newly whitewashed and that left over had 
been spilled on the ground. Two women who 
came before the crowd to the mesa made their 
way on their knees over the stones and 
through the spilled whitewash, by way of pen- 
ance. One could only hope that their sins had 
been pleasant in proportion to the obvious dis- 
comfort of the penance offered. And I was 
greatly impressed by a very old woman near 
the head of the procession who, her shoes held 
ostentatiously aloft, walked in her stockings 
as evidence of her religious devotion. Most 
respectfully I called Santiago's attention to 
her. "Probably her shoes hurt her feet," he 
cynically observed with a grin. 

The ceremony on top of the mesa appeared 
to be entirely pagan. The priest was not here. 
Although the peones distinguish, as regards 
themselves, between Catolico and pagano, they 
were as one in the Matachines. Is not here 
evidence that the pagano has divorced his 
Santa Cruz from Catholicism and identified it 
with his prehistoric symbol ? There was much 
dancing on the mesa, following which the pro- 
cession re-formed and bore the Cross to the 
shrine of Santiago, where it would be blessed 
by the priest before being returned at the close 
of the Fiesta. During the seventy-two hours 
of the festival the dancing never ceased. This 
does not mean that any individual danced con- 
tinuously, but at least half of the dancers were 
always at it. The endurance displayed was 
most remarkable. 

Not the least interesting spectacle was that 
on the last day, when many colored prints of 
the Virgin and of Saints, such as are a part 
of every peon household, were brought to the 
priest to be blessed. Many sickly children 
were carried and many poor cripples dragged 
themselves to the shrine. Almost invariably 
these children were pledged by their parents to 
be followers of the True Cross. 

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As we watched the weary dancers depart at 
the close of the Matachincs I said to Santiago: 

"If these people worked half as hard at 
their daily tasks as they have done at their 
dance, the company conld pay them more 
wages. And think, Santiago, how quickly we 
would clean up the job." 

"But, Scnor," replied the ever ready San- 
tiago, "that is not to be expected; and, more- 
over, whore then, if the work were terminado 
eluded) so quickly, would the people find 
sustenance in this land of revolution and of 
desolation ?" 


{Continued from page 30) 

mon and I have seen as many as eight or even 
ten employed on a single plow. The wheat, 
after being garnered in, is strewn on the 
threshing floor, a bare space reserved for this 
in the center of the village. There the wheat 
will be gone over by the threshers. These are 
planks roughly hewn with pieces of sharp 
stone or flint driven into the under sides. 

In writing to advertisers, please mention Travel 


They are slowly dragged round and round by 
oxen or horses, cutting up the stalks of wheat 
into small pieces and thus separating the 
grains. This is swept into heaps which are 
tossed into the air by large wooden shovels or 
"fans," as the Scriptures speak of them. The 
wind drives away the chaff. 

The dress of the upper class women is very 
picturesque. In many of the districts around 
Ararat and Erivan the undergarments, skirt 
and waist are of red with a plush overgarment 
almost to the knees, handsomely embroidered 
in some darker color, which, with the quaint 
headdress with its row of coins on the fore- 
head, presents a pleasing and attractive pic- 
ture. The women still wear a cloth over the 
mouth, no doubt a habit from the former days 
of Moslem rule. The men for the most part 
wear a blue or black blouse, not unlike a 
butcher's loose trousers and an ordinary school- 
boy's cap of silk. The dress of the poor vil- 
lagers is, of course, much simpler, and, in fact, 
is apt to be very scanty and extremely tattered. 
So, then, these are the people of the Cau- 
casus ; but, to quote Viscount Bryce, "No more 
inappropriate name was ever propounded than 
that of Caucasian for a fancied division of 
the human family, the cream of mankind, from 
which the civilized peoples of Europe are sup- 
posed to have sprung. For the Caucasus is 
to-day as it was in Strabo's time, full of races 
differing in religion, languages, aspect, man- 
ners, character." 


{Continued from page 25) 

Yacht Squadron which was once a fortress 
and subsequently a prison. The pleasant town 
is fragrant with kindly memories of Queen 
Victoria. Just outside of East Cowes is Os- 
borne House, an Italian villa with lofty cam- 
panile towers, set in the midst of an immense 
park. This was for many years the favorite 
residence of the old queen. Here she died, 
her body being transported on a gun carriage 
through the streets. The great building has 
now been converted into a convalescent home 
for officers. Many of the state apartments are 
open to the public on certain days. Here the 
visitor may study in their utmost richness and 
extremes of bad taste the peculiar and form- 
less decorative effects of that period which we 
now scornfully called the Victorian. 

From Osborne the road strikes south, then 
east toward Ryde with Wootton Bridge and 
its pretty estuary halfway between. As you 
near Ryde you see certain peculiar cupolas and 
domes that lift themselves above the trees- 
They mark the monastery of a French order 
which, driven from France, has now chosen 
the Isle of Wight for its home. 

In half an hour you are once more in Ryde, 
after completing an irregular loop of some 
seventy miles. You have followed the coast 
for the greater part, avoided the uninteresting 
regions and pierced to the heart of the island. 
The traveler on foot may estimate the distance 
according to his pace, or, better still, accord- 
ing to his mood (the secret of all wise adven- 
turing ! ) ; the motorist according to his speed. 

DECEMBER, 19 16 


Though the little island lies so close to the 
mainland, its life has an air of remoteness and 
detachment, something of an original cast and 
flavor — like its decorated butter-pats — at once 
rare and delightful. It is in itself a whole, 
perfect and self-contained. He who has made 
"himself familiar with it will bear back with 
"him a lasting memory as of some happy ex- 
perience or some well-remembered friendly 


{Continued from page ^2>) 

is more or less in the vicinity of the railway. 
On the ten miles from Dome to Yuma the road 
is a wild and angry affair. It acts as if it 
were scared by the trains, the way it leaps 
gorges, flies up and down embankments, or 
scuttles over a hubbly stretch of desert land. 

The scenery soon consists of two very long 
rows of sun flowers, that grow higher than 
the machine but offer no shade from the cruel 
sun. The road between looks like any little 
traveled, dusty country road to the eye, but 
touch proves the truer sense, and shows it 
up in all its deviltry. The innocent looking 
dust is a fine silt that comes nearly to the 
hubs of the wheels and arises in clouds of 
wrath when disturbed. And underneath the 
silt is the most uneven road bed on earth ; 
little grooves and holes and bumps for which 
you are always waiting but never prepared, 
which rattle your teeth, which make you bite 
your tongue, which send you against the top 
of the machine, only to hurl you again to the 
seat, which you try to take in a relaxed posi- 
tion, only to meet with bruises, which you 
decide to take in a rigid mold, and are 
bumped harder than ever. The sun meanwhile 
"boils away your sense of humor and the sun- 
flowers look on and grin because you cannot 
see the joke. But all things pass away, and so 
does this road, and you arrive in Yuma. 

This is the logical stopping place for the 
second night, being about no miles from Agua 
Caliente, but Yuma on an afternoon in June is 
not an ideal summer resort, nor even a one- 
night-stand place. It is old-timey and quaint, 
"being originally a Mexican settlement, and it 
is still very much colored in tone by its near- 
ness to Mexico, for the Mexicans are as nu- 
merous as the Indians, and both seem to ex- 
ceed the Americans in number. The Indian 
squaw, with her straight black hair hanging 
down her back, and her bright-colored clothes, 
is a common sight on the streets. But the city 
is not prepossessing, and the hotels are musty 
and dark. It is a much better plan in May 
or June to cross the Colorado River into Cali- 
fornia, and spend the night on the upper table- 
lands of the California desert- 

I heartily recommend this using of the out- 
of-doors as a hostelry. The hotels are far 
apart and hardly deserving of the title, but the 
earth and sky are always at hand, and after 
all offer the best hospitality. There is no need 
of a tent at this season of no rain. You 
merely spread a canvas over the greasewood 

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bushes and attach the four corners to stakes 
or the machine. Snakes or insects will not 
crawl up over the edge. There is nothing like 
it, this sleeping out in that air, "scentless and 
breathless," as it has been called, but oh so 
fresh and sweet ! 

The California desert here is a quite differ- 
ent proposition from the one we crossed in 
Arizona. It is sandier, bleaker, less romantic; 
fewer plants are seen; there does not seem to 
be that same intense coloring to the hills in the 
distance, although the Chocolate Mountains 
run along to the north, and are fairly close at 

In writing to advertisers, please mention Travel 

Leaving the sandy lowlands, one soon 
reaches a high mesa of copper and shale. 
The hard mineral surface looks almost like a 
mosaic floor, and is splendid traveling for the 

Civilization appears again with the way sta- 
tion of Ogilby, where the road crosses the 
railroad tracks, and follows them on the other 
side for many miles. Three or four of these 
stations turn up at ten-mile intervals along the 
railroad. They are all similar, four or five 
little huts or shacks, the station and the town 
pump, but they are marked with black letters 
on railroad guides as if they were of some 








More and more sunny Southern 
California is attr-actitig those 
who want a winter home ® 

It's nice to haw? your own 
bungalow or villa at Pasadena 
San Diego • Santa Barbara 

or elsewhere ® ® ® • 

It's pleasant to come back 
again year after year to 
"home* sweet* home' alon^ 
palm^bordered avenues ® 

That's the supreme test or 
any resort country ® ® 

Four (/■aily California trains, including California 
limited; a/ro JantnTe de-luxe, weekly in winter. 
Enroute visit Petrified Forest© the Grand Canyon 
of Arizona ® and Castle Hot Springs <•> © 
Hawaii afterwards « ® Fred Harvey MeaU 
Booklets of trip and frsinr on requpj-t 

W.J. Black., Pass. Traffic M#. AT. i.U. Ry. 

1066 Railway Exchange.. Chicajo. 

importance. Most of them are the connecting 
points with the outer world for the mines back 
in the mountains, for this is a rich mining 

The southern landscape now is edged with 
a long line of sand dunes of exquisite opales- 
cent shades. It might easily be the south 
shore of Long Island, and it seems as if ocean 
waves must be beating up on the other side. 
Once they did, for this is a dried up ocean bed 
over which we are traveling. The Gulf of 
California formerly covered this entire re- 
gion. Gradually these piles of sediment were 
formed, and an inland sea was left to a re- 

lentless sun. The theory of evolution, the 
process of creation are more easily under- 
stood in the midst of the constantly changing 
desert. - 

In spite of their gorgeous pastel shades the 
sand dunes are only a cause of anxiety to the 
motorists, for their object is to get on the 
other side of them. There are three possi- 
bilities of getting into the Imperial Valley 
southwest of these sand hills. You can cross 
a plank road nearer Yuma, which means sev- 
eral miles of running on two narrow wooden 
planks. To slip off the planks would be dan- 
gerous. Another way is through the Mam- 

In writing to advertisers, please mention Travel 

moth Wash, a dry river bed through the sand 
dunes. This lasts for five miles, and if not 
in constant use is well-nigh impassable. And 
as a last possibility there is a road fifteen 
miles farther north that strikes into the Im- 
perial Valley at Nyland, its most northern 

We were obliged to choose the last route, 
and of this trip around to Nyland the less said 
the better. It is the most depressing scenery 
of the entire trip and a hopeless stretch of 
road. And yet it is just such hard and barren 
soil that has been transformed into the fertile 
region of the Imperial Valley. 

This country is nearly 300 feet below sea 
level, and its thermometer above blood heat. 
Nyland is still almost entirely in its virgin 
state, but pressing southwest through the val- 
ley toward Imperial, Brawley and El Centro, 
the victory over nature that irrigation has per- 
formed is more and more apparent. It is even 
more impressive than the Arizonian feats, for 
here the desert seems to be hopelessly impos- 
sible and there it is so beautiful with its varied 

Some years ago a branch of the Colorado 
overflowed its banks, rushed in over these low- 
lands, creating havoc galore and forming the 
inland Salton Sea, whose bed is just north- 
west of here. But the marks of the outrage 
are still seen in the great gorges and canons 
left. And now the same river has been trained 
to fill the big irrigation canals and water the 
land in a safe and sane manner. The natives, 
or land boomers, here would rather describe 
it as the land of magic when they tell of their 
seven crops of alfalfa a year and show their 
melons that have ripened in a day. The 
chasms and gorges, with the road now wind- 
ing around them, down into them, and now 
climbing up over the ugly clay walls twenty 
or thirty feet high, give a horrible feeling of 
crudity to parts of this country. It requires 
little imagination to realize that you are ex- 
ploring an erstwhile ocean bed. But the melon 
fields, citrus fruit groves, cotton fields, alfalfa 
and dairy cows speak of wonderful prosperity 
in farming. The trouble now is the expense 
of transportation, but a direct railroad line is 
in the process of construction between here 
and San Diego. 

Leaving the Imperial Valley again on a 
splendid concrete State road, you have one 
more stretch of desert, and then the range of 
mountains which separates these lowlands 
from the high garden land of this extreme 
southern part of the State. 

All along the highway are machines big and 
little, filled to overflowing with passengers, 
mostly men. They are the jitneys, which do 
the hundred-plus miles over the Cuyamaca 
Mountains to San Diego daily at a breakneck 
speed and with apparently no limit set on the 
number of passengers or amount of baggage. 
I never could get used to these western jitneys, 
which made long and perilous trips through 
the mountains, day in and day out, with such 
careless unconcern. 

The ride across this range of hills stands 
out as the most inspiring part of the whole 
trip. The minute the machine begins to climb 
toward Mountain Wells, spirits rise accord- 
ingly with every foot of altitude. All memo- 



ries of hardships endured are shaken off with 
the last bit of desert sand, and only the joyous 
parts are remembered. It is one of those 
frightful and yet extraordinarily beautiful 
California grades, where the road tacks back 
and forth in hairpin curves, up and over the 
mountains, so that you are often directly above 
where you were fifteen minutes before; where 
the road is none too wide, and turns sharp 
angles about the cliffs, and where you can 
often look straight down over your mud-guard 
several hundred feet into the valley. 

All the time the mountain sides are becom- 
ing more and more covered with growth. 
Again the flora of the Arizona desert appears, 
the palo verde, the mesquite, the giant cactus, 
the niggerhead cactus, and the low-growing 
variety that Burbank has made famous. Then, 
little by little, among the desert flowers are 
seen the green shrubs, and then the wild flow- 
ers of California. Gradually the cactus 
growth disappears, and there are only new, 
brilliant-colored blossoms on a background of 
rich green. 

From the tops of the mountains the setting 
sun reflects all its colors across the landscape 
behind. It is almost as inspiring as the Grand 
Canon. The Imperial Valley is almost indis- 
tinguishable, so prominent are the flame-col- 
ored, opal-tinted hills above and beyond. 
There are the stretches of alkali plains, the 
Chocolate Mountains, the Castle Dome Range, 
the Eagle Tail Range, all old friends, and to 
the northeast the San Jacintos and the San 

Now there is nothing but plain, unadulter- 
ated pleasure and ease. An altitude of 2,000 
feet continues with more or less regularity all 
the way to Campo. The hills are green and 
the road no longer winds around the hills. It 
goes straight up and straight down and 
straight southeast toward San Diego. The 
flowers are gorgeous, many familiar, only 
bigger and brighter than Easterners ever see 
them. And after the stubby desert growth, 
there is no sight more gratifying than the 
trees, the stately live oak, the graceful pepper 
and the melancholy eucalyptus. 

The seventy miles from here to San Diego 
I shall not describe in detail. It is accom- 
plished easily in three hours, for the road is 
down grade from 2,500 feet to sea level over 
marvelous roads. The Potrero grade, one of 
the many, is seven miles long, all down hill, 
and is a splendid feat in road engineering. All 
around spread the green hills of southern 
California, flourishing farms and fruit ranches 
dotting the valleys. It does not seem possible 
that just back across those hills lay utter deso- 
lation, until the Imperial Valley scheme was 
launched a few years ago. All along, the Gov- 
ernment registration stations for immigrants 
from across the border show how near is Mex- 
ico. This is the land of citrus fruit groves, 
where lemons, oranges, grapefruit and even 
tangerines can be grafted on the same tree. 
Drawing near sea level, the ranches become 
more numerous; there are fields of the Bur- 
bank cactus, fields of vegetables, and gardens 
luxurious with flowers. And as a fitting cli- 
max to this garden country of one's dreams, 
the shining, sparkling Pacific at last appears in 

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{Continued from page 37) 

noble front of Conness itself before us, a 
great pyramid with two long curving ridges 
descending from it to embrace a glacier. The 
glacial characteristics were here more appar- 
ent than on any other Sierra glacier I had 
ever seen, owing to its entire freedom from 
the usual snowy covering. Bergschrund, 
netted crevasses and terminal moraine were 
all distinctly defined. With the exception of 
the Cathedral group and Vogelsang, which 
were hidden behind Conness, almost every 

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peak of the Tuolumne region was in sight. 
Even Half Dome and Cloud's Rest were vis- 
ible — Hoffman, McClure, Lyell, Ritter Banner, 
the peaks of the Kuna Crest and those about 
Parker Pass, Gibbs, Dana, White, Tioga Peak 
and Dore Pass. Northward our panorama 
swept onward past Shepherd's Crest, where a 
sharp line of demarcation showed the contact 
between granite and metamorphic rocks, to 
red Excelsior Mountain and its neighboring 
sea of red and black peaks. Northwestward 
we looked across the barren ridges of the 
northern part of the park, a granite waste 
seamed with mighty canons, to Tower Peak; 
and westward down the blue path of Tuolumne 




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Canon to lower forested ranges. Wonderfully 
lovely, too, were the lakes that shone every- 
where about us, a steely blue in the noon light. 
In the notches of the eastern ranges we caught 
glimpses of desert browns and blues. 

North Peak has undoubtedly been ascended 
by the Geological Survey, but we found no 
records of any kind on the summit. Probably 
no one ever tried it as we did, from the east, 
as its western slope is the logical way to climb 
it, and earlier in the season, with snow upon 
it, the eastern side might well be inaccessible. 
So we could enjoy the pleasant feeling that 
we were pioneering. To add to this, on our 
descent we came upon a lake between North 

and Sheep Peak that is not shown on the map. 
A second lake, a mile or so farther down the 
stream is designated, but undoubtedly the 
upper lake was hidden in snow when the map- 
ping party made its observations there. 

Over the shoulder of Sheep Peak and down 
a steep slope we descended to McCabe Lakes, 
and thence skirting Sheep Peak we followed 
down through the open meadows bordering 
Alkali Creek to Conness Creek and the trail 
crossing, our rendezvous with Abe. 

We planned a rather short journey for the 
morrow, only as far as Spiller Creek, for the 
last two days had been both long and hard. 
I was ahead on the trail that day. As 1 

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searched up and down the banks of Return 
Creek for a crossing, Abe came along. The 
black mule, never as intelligent as her wily 
old mountaineering companion, was ahead, and 
promptly blundered out of the ford and fell 
to splashing and floundering, in imminent dan- 
ger of submerging herself and her pack. Abe 
shouted something, fortunately unintelligible, 
in Spanish. Then he looked at me, visibly 
struggled with his tongue, and said with an 
air of noble restraint, "Hell and damnation — 
I'll swear in a minute!" I fled. 

Later, as we waited at Spiller Creek for the 
others, Abe made indirect apology- He pro- 
duced from his pocket something that looked 
like a cannon ball wrapped in a bit of news- 
paper. It was a canteloupe, a gift from the 
ranger in Tuolumne Meadows, and as we con- 
sumed it together Abe talked about himself, 
quite simply and naturally, as man to man. I 
had heard him talk about himself before, but 
in boastful fashion, highly colored to suit the 
tourist taste. This was different. I had a 
flattered feeling that Abe had taken me out 
of the tourist category and classed me among 
the real folk who could understand things as 
they were. How I wish I could preserve his 
exact words, could convey his gestures, and 
the wicked flashes of enjoyment in his black 
eyes as he told this story of a frontier life 
vanished only a few years ago ! 

In the eighties and early nineties Abe was 
a sheep herder. Every summer his flocks 
ranged through the Sierra Nevada at will, 
fattening on the alpine grasses — uprooting 
them incidentally, together with all other vege- 
tation, even to the seedling conifers. It was 
nothing to Abe that destruction followed in 
his wake, nothing that the future of the for- 
ests, the beauty of the mountains, and the wel- 
fare of agricultural lands in the valleys far 
below were being sacrificed. He knew little 
of such things and cared less. So when the 
national park was created and the order came 
to banish the sheep, to Abe it was only an 
incomprehensible piece of high-handed tyr- 
anny. He had no personal stake at issue. 
He was merely a herdsman, with no money 
interest in the flock, but the order struck 
straight at the heart of all his lawless tradi- 
tions, and it became a matter of pride with 
him, of honor almost, to evade it. 

The park was patrolled by a company of 
United States cavalry, and to trick and harry 
them became the dearest pastime of the sheep- 
herders. By the most circuitous and devious 
ways they would drive their flocks up the 
eastern slopes of the range, across the most 
impossible looking passes, and over the park 
boundaries into its upper alpine meadows. 
Sometimes they were undiscovered; sometimes 
the troops caught them on the ground. Then 
disaster followed, for the herders were taken 
down to Wawona and magistrates, while the 
flocks might be driven out of the park in an 
opposite direction, if the officer so willed it, 
to scatter and perhaps suffer tremendous loss. 
A bitter hostility, of course, soon developed, 
but the strongest feeling centered about the 
young captain of the troop, an uncompromis- 
ing" disciplinarian with no mercy for men or 

DECEMBER, 19 16 


"A reg'lar ramrod for stiffness, he was," 
Abe said. "Stiff and hard with his own men, 
too, most as much as he was with us. They 
was all afraid of him, but he couldn't bluff me. 
No, sir ! I used to call him mister, or else 
plain Brown, and it used to rile him somethin' 
awful . . . Lord, yes ! / knew him. 'Rested 
me twice; but he never knew how many times 
I fooled him. He guessed it, though, and 
hated me like I hated him. He was a game 
un all right, but he took awful chances. Why, 
I've sat up in the rocks myself with my gun on 
me and watched him go by when I could 've 
picked him off just as easy ! But he had luck, 
the devil's own luck. Sam laid for him once. 
The Cap' had scattered his flock for him, and 
Sam, he swore he'd get him. The Cap' had 
some trails he used to ride reg-lar, and Sam 
figgered how he could get him and make a 
get-away where none o' them cavalry chaps 
could ever foller him. Yes, he had it all fig- 
gered out, and he lay there and he waited, and 
that time the blame cuss took the other trail ! 
Devil's own luck, I call it." 

"I done him good once," Abe pursued, after 
safely disposing of his tobacco in the other 
cheek. "It was off over there a way." His 
maimed arm indicated the country above Mat- 
terhorn Canon. "There was four of us and he 
nabbed two — Bill and me, we kept out o' sight. 
Well, he took them on down to Wawona and 
left two soldiers with the sheep. And that 
was an awful fool thing to do, too. We could 
've killed 'em just as easy ! Why, many a 
night I'd sneak up so close to 'em I could hear 
what they said, and they never knew. Well, 
Bill and me, we set out to get the sheep away 
from 'em. Day times we kept hid and slept. 
Nights we come down, got a holt of the 
leaders of the flock and led them sheep up 
and up the ranges toward the summit. The 
soldiers was stupid jakes- They didn't know 
the lay of the land and they didn't know 
sheep. They thought it was mountain lions 
that kept them restless, movin' all the night. 
They never guessed that we was there, work- 
in' the flock night after night nearer the bor- 
der. Six nights it took us, and then we had 
'em, every last one, safe over the line. Then 
we come out in the open, and say, them jakes 
was mad ! Wanted to 'rest us, too. We just 
sat there and laughed an' said, 'Not much, you 
don't 'rest us ! We're off'm Uncle Sam's land 
now, and the sheep's our own ag'in.' " 

Always after this talk with him, Abe 
seemed to me as much a part of the elemental 
wildness of nature as were the winds and 
rains and the living creatures of the woods. 
Watching him that evening in the firelight as 
he listened to the Dainty Lady's singing, quiet 
as he was, and content, with the rugged face 
fallen for once into gentler lines, he brought 
to mind a wild river, turned from its rocky 
bed to flow in quiet fields, but ready yet to 
surge into riot and destruction with the com- 
ing of a storm. 

That was one of the loveliest of all our 
camps, that little nook on Spiller Creek. From 
the summit of North Teak the region had 
seemed austere and uninviting, a barren waste 
of granite domes and ridges; but down in the 
canons and on the plateau-like benches was 
a wealth of flower and forest beauty, of 

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lakes, and clean streams meandering through 
meadows. The trees were particularly beau- 
tiful. On the opposite wall of Spiller Canon, 
from floor to rock-crowned crest, rose glorious, 
ranks of mountain pine and hemlock. We 
climbed up among them next morning, and 
along a sandy plateau strewn with strange 
rock and tree forms to the brink of the Mat- 
terhorn Canon. There a turn of the trail 
brought a wonderful view before us- The 
slope was heavily wooded- Great piles of 
broken rock, like shattered walls of masonry, 
were grouped on either hand. Between the 
spiry tops of great hemlocks we looked up 
the canon reaches to a range of sharp peaks 

In writing to advertisers, piease mention Travel 

and serrated spurs rising high above us — the 
Matterhorn, Twin Peaks, Whorl Mountain, 
Doghead, and across the cleft of the canon, 
the Sawtooth Range. A storm was gathering, 
and over all the jagged chain -the shifting 
clouds were scattering now sunlight, now 
shadow, veiling distant mountain tops in gray 
mist garments, and sending little flickering 
sprites of sunbeams dancing up and down the 
canon walls. 

It was rather late when we reached Rodger's 
Lake, so with only a hasty look about us we 
set about making camp. But in the intervals 
of homely toil, the building of fires, the cook- 
ing of food, the dish washing, we watched the 



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evening glory growing about us with never a 
thought of incongruity to mar its wonder. 
Perhaps one secret of the unending delight of 
gypsy ways is that there is enough of this 
contact with common things to keep life sweet 
and wholesome. To walk with one's eyes for 
ever fixed upon the stars is almost as narrow- 
ing to the field of vision as never to lift them 
from the ground. 

At last, with the day's work all behind us, 
we sat on an open promontory overlooking the 
lake. Always a place of bright enchantment, 
Rodger's Lake is particularly -lovely at the 
close of day. A mountain day is like a year in 

miniature — the morning as tender in coloring 
and virginally cool as spring; the midday 
hours full of summer warmth and fervor; 
sunset peaceful, glowing and serene, like ripe 
autumnal weather ; the night bright and spark- 
ling in its wintry cold. The autumn sense of 
fruition and fulfilment, of deep peace follow- 
ing after toil, was strong upon us now. Over 
the great rock faces and snow-streaked walls, 
over the tiny islands with their crooked, strain- 
ing trees, over the quiet water the yellow sun- 
light spread, softening and glorifying every- 
where. It shone ever warmer and ruddier 
until the sun sank out of sight in the low 

In writing to advertisers, please mention Travel 

divide to westward. Then the clouds, both 
above us and reflected in the water, held the 
light. No sound came to us except the low 
roar of a hidden cascade or the splash of a 
fish jumping near shore. So still was the 
water that the expanding circles from a fish's 
plunge were the only ripple forms to be seen. 
As daylight faded the half moon shone out In 
the darkening waters. One by one the stars 
appeared, spangling the whole surface till the 
lake stretched wide before us, a new firmament 
at our feet. 

One long day here, to fish and swim and 
dream away the hours, and then we took the 
homeward trail, back to civilization and work 
again. At Benson Pass I climbed above the 
trail a few hundred feet for a last outlook over 
the high country. Ranges and peaks innumer- 
able were spread before me. Maplike, the 
ways my feet had followed on many a journey 
could be traced. There was Conness and 
North Peak and the old mining region north- 
west of Dana. There, too, was the wild re- 
gion around the Matterhorn where the sheep- 
herders had warred with the soldiers. As I 
sat there, hidden like the old marauders them- 
selves in the rocks above the pass, I heard a 
rhythmic clank of harsh-toned bells and a 
sharp cry. It was Abe, riding with slouching 
ease behind his mules- They passed on down 
the trail, dust clouds and sound of bells grow- 
ing dim in the distance and leaving me 
strangely stirred by their passing. For, as 
our little pack-train traveled the old trails 
again, it seemed to forge a picturesque link 
with the past, as if here, in one of the few 
remaining corners of our once vast wilderness, 
we had reached a forgotten outpost of our 
lost frontier. 


Up in the northeastern corner of Arizona, 
on the Navajo Indian Reservation, is the re- 
markable but little known Canon de Chelly, a 
scene in which is reproduced on the cover of 
this issue. The ruin shown in the picture is 
called the White House, and is one of many 
prehistoric cliff dwellings found there. The 
canon has been a Navajo stronghold since the 
earliest times, but in 1805, in consequence of 
continued raids by the Indians, a Spanish force 
penetrated it and killed 115 men, women and 
children. The name in the Navajo tongue is 
Tseyi, which is similar in pronunciation to the 
present Spanish name Chelly, or phonetically, 
Shay-e. The name looks French, sounds Irish 
and is Indian. 

The main canon is twenty miles long, and 
preserves a fairly uniform width of from 300 
to 500 feet. The walls are brilliant red sand- 
stone, and from above come weather streaks 
of black and gray. The height of the ruins 
may be' judged by the giant tree at the left 
center leaning against the cliff between the 
upper and lower ruins. The automobile is 
nearly a quarter of a mile from the canon 
wall. An unusual feature of the ruin is the 
ladder of footholes which has been cut in the 
rock face. 




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{Continued from page 12) 
company and in surroundings which they 
themselves control, and the name was, I be- 
lieve, inspired by the Stockton story. It is 
worth one's while to stop the car for a mo- 
ment here, and walk to a little summerhouse 
at the edge of the mountain, for the superb 
view over the sugar pine tops and down the 
chaparral-clothed canons to the valley that 
stretches limitlessly away. Under clear 
weather conditions the twin peaks of Santa 
Catalina, seventy-five miles away, may be dis- 
tinguished in the Pacific Ocean. 

Ten miles beyond Squirrel Inn you have a 
disappointment. The fine woodland suddenly 
ends and you drive for a dozen miles along 
the bed of an abandoned logging road (you do 
not know it is that, but, nevertheless, it is) 
past Fredalba, and through the rocky gorge of 
Deep Creek (beloved of trout anglers). The 
long, poetic views that have been charming 
you are absent; on every hand your vision is 
limited by rather monotonous, barren ranges 
rising above valleys and hillsides stripped by 
the lumbermen. Your heart sinks and you 
think: "Rim of the World, forsooth; the 
trough of it, rather. Why, anyhow, did I 
believe this fool California brag and come 
here?" Yet, looking more attentively, you 

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find, though these slopes have been cut over, 
they possess none the less a certain beauty 
that grows on you, the heartening evidence of 
lusty young pines and firs, lifting aspiring tips 
skyward and starting life as briskly and fresh- 
ly as youth ever does — the blessed spirit of 
hope rising out of adversity— the very spirit 
of the West. It is an object lesson in Nature's 
healing ways, and anyhow there is only an 
hour of it. Then you run into Green Valley, 
and the best of all follows — bigger timber, un- 
touched by fire or axe, more glorious views, 
the road is better and winds by devious and 
always pleasant ways, up a long climb, to the 
rim of Big Bear Valley, and then descending 
at accelerated speed a gradual thousand feet, 
it brings you to the gem of the trip, Big Bear 
Lake, which is still 6,700 feet above the sea. 

Let us stop here awhile. There are three 
public camps, several little stores, a barber 
shop or two, and a cattle ranch ; while at in- 
tervals through the woods within sight of the 
lake uncounted communities of cheerful 
campers are sprinkled among their parked and 
sheeted cars. It is pleasant to hear their jolly 
banter called from camp to camp, and their 
snatches of song as, bucket and towel in hand, 
they go to the lakeside for a scrub. The lake, 
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irrigation water to the orange groves of the 
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From Big Bear Lake the road turns south- 
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Five miles of gentle ascent through the same 
fine forest and you are on the valley's rim 
8,000 feet above the sea, and before you, far 
below, lies the canon of Santa Ana. The scene 
has changed completely, from the twilight of 
the forest you have emerged into a wilderness 
of glaring sunlight and of colossal rocks, often 
strangely squared and piled one on another 
like some primeval masonry whose artificers 
were of titanic mold. Straggling pines, wind- 
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Mr. Pennell is notably a modern, and 
has found art in one of the greatest phases 
of modern achievement — the Wonder of 
Work — the building of giant ships, railway 
stations, and the modern skyscraper; giant 
manufacturing, marble quarrying; oil-wells 
and wharves — all the great work which 
man sets his hand to do. Not only in 
America has he drawn these things, but 
all over the continent of Europe, and has 
drawn them as no one else can draw them. 
In crisp, wonderful and inspiring touches 
of introduction to each picture as illumina- 
ting as the pictures themselves, Mr. Pennell 
writes of what he has seen. 

Profusely illustrated. Net, $2.00 

The 1916 Holiday Gift Book 



illustrations in color and decorations by Edmund Frederick 

A sequel to "Betty's Virginia Christmas" and 
presented in as beautiful a gift book style. The 
scene is laid at a northwestern army post; modern 
in color and suggestion. The plot is a straightaway 
army love-story, realistic and yet as light as Betty 's 
laugh. Net, $1.50. 



A stimulating volume with a "kick" 
upon the relation of books to life: the part 
great books play in our goings and comings, 
in the office, in the street, and in the market 
place. The relation of poetry to the 

Similar in size and style to those popular 
sellers, "Why Worry?" "Peg Along," etc., 
etc. Net, $1.00 

In writing to advertisers, please mention Travfl 



Famous Four-Footed Friends 


Stories of well-loved dogs and horses of all 
times, from Bucephalus, Alexander the Great's 
horse, to Jack, the shepherd dog of Central 
Park, New York. Illustrated. $1.60 net. 

Tell Me Why Stories of Great 


The fourth volume of this well-known series 
for children, this time telling how glass came 
to be used, of the invention of printing, of weav- 
ing and of many other useful things. 

Illustrated. $1.50 net. 

Wonderdays and Wonderways 
Through Flowerland 


What Billy and Betty found in the tangle of 
an old garden. Illustrated. $1.50 net. 

Dick Judson, Boy Scout Ranger 

The adventures of a Boy Scout who became a 
forest ranger. Illustrated. $1.00 net. 

The Boy's Book of Famous Warships 


An account of the great fighting ships of all nations and 
all times. The author is an instructor of English at the 
United States Naval Academy. 

Illustrated. $1.60 net. 

Stirring Deeds of Britain's Sea Dogs 


Author of " The Boy's Nelson," " The Boy's Wellington," etc- 
The words of the old Jack Tar's song, "A battleship is 
scrap iron if she doesn't 'old a crew" are vividly con- 
firmed on every page of this graphic story of naval 
heroism in the Great War. It is in reality an absorbing 
juvenile history of all the sea operations up to the end of 

Illustrated with pictures by Montague Dawson and other 
famous marine artists. $1.50 net. 

31 Union Sq. N., New York City 





See Uncle Sam's Great 
Army on Your Way to 


El Paso— the greatest concentration 
point for American troops since the 
Civil war— and many other import- 
ant army headquarters lie on the 
route of the 

"Golden State Limited" 



You will see our soldiers— you will 
thrill with the sense of our power— 
you will have the most interesting 
journey of a life time and at the end lies 
California— the land of eternal summer. 

Less than three days — Chicago or St. 
Louis to Los Angeles — no excess fare. 

Tickets permit ten day stopover at El Paso. 

Automatic Block Signals 

Finest Modern A 11 -Steel Equipment 

Superior Dining Car Service 

Tickets, reservations and information at any- 
Rock Island Travel Bureau, or address 

L. M. ALLEN, Passenger Traffic Manager 


Room 720, La Salle Station, Chicago 





By EDWARD EARLE PURINTON, Author of "Efficient Living." 

A straight from the shoulder presentation of the facts of efficiency in the greatest business 
of all — life. There is nothing mysterious about efficiency; it is merely a combination of work 
and common sense. The work is your job; but here is the result of Mr. Purinton's fourteen 
years of experience as a student and teacher of efficiency — plus his inspired sanity — to help you. 
$1.35 net. Leather Edition §1.60 net. 
N. B. — "Efficient Living," Mr. Purinton's other popular book, and "The Triumph of 
the Man Who Acts," make a splendid combination Christmas gift. 

The Two Books in Leather, Boxed, $3.20 Net. 

ROBERT M. McBRIDE & CO. 31 Union Sq. N., New York City 


Pod, Bender & Co. 


Remember Raffles? Remember young Walling- 
ford and all the host of amiable villains of literature? 
Here are their worthy successors in Pod and 
Bender, the two arch-crooks whose exploits teem 
with excitement and humor. Mr. England is a 
master in this field of fiction and this engrossing 
story is among his very best. §1.35 net. 

The Certain Hour 


A book for the man or woman who finds pleasure 
in the company of people of wit and graciousness 
and daring. Ten men are its heroes; and none is 
unmemorable. And of its women, all were loved 
once, and here remain lovely. Mr. Cabell has 
written nothing more graceful than these delightful 
tales. §1.35 net. 

From the Hidden Way 


A book of poems that recalls the spirit of earlier 
times and gives more than the promise of beauty 
to us of to-day. Mr. Cabell here reveals himself 
as much a master of the poetic form as of prose, 
and as the possessor of a lyric gift of extraordinary 
power and sweetness. §1.35 net. 

A Russian Garland of Fairy Tales 


A collection of folk-tales from the old Russian 
chap-books which retain to a remarkable degree 
the native charm and colorful imagination of those 
legends of the people. The reader will welcome 
several old friends of fairyland in new and delightful 
guise, and will make many new friends among these 
appealing characters of Slavic folk-lore. 
Illustrated in color, §1.50 net. 

Finding the Worth-While in California 


Author of "With The Flowers and Trees of California," ''Under 
the Sky in California." 

A convenient and compact pocket guide con- 
taining everything which the tourist will require 
to know about this great pleasure ground of the 
Pacific Coast — and written in an inspirational as 
well as a practical vein. It gives lists of hotels 
and accommodations, itineraries for motoring, 
riding or walking, describes intimately the scenic 
and natural attractions of the State, and suggests 
the proper clothing and equipment for all seasons 
and local conditions. With Maps. §1.00 net. 

A Citizens' Army 


The paramount lesson of the present war for the 
United States is that this nation must have suffi- 
cient trained soldiers to guard against invasion or 
to check an invader until we can develop our latent 
resources. To accomplish this end without the 
dangers of militarism is a vital problem. This 
book, by its scholarly and explicit study of the 
Swiss military system, points tie way clearly and 
definitely by analogy to a realization of these aims 
by the United States. Illustrated. §1.25 net. 

Seven Secrets of Success 


A little book of inspiration for every man and 
woman who seeks encouragement and guidance in 
the business of life. Dr. Peters has selected seven 
of the most important qualities which tend to make 
the successful person, and he points the way for 
everyone to make these qualities his or her own. 
75 cents net. 

ROBERT M. McBRIDE & CO., Dnion Sq., New York 

In writing to advertisers, please mention Travel 

The *] 

Jubilee ! 

A superb Christmas Gift for 
the entire family — a piano 
that every member can play 
and enjoy for many years. 

The Kranich & Bach is recognized by discriminating musicians as the world's 
most artistic instrument — best in tone, touch and in everything that constitutes 
real musical quality. Its supremacy has been won by fifty years of "Quality 
First" effort, backed by many patented features of mechanical superiority. 

Send us the name and age of your piano and we 
will mail you a handsome gilt-metal souvenir. 


'^fltm-Quality PIANOS 

and Player Pianos 

A small first payment sends home 
this beautiful Jubilee Player-Piano 

Price $700 

(F. O. B. NEW YORK) 

235-245 EAST 23d STREET 



1 - 9 - 1-7 

a (aopy 





White Sulphur Springs 

•!'|i|i!i[!ii:Hiiii , !iir!|iriiiiiiiiiriii;!iiiiiiiiii:iiiiiii; ; iiiii!iii|it!;iiiii"ii:!iii i iiriii''i!''ii||i;iii- j 









Sulphur Water, Nauheim and all prin- 
cipal baths of European Health Resorts 
are given in the Bath House by 
sKilled attendants. 


The Belleview 

Belleair Heights, Florida 

Special Golf Privileges to Hotel Patrons 



No. 1 Course 6218 YARDS, No. 2 Course 5763 YARDS 

For information, booklet, 
etc., address 

fl. D. SAXTON, MGR. 

305 FIFTH AVE., N. Y. 

Tel. Madison Sq. 9957 


=lj_i r n n I r r n i r r r r 1 1 1 r F 1 T i ■ r 1 1 1 1 ■ r 1 1 m 1 r r 1 1 ' ' 1 1 ! ■ : i ' ' f - 1 1 1 ' r 1 1 1 ■ ; i ' i - r 1 1 1 ■ ' I n ' ■ t ! ■ ■ r 1 1 ! ' ■ r r I ' ' ;i 1 1 1 ■ ■ 1 1 1 M : - 1 1 1 ■ ■ 1 1 1 m ■ r 1 1 m - ^ ■ : r n i ' ^ ■ 1 1 1 ! ■ ; r ! i ■■ ' i n r r > ■ r r 1 1 1 ' ■ ■ 1 1 ; J i_J= 


Watkins, N.Y., on 
.Seneca Lake, 

Win. C Lefflngwell, Pres 

A Mineral Springs HEALTH RESORT and HOTEL 
known as 


In Private Park with miles of graded walks for Oertel hill climbing. 


are directly connected with the Hotel 
and complete in all appointments for 

Hydrotherapy, Electrotherapy and Mechanotherapy. 

The Bathing Springs are similar to the waters of Bad Nauheim 
in the proportions of Calcium Chloride and Sodium Chloride, but 
are about five times as strong. The Radium Emanation from 
Brine Spring No. 1 averages G8 Mache Units per liter of water 
and is due to Radium Salts in Solution. 

Unsurpassed advantages for the treatment of Heart, Circulatory, Kidney, 
Nutritional and Nervous Disorders; Rheumatism, Gout and Obesity. 


Our Illustrated Booklets will be matted on request 




Sufferers with Tuberculosis will find 
Relief and Cure in this High Alti- 
tude and Low Humidity, provided 
they have the means to secure the 
proper accommodations. 

Sanatoria, Boarding Houses 
Cottages, Ranch Homes 

Albuquerque, N. Mex. 

New Mexico is a Wonder-Land of 
Beautiful Scenery, Hunting and 
Fishing Grounds that have scarcely 
been touched. There are New 
Delights for the Tourist in Ex- 
ploring Our Old Cave Dwellings 
and Ruined Pueblos. Summer 
Climate Ideal. Write 

Albuquerque New Mexico 
Chamber of Commerce 


JANUARY, 1917 

T&. Altaian & (En. 


soon to be opened, promises to establish a new record for 
social splendor. To be adequately prepared for its demands 
in the matter of dress, the woman of fashion should formu- 
late her plans without delay. 


sounding the keynote of style in Suits, Dresses, Coats, Hats, 

Bathing Costumes, Sports and Travel Clothes, 

are now being displayed in a 

choice collection. 


Eijtrtg-foitrtlj Bttnt ©Jjtrtij-fiftlj Btxnt 

In writing to advertisers, please mention Travel 



With personal escort on magnificent steamships of 
the United Fruit Co.'s "Great White Fleet" 
leave New York during January, February and 
March. 24 day cruises. Faresin- GjOfifl nn 
elude shore excursions, hotels, etc. «P"0" U P 

Other Touts de Luxe 
SOUTH AMERICA— Feb. 3 and 17. 

to April. 

EAST — February 14. 

Send for Program Desired 


245 Broadway, New York 

Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago, Los An- 
geles, San Francisco, Montreal, Toronto 

SOUTH SEAS. Arrangements should now 
be made to visit 


Suva, New Zealand Australia 

The Palatial Passenger Steamers 

<R. M.S. "NIAaARA")(R.M.S. "MAKURA") 

(20.000 tons) (13.500 tons) 

Sail from Vancouver, B. C, Jan. 17, Feb. 14, 

Mar. 14 

Round Pacific Tour $337.50 up. 

Honolulu S135.00 Up. For further particulars 


Can. Pac. Ry., 1231 Broadway, N. Y., or to 

Can. Aust. Royal Mail Line, 440 Seymour St. 

Vancouver, B. C. 


"By Sea" 


(Calling at Savannah) 

I One "Way Round Trip 

1 $27.00 BOSTON $45.00 

I $24.40 NEW YORK $43.30 

I $22.40 PHILADELPHIA $39.00 

| $20.00 BALTIMORE $35.00 

I Including meals and stateroom berth. 

| Fine steamers. Low fares. Best service. 

Automobiles carried 

Send for particulars 
I Merchants and Miners Trans. Co. 
I W. P. Turner, G.P.A. Baltimore, Md. 

| Consult any ticket or tourist agent 

niniffnnMiTmiiHii'. k , .iiiiiiui j 


43rd and 44th Streets and Madison Avenue 

The center of social life at 


Ideally convenient for 
suburban dv^ellers 



Y Dc Luxe Tours 



| S.S. Korea, 18,000 tons. Jan. 27th, S.S. Tenyo 
§ Marti, 22,000 tons, and weekly. Send for Lit. 

tiiiiniuniiiniitiiiiiiriiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiTiiiiiimiiiiiiii intiiiiiu 



D ELIGHTFUL tropical climate, attractive modern 
hotels and a variety of outdoor sports make this 
the ideal spot for a winter visit. 

Fashionable restaurants, beautiful gardens; opera during the sea- 
son. Golf and tennis at the Havana Country Club. Horse Racing 
at Oriental Park. Direct service from New York each Thursday 
at noon and Saturday morning at 11 o'clock. Luxurious 10,000 
ton steamers, sailing under the American flag, with unsurpassed 
accommodations and cuisine. 


Average Winter temperature 72° ; a paradise of flowers and vegeta- 
tion. Excellent hotels of large capacity and up-to-date appoint- 
ments; charming social life, boating, golf, tennis, polo, motoring, 
surf bathing. New twice-a-week steamer service between Jack- 
sonville, Fla., and Nassau, beginning Jan. 8, 1917. Sailings New 
York to Nassau every Thursday. 

A 24-day luxuriously restful cruise to Progreso, Vera Cruz and 
Tampico, Mexico, visiting Havana and Nassau en route. 

Also regular direct passenger and freight service between New York and West 
Coasts ports of Central America and Salina Cruz, Mexico via Panama Canal. 


General Passenger Department, Footof Wall St., New York |Eg! 


Boston Chicago New York 

192 Washington St. 533 Marquette Bldg. 290 B'way. 

Philadelphia Washington 

701 Chestnut St. 1306 F St., N. W. 




Safer than Currency 

to carry 

has often been remarked 
when talking of 

K. N. & K. Travelers' Checks 

Experienced Travelers 
Use Them. 

Checks not countersigned 
may be replaced if lost. 

Considering the protec- 
tion afforded, their cost is 

Denominations of 
$10, $20, $50 and $100 

at a premium of 50c on 
one hundred dollars' worth 

Get them from your banker or 
write for fall particulars. 

KnautJj-Nadjob &Kuhne 




the romantic lands of the Caribbean, by the beauti- 
ful American steamships "Tenadores" and Pas- 
tores," under exclusive charter. 

Many exceptional side trips by automobile and special trains are 
included. Every detail that our long experience in the West Indies suggests as 
adding to the luxury and delight of tropical travel has been included. 


Sailing from New York Feb. 10 and 24, 1917, 24 days duration. Price $290 up. 
Also remarkable tours to the South Sea Islands and Australasia, South 
America, Japan and China, Florida and Nassau, and California. 

Send for booklet desired 


17 Temple Place Dept. II, Boston 

- New York Philadelphia 


San Francisco 



A quiet, luxurious 
Residential Hotel, 
affording the Ex- 
clusiveness and 
Elegance of a pri- 
»r »» vate Residence, 
mn-iu '/:.• Opposite the Met- 
ropolitan Club and the 5tb Ave. Entrance 
to Central Park. Apartments, single or 
en suite, for long or short periods. 


Made from Plates or Films, 30c each 
From Photographs, Maps, etc., 50c each 

In lots of 25 or more. Special Rates 

A Set of 20 Interesting Slides of New 

York City, $5.00 

A . LOEEf LER, 2 1 2 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 


Open from December to May 

HOWE & TWOROOER, Managers 

Best location and equipment on the islands. Modern 

appointments throughout including grill room and 

tiled swimming pool. Accommodates 400 guests. 


Climate mild but invigorating. Driving, saddle 

riding, tennis, golf, yachting and sea bathing. 



The Logical Place For All Winter | 
Sports. Only One Night From | 
New York. Through Sleepers. 1 
Enjoy an Old English Christmas 1 
And a French New Year "Reveil- 1 
Ion" in a Snow White City. | 
Winter Rates on American Plan. | 
Write for illustrated Winter Book- f 
let and special sports bulletins. | 


To the Tropic* 
A Cruise 

The American Express Travel 
Department Announces 

A Cruise £eWest Indies 

Visiting Cuba, Jamaica, Panama, Costa Rica 

^RESTFUL DAYS away from Winter 
in the romantic American Tropics. 

Under the American Flag. 
Numerous Shore Excursions. 

First Cruise: January 27 
Second Cruise: March 10 
$290 and upwards 

Ask for Booklet 


66 Broadway. New York City 

Philadelphia Boston Chicago San Francisco 
Cleveland St. Louis Los Angeles 



See the wide beauty and strange sights of tropical 
Florida by taking the Scenic Route through the heart of 
the Everglades, across Lake Okeechobee, the largest fresh 
water lake in this region, and down the beautiful Caloosa- 
hatchee River. vlake this trip the feature of your sojourn 
in Florida this winter. Boat connects Fort Lauderdale on 
the East Coast with Fort Myers on the West Coast, pass- 
ing en route through the home of the Seminole Indians, 
haunts of tie beautiful birds of plumage, and the famous 
Moorehaven and LaBelle farming and grazing section. 
Florida tourists should not fail to include this attractive 
and unusual trip in their plans. Send for folder and rate to 
Forbes Pioneer Boat Lines, Inc., General Offices, 
Ft. Lauderdale, Fla., or Althouse Tours Co., 1333 
Walnut Street, Philadelphia; American Express 
Co., 65'Broadway, New York City; Mr. Bonneld's 
travel Service, Jacksonville, Florida; Thos. Cook & 
Son, 245 Broadway, New York City; "iillespie, Kin- 
ports & Beard, 309-311 Fifth Avenue, New York City; 
George E. Marsters Co., 248 Washington Street, 
Boston, Mass.; Raymond W.iitcomb Company, 300 
Washington Street, Boston, lass.; Temple Tours, 
149 Tre ont Street, Boston, 4ass, 

Hotel Seminole 


Rooms, without Bath, $1, $1.50, $2 

With Bath $2.00 and up. 


■ ^ Summer there now! Voyage delightful via Honolulu 

and Samoa. Splendid 10,000 ton. twin screw American steamers 
every 21 days from San Francisco (Jan. 9, 30, Feb. 20, Mar. 13, 

Apr. 3, Apr. 24.) Return 1st class. $337. Si; 2nd class, $225; in- 
cluding China and Japan, 1st class, $575; to Honolulu, $65. Folders 

H. E. BURNETT, 17 Battery Place, New York, or 

669 Market Street, 
San Francisco. 



In Winter 

i , 1 

The only place in America where a cure - 

can be taken just as comfortably as in the — 

Spring, Summer or Fall. At no other place can there 

be found such ideal conditions for rest, recreation and recup- "— -. 

eration with environments that leave nothing to be desired. No pains are spared 

to make The Homestead even more attractive in the winter than at other seasons. The 

well known standard of equipment and of service is maintained throughout the year. 

Situated 2,500 feet above sea level — Never any extremes — Agreeable mornings, cloudless ~ ^2»~" 
skies, balmy noons, wonderful and incomparable sunsets — 
Magnificent vistas — spacious rooms, corridors and verandahs. 'J. ^^ 

Famous Healing Waters 

Truly Wonderful— Naturally Heated— 106° 

In the waters at Hot Springs is found more radio activity 

\ than at any place in the world — a fact so fraught with importance 

~ w " •« -,- that it is almost startling to suffering humanity. At none of the 

I , celebrated places in Europe are the natural waters so charged with all 

their gases and other health giving qualities — At no other place is 

the temperature prescribed for hot baths, that at which the water 

actually emerges from the earth in the natural springs. 

The famous Spout Bath for Gout, Rheumatism, Ner- 
vous Diseases, Sciatica, Nervous Prostration, Liver Troubles 
and Old Joint Injuries. Modern and complete bath equip- 
ment — Swedish Gymnastics, Massage and Hot Air Treat- 
ments — Needle, Spray, Electric, Medicated and other 
Baths — Physicians of international reputation — Expe- 
rienced and careful attendants. 

The Bath House is connected with the Hotel by an ornate, 
sunlighted viaduct, so that the bather may go to and from his room 
without outside exposure. 

The Homestead Book 

A lifelike photographic description of the Homestead Hotel and 
its surroundings, in natural colors. It tells of the 500 rooms — excellent 
cuisine — incomparable drinking water — attractive ballroom — fascinat- 
ing drives— interesting trails and bridle paths — Golf courses and 
Tennis Courts. This book, together with the treatises on the 
therapeutic value of the waters, should be read by everyone looking 
for an ideal winter resort for rest, recuperation and recreation. We 
will gladly send copies upon request. 

H. ALBERT, Resident Manager, Hot Springs, Va. 

Booking Offices — Ritz-Carlton Hotels, New York, Philadelphia 

I - ■■■/■ ■■" -.. 


Sportsman's paradise. Golf course overlooking the broad and beautiful Caloosahatchee River, built by and under the 
direction of Donald Ross, the premier golf course architect of America. Hunting, fishing, motoring, horseback^nding; large 
swimming pool. Music and Dancing. 150 rooms, 140 private baths, 
will be sent upon request. 

The Table a feature. The Hotel Royal Palm Booklet 
Barnett & Parent, Lessees 



Hi Midnight Parade and m 

W Extravaganza Ice Ballet |jj 

| At 7 P. M. and 12 Midnight | 


Dine in a Warm Ioe Palace and Dance jjj 

m Around the Glades. Skating Carnival j|j 

J Parade and Ballet in full view. More jjl 

= than 1,600 feet of real ice. |B 


B Select Your Own Grill Special- §B 

B ties in the Golden Glades. 


■ /0 P. M. 77/£ MARIMBA BAND |H 

sss Golden Glades may be rented mornings and afternoons for ^= 

^^ private social affairs. A few dates open. Phone 9900 Columbus ^^ 

New Stomachs for Old 

By Arthur True Buswell, M. D. 

In a recent talk with Eugene Christian 
he told me of some of his experiences in 
the treatment of various ailments through 
food — just a few instances out of the more 
than 23,000 cases he has on record. 

One case which interested me greatly 
was that of a young business man whose 
efficiency had been practically wrecked 
through stomach acidity, fermentation 
and constipation, resulting in physical 
sluggishness which was naturally reflected 
in his ability to use his mind. He was 
twenty pounds underweight when he first 
went to see Christian and was so nervous 
he couldn't sleep. Stomach and intestinal 
gases were so severe that they caused ir- 
regular heart action and often fits of great 
mental depression. As Christian describes 
it, he was not 50 per cent, efficient either 
mentally or physically. Yet in a few days 
by following Christian's suggestions as to 
food, his constipation had completely gone, 
although he had formerly been in the habit 
of taking large daily doses of a strong 
cathartic. In five weeks every abnormal 
symptom had disappeared — his weight hav- 
ing increased 6 lbs. In addition to this 
he acquired a store of physical and mental 
energy so great in comparison with his 
former self as to almost belie the fact that 
it was the same man. 

But perhaps the most interesting case 
that Christian told me of was that of a 
multi-millionaire — a man 70 years old, who 
had been traveling with his doctor for sev- 

eral years in a search for health. He was 
extremely emaciated, had chronic constipa- 
tion, lumbago, and rheumatism. For over 
twenty years he had suffered with stomach 
and intestinal trouble which in reality was 
superaciduous secretions in the stomach. 
The first menus given him were designed to 
remove the causes of acidity, which was 
accomplished in about thirty days. And 
after this was done he seemed to undergo 
a complete rejuvenation. His eyesight, 
hearing, taste, and all of his mental facul- 
ties became keener and more alert. He 
had had no organic trouble — but he was 
starving to death from malnutrition and 
decomposition — all caused by the wrong 
selection and combination of foods. 

There have been so many inquiries from 
all parts of the United States from people 
seeking the benefit of Eugene Christian's 
advice and whose cases he is unable to 
handle personally that he has written a lit- 
tle course of lessons which tells you exactly 
what to eat for health, strength, and effi- 

If you would like to examine these 24 
Little Lessons, simply write The Corrective 
Eating Society, Department 841, 460 
Fourth Avenue, New York City. It is not 
necessary to enclose any money with your 
request. Merely ask them to send the 
lessons on five days' trial, with the under- 
standing that you will either return them 
within that time or remit $3.00, the small 
fee asked. 


Summer Hotel: 

Soo-Nipi Park Lodge, 
Lake Sunapee, N. H. 

Largest and Most Modern Hotel at 



Open January 3. Superb ocean 
beach, sea bathing, golf, tennis, fishing, 
boating, dancing, orchestra, after- 
noon tea. Accommodates 250. Many 
private baths. Hot and cold running 
water in practically every room; 
elevator, steam heat, electric light. 
Superior cuisine. Booklet on ap- 



On the Famous I 






SE*At$KELE*£iEs 9 railroad station, daytona 


18 Hole Golf Course (6,000 yds.), Sea Bathing, Fish- 
ing, Tennis, Motoring, Horseback Riding, Dancing, 
Turkish Baths. New Brick Motor Roadway 
recently completed from Jacksonville to 
Seabreeze. Fireproof Garage. 


Telephone Madison Sq. 4748 

m mil iiiiiiiiiiiwiiiiiiiiiimiiiiim 

:the new sport cloth 

"Badminton Hunt" 


A handsome cloth specially constructed from a very fine 
half-blood two-ply yarn both warp and weft and possess- 
ing that wearing strength necessary under the hard 
service conditions it is intended — SPORT CLOTHES. 




Sewed on 

Leading Retailers Will Show Garments Made From 
This Cloth 



m inn miimimiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiim 

In writing to advertisers, please mention Travel 

JANUARY, 1917 

| Ct)e | 
| Wtbxttx 

New York g 


m (Just off Fifth Avenue) g 

| Within a block of Sherry's jj 

H and Delmonico's The Har- jj 

m vard and Yale Clubs, and a g 

B block and a half from Times g 

g Square. g 

I Thetransientclienteleisfrom = 

5 the best families of Europe, g 

jj Canada and America. g 

g Service and cuisine compar- a 

g able with the best clubs, but jj 

g with the advantage of hotel S 

8 privileges and conveniences, g 

g Moderate prices. Booklet ■ 

g on request. g 


The Slater Industrial and State 
Normal School for Colored People 


The most worthy cause our nation has on its 
hands today is the educating and uplifting of the 
colored people. It is not a local matter, but a 
national one. It is positively the only solution of 
the race problem. 

The influence of this School has ended all race 
friction here. The institution is not an experi- 
ment, but a splendid reality, being as important 
as any in the entire south for colored people, save 
Hampton and Tuskegee. The lands, buildings, 
appliances, etc., are valued at more than $70,000. 

The General Educational Board, The Phelps- 
Stokes Fund, and the State Legislature contribute 
to the School, which proves conclusively the merit 
of today's appeal. 

One of our citizens tendered the trustees $5,000, 
provided they would raise same amount for a 
hospital for the sick, and where colored girls could 
be educated for trained nurses, thus introducing 
an employment for colored women which is pecu- 
liaraly well adapted to the Southern ideals 'of pro- 
priety. His offer was accepted and we have built 
the hospital. The graduates, students and 
friends of the school did much of the manual labor. 

The State officials seeing the good effects upon 
the colored people, offered the School $12,000, pro- 
vided the trustees raised the same amount. We 
have made a strong effort and have raised very 
little of this amount, to meet the offer of the State. 
It is totally impossible for us to raise it here, as our 
own people have already done all they can do. 

The State has generously advanced the money 
and we beg you to please do your utmost to help 
raise our $12,000. Thus with $24,000 cash in 
hand, we can increase the plant greatly as the 
colored people will do much of the manual labor 

The State has just completed a $15,000 dormi- 
tory for girls at its own expense. 


If every reader who sees this item would send in 
$1 to Treasurer Blair the school equipment and 
efficiency could be increased to the extend of 

WM. A. BLAIR, Treasurer. 



Learn how to handle a gun. Take a "crack" at the clays. Get your share of the Sport 
Alluring. Add health to pleasure and accuracy to recreation. Develop your bump of con- 


is a bully sport for both man and woman and tends toward self development. 

Go Out to the Gun Club To Day 

get a taste of this truly American Sport. Learn its fascination and the good fellowship that 
prevails among "gunbugs" then you'll know why hundreds of thousands of people are "dyed- 

Send today for our booklet The Sport Alluring 

and get the name of your, nearest gun club. 




Through All Steel Electric 
Lighted Trains Daily to 



Superior Boadway, Equipment and Service to 



Leaving New York from Pennsylvania R. R. Station 

9.15 A. M. (2.12 P. M. Effective January 3) 

3.34 P. M. and 9.30 P. M. 


Atlantic Coast Line 

The Standard Railroad of the South 

For illustrated literature and all information address: 


Broadway and 29th St. 110 South 16th St. 248 Washington St. 


Light and German Streets 1406 New York Avenue. N.W. 




Along ocean front, with a superb view of strand and 
famous Boardwalk, the St. Charles occupies an 
unique position among resort hotels. It has^ an en- 
viable reputation for cuisine and unobstrusive ser- 
vice. 12 stories of solid comfort (fireproof); ocean 
porch and sun parlors ; sea water in all baths ; orches- 
tra of soloists. Week-end dances. Golf privileges. 
Booklet mailed. Newun Haines Co. 


In writing to advertisers, please mention Travel 


Annual January Sales 


Affording selections from choice new assortments of great variety, in Negligees, 
Matinees, Boudoir Caps and Gowns, Petticoats, silk, knit and lingerie Under- 
wear, Corsets, House Dresses, Children's Undergarments and Infants' Apparel 
at the lowest prices of the year. 

1. Boudoir gown of Crepe de Chine, 
"Angel" sleeves and shawl collar, 
trimmed with worsted fringe; in 
dainty colorings. 9.75 

2. Boudoir Slip-on of Crepe de 
Chine, straight-line model, lace trim- 
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3. Negligee of Crepe de Chine, 
two-piece Empire model with accor- 
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coatee of lace. 9.75 

4. Taffeta Petticoat of exceptionally 
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finished with plaitings and ruffle; 
deep underlay. 5.95 

Illustrated booklet with detailed information of the many remarkable values offered, upon request 

James McCreery & Co. 

5th Avenue 

New York 

34th Street 




Volume XXVIII 

January, 1917 

Number 3 






THE BIG CITIES OF CANADA. Charles Phelps Cushing 22 


IN A PREHISTORIC ZOO. Frank K. Evans 32 

MOTOR BOATING TO FLORIDA. Ruth Danenhower. 35 







Published monthly by Robert M. McBride & Company, Inc., Union Square North, New York City; 
Rolls House, Breams Bldgs., London, E. C, 25 cents per copy; $3.00 per year. For foreign postage, add S1.00; 
Canadian, 50 cents. Entered as second-class matter at the Post-Office at New York, under act of March 3, 
1879, and copyrighted 1916 by Robert M. McBride & Company, Inc. 

Edward Frank Aixen, Editor. 

Travel assumes no responsibility for the damage or loss of manuscripts or photographs submitted for 
publication, although due care will be taken to insure their safety. Full postage should always be sent for the 
return of unavailable material. 

s '/' ff i, '' --' 


(C) Underwood & Underwood 


The ancient carved gateway to a ghat beside the Jumna River, showing a part of the bridge that crosses the river at this point. In the Sixteenth Century the Mogul Emperors 
made Agra their capital, and during their reign it became the most beautiful city of India. Owing to the mild climate, as well as recent restorations under British rule, 

much of the architectural beauty of Agra still remains 




JANUARY, 1917 


(C) Underwood & Underwood 

In the fruit and vegetable market at Agra. The baskets of produce are spread on the ground about the vendor without covering of any kind to protect them from the sun s 

hot rays and the dust of the street 




Eleanor Maddock 

NOWHERE in the whole of Hindustan is the glamor of the East 
so felt as at Agra, where a king built houses with golden domes 
and walls studded with precious stones for a beautiful queen ; and when 
she died and was laid among the cypresses of the garden, he raised a 
tomb the beauty of which has never been rivaled before or since. But 
as he was a Mohammedan one cannot help feeling that had Queen 
Arjmand been old or ugly when she died, the Taj Mahal would prob- 
ably never have been built. 

No structure in the world has been so written about or so widely pho- 
tographed, until it would seem that the last word had been said, the last 
rhapsody sounded. Yet there is something very curious about it, quite 

apart from the opalescent tints of its domes and minarets, "piercing the 
warm blue Indian sky." There are other edifices of the same type, and 
in each there is some flaw, but the Taj is perfect in every line and curve, 
possible of achievement only by an architect who had reached over the 
border into the fourth dimension. Therein lies the subtle harmony so 
difficult to define in this monument to the memory of a woman, a monu- 
ment that was twenty-one years in the building and upon which was 
lavished treasure from every part of the Orient, at a cost such as to 
make the eyes of "Mahmud of Ghuzni, dead these hundred years, roll in 
their sockets." 

The query has often been made as to how Shah Jehan became pos- 




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An unusual view of the "Peerless Tomb " which was erected by the Mogul Emperor 

Shah Jehan in tribute to his favorite wife, the Persian princess Arjmand. The tomb 

took seventeen years in the building and is entirely of white marble 


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Someone has said of the Taj: "Seen from the avenue it looks high rather than broad; 

seen from the pavement below it, it looks broad rather than high; you doubt, then 

conclude that its proportions are perfect" 

sessed of his fabulous wealth. In the first place his grandfather, Empe- 
ror Akbar, the great Mogul, increased the state revenues enormously 
by seizing the territory of weaker rulers and holding it through careful 
management, and in his day diamonds, emeralds and rubies were mined 
not by the handfuls but by bucketfuls. In proportion, the pearl fisheries 
of Ceylon and the Great Rann of Cutch poured their treasures into the 
coffers at Delhi. Gold, too, was plentiful, and "labor was cheaper than 
bread and water." Then Shah Jehan's empress, "Motee, the Pearl," as 
she was familiarly called by her. people, was richly dowered, for her 
father, Asif Jah, the Persian, left a colossal fortune. 

Credulity would hardly stand the test were it not for the authentic 
records of persons who not only saw the Peacock Throne, but Shah 
Jehan sitting upon it, robed in silk brocade interwoven with threads of 
pure gold, his clear-cut, cruel features softened by the dark, liquid eyes 
inherited from his Hindu mother. The throne rested on four massive 
lions' feet of gold and twelve golden pillars emblazoned with costly 
gems supported a pearl-fringed canopy ; at the back were two peacocks, 
their spreading tails blazing with the natural shifting colors of sapphires, 
rubies, emeralds and diamonds. On the front was a parrot carved out 
of a single emerald, holding suspended in its beak the Koh-i-noor dia- 
mond, called the "Mountain of Light," or "Talisman of Kings," which 
brings sovereignty and power to its possessor, as testified by a race of 
slave kings who sat for more than eighty years on the throne of Delhi 
after the great jewel fell into the hands of a clever-witted slave. 

After sunset, in the cool of the evening, the court assembled on the 
marble terrace of the Hall of Audience, watching the beautiful blue-eyed 
Kashmeri slave-girls, bedecked with jewels, moving automata-like across 
the pachisi-board in the center, while the Emperor sat on the black 
marble platform spread with rugs and cushions under a crimson silk 

JANUARY, 1917 

1 1 

(C) Underwood & Underwood 


In the days when the rajahs of Hindustan used to exchange visits of State, the camel 

was highly prized because of his speed and endurance; but the modern Hindu prefers 

to travel by rail or, if he possess wealth, in a 1917 model motor 

canopy. The marble has a crack across it where it was struck by 
lightning, and the ancient palm — whose rustling fronds cast flickering 
shadows before the palaces were built — is beginning to lean more each 
year over toward the river Jumna. 

Of the thousands of tourists who have stood on the terrace, only a 
few knew that it was a whited sepulcher, or that under the marble pav- 
ing blocks are hideous dungeons, and a long passage winding down to 
the river, where, underneath a rusty iron grating, lurk scaly monsters 
with hungry eyes and gleaming teeth — crocodiles whose ancestors have 
passed on the secret, and who are waiting patiently for the good old 
days to come again when a troublesome discarded favorite of the 
harem, or a beautiful slave, victim of jealous and powerful rivals, was 
borne shrieking down the grim passage to the end. The first dungeon 
is a small vaulted chamber, with a solid beam of the almost indestruc- 
tible teakwood built into the masonry, and in the early part of the last 
century a thick rope of rotting silk was still dangling from it; for, by 
some peculiar twist of character, the hypocritical emperor, Aurungzebe, 
chose to execute his victims by hanging before passing them down to 
the "river undertakers." The entrance was concealed by the mango 
grove along the edge of the terrace; now it is under some steps, the 
grove having long since disappeared. Many such places are known to 
exist that have been closed for all time, but this is left open as an outlet 
for the damp, foul air rising from the river, and to prevent it filtering 
through and discoloring the marble floors and buildings above. 

To the right of the terrace, opposite the Hall of Audience, is the 
Jasmin Tower, which contains the queen's apartments and rosewater 
bath. It is a veritable jewel casket. Its walls are inlaid with agate, 
cornelian and amethyst, and bronze hooks are still embedded over the 
arches that once supported the "purdahs," or curtains. Jalousie-screened 

(C) Stereo-Travel Co. 


The great Elephant Gate and the octagon towers that guard the walls. Shah Jehan 

was a warrior as well as an artist, and made the fort as grimly forbidding without as 

the palaces within are delicately beautiful 




The massive slone slab in the deserted palace of Fatehpur-Sikri that was once the 
•couch of the first Mogul Emperor. The high steps which led up to the bed have been 

recently moved 

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'Coolie women carrying their fagots down the smooth broad road that stretches across 

iihe level plain from Agra to the deserted city of Fatehpur-Sikri. The way is shaded 

by rows of tamarinds and gnarled old mango and banyan trees 

galleries lead down to the Golden Pavilion, its roof covered with sheet 
gold, where her children slept and where she kept her jewels in deep 
apertures built into the walls, with openings so small as to admit only 
a woman's hand. Facing it, where a marble terrace now is, were lovely 
gardens where the children played. An unusual photograph, taken under 
just the right atmospheric conditions, shows the Taj across' the Jumna 
through the arches of the pavilion. 

There is the exquisite Gem Mosque, where Shah Jehan, old and de- 
crepit, was kept a prisoner for seven years by his son Aurungzebe, his 
release coming only the evening before his death, when, after repeated 
refusals, he was carried up to the Jasmin Tower, to gaze with dying 
eyes upon the Taj, gleaming like a gigantic pearl in the moonlight, with 
"she of the lotus eyes" asleep under the swelling dome. 

These marble buildings comprise what has always been known as 
the Fort, enclosed in walls of red sandstone, with each stone linked to 
another by iron rings that no attack by men or by the forces of nature 
has even so much as shaken. 

It is a far cry from Agra to Burhanpur, once the Mogul capital of the 
Deccan, where there are ruins of palaces, and a four-mile road — such 
as Akbar the Great alone knew how to build — leading to them through 
a cathedral arch of ancient banyans, where mid-day is as twilight. 

A small building, once all marble, but now restored with chunam, is 
kept in repair for the use of Government officials on hasty tours of 
inspection through the district of Burhanpur. 

The structure reveals the unmistakable art of Shah Jehan, who re- 
stored it and converted it into a miniature palace for the queen during 
her sojourns in the winter months. The latticed windows look out over 
the tops of tall, flowering trees, where rajah and ranee birds flutter 
their gorgeous plumage, to the distant mountains on the opposite shore 
of the indolent Tapti River. There is the usual shallow waterway 
across the center of the marble floors, with glistening slabs at either 
end over which the water once flowed with merry gurgle. The decora- 
tions are identical in effect with those seen in the Taj, only instead of 
being inlaid in marble and precious stones, they are painted on chunam 
in colors still fresh and brilliant. But the arched ceilings are the marvel 
— one might occupy the apartments for weeks and never discover that 
among the arabesque designs, bouquets and garlands are tiny mosques 
painstakingly executed, their miniature domes and minarets perfect in 
detail, and no two alike. 

The Queen's apartment among the ruins at Burhanpur are so little 
changed since the days of Shah Jehan that over all there seems to float 
the subtle incense of memory, for it was here that "Motee, the Pearl," 
or the "Lady of the Taj," died at the birth of her seventh child. 

For twenty-two miles away to the south of Agra a fine, broad road 
bordered by double rows of feathery tamarinds and gnarled old mango 
and banyan trees stretches straight as a ribbon across the level plain. It 
passes within sight of Sikandarah, the marble cloistered mausoleum of 
Akbar, where "the wind sighing through the pierced screens maintains 
a perpetual requiem over the great emperor." 

At the end of the road lies the empty, voiceless city of Fatehpur-Sikri, 
built of white Agra marble and the red sandstone of the rock ridge 
upon which it stands. It was never entirely finished, and some portions 
appear as though it were but yesterday that the workmen laid aside 
their tools and stole silently away, never to return. 

Fatehpur-Sikri was the expression of an ideal, designed and carried 
out by Emperor Akbar, standing exactly as it was when its royal builder 
suddenly abandoned it to the "bats and owls." Why, after having been 
planned to perfection and constructed regardless of expense, it was so 
deserted has never been satisfactorily explained. Some historians say 
that it was because of an inadequate water supply, but with the resources 
at command this does not seem to be borne out. 

It is told that Akbar, who held the Mogul Empire in the hollow of his 
hand and who never trusted anyone, so designed and built his "Dream 
City" that he could, at his pleasure, personally inspect the whole of it 
without being seen, by traversing the labyrinths of secret passages, 
screened galleries, enclosed roof parapets set at intervals with watch 
towers, and the great harem, with its mysterious "wireless," and hun- 
dred eyes behind the latticed grilles and rustling purdahs. Visitors may 
also inspect the city in this manner— if they can find the way; they may 
overlook the silent caravansary, adjoining the stables and cook-houses, 
and in fancy people it with wayfarers of every sect, caste or creed, 
journeying to and from all parts of India, who sooner or later came to 
exchange experiences after the evening meal in the famous caravansary, 
where all were welcome to food and shelter at Fatehpur-Sikri. 

Narrow stairs, built in the thickness of the walls, lead up to where the 
Emperor could stand, with just room to turn, and look down through 
tiny slits let into bits of carving to the Hall of Audience, filled with 
courtiers, nobles and friends, and on the other side to the record offices, 
where the prime minister and court officials often sat in consultation. 

JANUARY, 1917 


Not only could he see all that went on, but he could hear, as well, the 
faintest spoken word, so perfect are the acoustics of these old vaulted 
ceilings; and as there was no telling where the all-comprehending eye 
or ear might be focussed at any moment, the nervous strain on the 
various members of the court must have been terrific. 

Looking at the greenish-blue encaustic tiles covering the "House of 
Dreams," one can only marvel at a substance that has held its vivid 
coloring for over two centuries under the fierce rays of a tropical sun. 
On the ground floor stands Akbar's bed, that one might mistake for a 
relic of the Stone Age but never as the resting place of a live king. 
In the pillared stone chamber an enormous stone slab is fitted into the 
wall; the other rests on two supporting columns. At the head a small 
square opening appears in the wall, which served a double purpose, first 
for air, and again, by its position, enabled the royal eye to sweep not 
only the vast encampment of the army, but also the chief entrance gate 
leading into the city. High stepping stones, recently removed, led up to 
the bed, probably once draped about with curtains and made luxurious 
with mats and cushions. Water was let into the chamber, to the level 
of the stones, by a system that allowed it to flow in and out again with 
a cool, rippling sound, so pleasing to the dwellers in hot Oriental lands, 
and the most noticeable feature of all Eastern palaces. 

Unusual and secret mechanical contrivances had for the Emperor a 
special fascination, and a Mogul historian, after a close investigation 
of the tank opposite the "House of Dreams," claims to have discovered 
in it traces of the "mysterious reservoir." The elaborate plan of its 
construction was concealed in a riddle, still preserved in some old Moslem 
archives at Lahore, as a similar one was constructed there in the Fort. 
It was kept a secret between Akbar and his clever physician, Hakim 
Ali, who worked several years before he perfected it, and they both 
barely escaped drowning in it on one occasion. The bottom was reached 
by stairs connecting with a passage leading to a small chamber, being so 
constructed that access to it was obtained without water flowing into 
it, and when Akbar plunged into his bathing tank he disappeared, much 
to the amazement of his women folk, who put it down to magic, and 
so avoided the spot, which was precisely what he wanted, being no 
less "woman-ridden" than other great men were before him and have 
been since. 

It was around this period that poisoned robes came into fashion, al- 
though their origin has been traced back to ancient Greece. It is told 
that but for Hakim Ali one chapter of Mogul history would have had 
an abrupt ending. One day, while with the Emperor in his sleeping 
chamber, a large box containing gifts was brought in, which the bearers 
hastily deposited and withdrew before they could be questioned. It 
was found to contain, among other things, a robe of rich silk, but of a 
simple design, calculated to a nicety to please Akbar's quiet taste in 
dress. Attracted b'y a strange chemical odor, Hakim Ali investigated 
and found that the robe was poisoned. 

The secret process of preparing deadly garments was a difficult one, 
known only to a few exclusive "modistes." But, as the poison was taken 
into the system by absorption through the pores, it follows that death 
could only result in a hot climate where perspiration is excessive, and 
where only a thin tunic is worn next to the skin. It is fortunate for 
the human race that, in these days of intercommunication, some of the 
Oriental skill in compounding subtle poisons has been lost. 

As a Mohammedan, Akbar's broad tolerance of all religions has formed 
a theme for poets and historians down to the present time. Interpreted 
correctly, no better proof is wanting than the decorations on the dwell- 
ings of his three queens, the Hindu, Christian and Mohammedan, for ■ 
whom he built separate palaces in conformance with the religion of each, 
all standing to-day, so perfect that a perfumed, silken-robed figure in 
shimmering jewels and tinkling anklets might be expected to appear 
at any moment and find one trespassing. To describe in detail the house 
of the Mohammedan, or "Turkish Queen," would require a knowledge 
of Persian legendary lore, as each of the sculptured figures and designs 
has a meaning in relation to the whole, so one can simply quote that 
"every square inch is carved, including the soffits of the cornices." 
There is the slightly raised floor piece where the queen knelt on her 
prayer rug to pray before the panel covered with the ninety-nine names 
of Allah in gold. Holes show where Turkish lamps swung from the 
ceiling, and there are more holes over the arched doorways for hooks 
that once supported the heavy curtains where the thickness of the walls 
formed little ante-chambers, shutting out both light and air, so that it 
requires but little imagination to picture the close artificial atmosphere 
of a Turkish dwelling. 

The "Golden House" of Miriam, the Christian Queen, is small com- 
pared with the others, yet it must have been a veritable picture palace, 
as the interior was once lavishly decorated with gold and paintings, 
always of special interest from the fact that over the main entrance 
{Continued on page 50) 

U V- 


Before the Elephant Gate is reached, an invading force in the days of the Moguls 

would have had first to scale the outer wall below, a sheer height of sandstone cut by 

towers and machicolations 

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The Province of Agra is one of the largest wheat-growing districts of India, and 

an extensive system of irrigation canals has been constructed to insure the crops ana 

free Agra from the famines that periodically occur in India 



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The mosque is enclosed in a broad court of marble and is itself of that stone. There is no painting nor carved decoration-only the harmonious blending of the veined 

marbles for color, and for ornamentation merely the perfect spacing and balance of the domes and cupolas 

In the 


great Hall of Audience narrow stairs lead up to galleries from which the 
Emperor could watch all that went on in the hall below 



The heavily curtained bullock in which the high caste women of India "take the 
air. ' These women are never seen in public 

JANUARY, 1917 






(C) Brown & Dawson, Stamford, Conn. 


In the older quarter of the city the streets are very narrow and the sidewalks only 
about two feet wide. Those who have felt the heat of a Cuban noonday can appre- 
ciate the cool shelter of the stone colonnades over many of the walks 


Fifty years ago a Yankee skipper brought home a small cargo of 

bananas from the north coast of Jamaica as a doubtful business 

venture — now a fleet of thirty vessels is employed to carry more than 

5,000,000 of these bunches to the United States 


(C) Stereo-Travel Co. 

These wicked-looking animals, who grow to a length of five or six feet, are said to be quite 
timid and will never fight unless cornered. Their unattractive appearance does not daunt the 
Panamanian gourmet, who considers iguana stew a rare delicacy 

1 6 


(C) Brown & Dawson, Stamford, Conn. 


This class can skip the paragraph in the geography that treats of the "luxuriant tropical growth of Trinidad," and study it first-hand instead. The young ladies 
who are facing the camera look as if they belonged in the East Indies rather than the West — and, rightly so, for their grandfathers were among the coolie immigrants 
brought from India more than half a century ago for plantation labor, the descendants of whom form about a third of Trinidad's population. They have never intermarried 
nor assimilated with the other peoples of the island, but still retain the dress, customs and habits of their original home 


Watching aeroplane maneuvers from the Malecon Drive. This drive is built directly above the "malecon," 

or sea wall, that protects Havana on the side toward the open Gulf — for the city is built on a low plain 

only a few feet above sea level — and commands a splendid view of the harbor entrance 


Sawing out blocks of the white coral formation that com- 
poses the island of Bermuda. This stone is easy to obtain 
and hardens with exposure to the air 

JANUARY, 1917 


Photo by Brown & Dawson, Stamford, Conn. 


Houses built for comfort rather than appearance, with broad "galleries" that enable one to eat, sleep and live practically out of doors, gardens blooming all the year 
round, palm trees waving above smooth, hard roads, and almost perpetual sunshine — these are some of the reasons why the population of Nassau is increased at the beginning 
of every winter by several thousand, and why in the minds of many the Bahamas mean only one island, New Providence, and chiefly its capital, Nassau, at that 

Photo by Brown & Dawson, Stamford, Conn. 


The workers in the cigar factories of Havana are so used to visitors that they do not even look round 

at a fresh incursion of tourists. Besides, they are listening to the latest bull-ring gossip and European 

war news, which is being read them by the man in the high chair by the middle pillar 


Bermuda has more than a hundred miles of fine roads cut out 

of, and in some cases through, the coral rock, but automobiles 

are forbidden on the island 

1 8 


i-Travel Co. 


When the United States undertook to make the Isthmus a healthful place to live in, 

they started a clean-up campaign, which included the public markets. Though 

Panama City is not in Canal Zone territory, the United States has authority there 

to legislate in this regard, and has used its power to very good effect 

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The large turtles in the foreground are taking passage on the outgoing steamer. In 

the background are the offices of the quarantine authorities, a vital branch of the 

local administration, for an epidemic at Colon would be carried in every direction 

by the constant traffic that passes through the city 

(Cj btereo-Travel Co. 


He has poled up the river with a basket of vegetables for market and a large gourd 

which he will try to sell. The Chagres River comes within a few miles of uniting 

the two oceans, for it rises only six miles from the Atlantic and empties into the 

Pacific. Part of it is used for the Canal bed 

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The Latin-American is an inveterate gambler and his favorite form of gambling is 

the purchase of lottery tickets. Uncle Sam forbids the sale of these tickets in the 

Canal Zone proper, but in Panama City, which is just outside the limits, one may 

buy tickets for anything from a new hat to an automobile 

JANUARY, 19 17 



The Haitien shopkeeper believes strongly in publicity, and all of his varied wares are spread out to catch the eye of the passer-by, perhaps with a subconscious appeal to 

the negro's love of display. Both vendors and purchasers, as well as the store itself, are typical of this little-known country, where the descendants of an enslaved and 

savage race are slowly working out their political and social salvation with little help from their more advanced neighbors. It is but fair to add, however, that this apparent 

indifference is largely attributable to the Haitien lack of hospitality as well as the frequent revolutions which make the country a dangerous place of sojourn 

(i-y oiuvvii tx Odwaun, SLamiuru, Loan. 


Instead of growing up, the branches of the banyan tree grow down, until they reach 

the earth; they then thrust roots into the ground, so that one banyan tree of 

respectable age resembles a small forest at first glance. The vegetation of Jamaica 

is representative of both tropical and temperate zones 

(C) Stereo-Travel Co. 


Children of the village of Cruces, on the Chagres River. The stone mortar and 

pestle are used for grinding rice, and the desultory aspect of the grinder is significant 

of life on the Isthmus, where the wants of mankind are few and easily satisfied, and 

the warm climate militates against unnecessary energy 




A section of the Prado of Havana, the broad promenade that connects Central Park with the Malecon Drive. 
Bordered by handsome residences, clubhouses, theaters and hotels, it is the center of the city's life, especially 
at night, when crowds throng beneath the brilliant "flame" trees, which glow under the electric lights, 
most of the pleasure-seekers on their way to the excellent band concerts that are given on the Drive or in Cen- 
tral Park. A great deal of the credit for Havana's really fine park system is due to the efforts of the United 
States Government in the years following the Spanish War 

(C) Brown & Dawson, Stamford, Conn. 

A rubber tree on a plantation in Trinidad, showing the cuts 
made to obtain the sap. The liquid flows down the slanting 
incisions toward the perpendicular cut which carries it to a cup 
on the ground. The trees are tapped twice a year and the 
liquid obtained is milky white in color, the finished product 
being darkened by fire 

(C) Brown & Dawson, Stamford, Conn. 


The older part of Havana is as thoroughly Spanish in atmosphere as any city of old Spain 
and there the narrow streets are canopied from the hot sun; sometimes, as here, they run 
massive building, carved and balconied. Pictures of scenes in Havana do not always do it justice 
for, contrary to the impression this one gives, it is a very clean city 

run unde 

(C) Brown & Dawson, Stamford, Conn. 


The drawbridge and entrance to Cabanas fortress which crowns the 

hill opposite Havana and overlooks its harbor. The sculptured arms 

above the arch are those of Spain, for the fortress was built during 

the reign of Charles III 

JANUARY , 19 17 

2 1 

(C) Brown & Dawson, Stamford 


Barbados is said to be the most densely populated country in the world, except China, and consequently labor is cheap; the women are paid as little as twelve cents a day 
for such hard labor as this. As a result the struggle for existence has made them the most industrious of all the West Indians, and their labor is highly valued and, 
incidentally, better paid on the other islands. Bridgetown is remarkable in being a port without a harbor other than an artificial one made by breakwater; in spite of this, 
it is one of the important shipping centers of the West Indies and a coaling station of immense value to England 

Photo by Brown & Dawson, Stamford, Conn. 


The United States possesses in San Juan one of the finest harbors in the West Indies. The town is built on a small island, which the Spaniards fortified as early as 1584, 

building a light tower and surrounding the island with battlements, deep moats and all the defenses of a medieval walled town. Equipped with modern batteries, the citadel 

is to-day a defense of no mean pretensions and controls the approach to the mainland by a chain of fortifications. San Juan is the capital of Porto Rico, and one of the 

oldest cities of the -New -World. Since American occupation much has been done to improve it both as a pleasure resort and commercial center 





Charles Phelps Cushing 

THE northerly cities of Europe 
have come to have an attrac- 
tion for the tourist quite as compel- 
ling as those in the Old World's sun- 
nier latitudes. The advertising 
value of poetry, fiction and drama 
may have had something to do with 
this. Edinburgh, despite the no- 
torious beastliness of its weather, 
captures and holds the affections 
quite as securely as Naples — but this 
was not so until the time of Sir 
Walter Scott. Stockholm, Copen- 
hagen, Christiania and Bergen are 
every year better known and better 
loved by the traveler — but this, also, 
has come about at the same time 
that fame was recognizing the mer- 
its of Scandinavian writers. And so 
with Petrograd — and the Russian 

On our side of the water, fiction 
and poems (and mostly rather low 
grade products at that!) have done 
a great share of the work of adver- 
tising the towns of Alaska to the 

Why are the charms of some of 
the large cities of Canada not better 
known to travelers? May one not 
assume that it is because of a dearth 
of literary advertising? If Canada 
had been as rich in real authors as 
Scotland, it might well be as popular 
a resort for tourists, for the attrac- 
tions of its larger cities are numer- 
ous and varied. Furnish Canada 
with a Sir Walter Scott, a Burns, a 
Stevenson, and you would find flocks 
of sightseers winging their way 


of the 

The old church of Notre Dame de Bon Secours in the center of the picture gives 

its name to the market at the left, and both church and market are reminiscent of the 

time when Montreal belonged to France. Here, twice a week, the habitants bring 

the produce of their farms for sale 

Quebec is more fortunate than 
most of her sisters of the north in 
the way of literary advertising, and 
for that very reason, perhaps, is 
better known to travelers than any 
other large city of the Dominion. 
Yet, on her intrinsic merits, one may 
wonder if she deserves quite so 
great a share of attention. Winni- 
peg furnished this traveler more to 
wonder at ; Toronto appealed as 
much, or more, to his affections; 
Ottawa appeared to be quite as beau- 
tiful; and Montreal, too, had her 
kind of fascination, for the metrop- 
olis is much larger than Quebec and 
has far more animation. 

No one who tours Canada should 
miss seeing Quebec, for the city is 
richly picturesque. We of the 
States cannot resist that sort of ap- 
peal. Do we not, indeed, set too 
much store by it ? We are prone, in 
particular, to go into rhapsodies 
over anything that survives from a 
bygone age. Because we hail from 
a land of the new, we are tremen- 
dously interested in such surface in- 
dications as old costumes and archi- 
tectural relics. That is why we miss 
so much that is worth knowing in 
Glasgow and rush madly on to 
Edinburgh's Royal Mile and the 
kilted pipers (who wear their kilts 
only when tourists are around) of 
the over-advertised Trossachs. In 
the presence of the picturesque past 
we are all too often blind to the 
human, throbbing present. 

These remarks are made not in 
derogation of the charms of Quebec, 


nil H 




Wellington Street is the Fifth Avenue of the Canadian capital, which, like our own The view from Dufferin Bridge, showing the canal as it descends to the Ottawa 
national capital, has been planned and developed with a conscious regard for River. The Rideau Canal forms a sharp dividing line between the French and 

civic beauty English quarters of Ottawa 

/ A N U ARY , 19 17 

2 3 

but in behalf of the charms of some of her more neglected sisters. 
Winnipeg, for example, is no longer a "kid sister" who can be kept in 
the background when callers are around. Winnipeg made Quebec take 
a wall flower's seat when the census man paid his latest visit. Winnipeg 
is now a grown-up young lady ; her beauty is fresh, she is vigorous and 
dashing. Montreal is the "strapping athletic type which is becoming 
more and more popular these 
days. Toronto is no pale in- 
valid, either, and has in a high 
degree the subtle quality of 
charm — hard to define but 
quickly felt. As for Ottawa, 
in a beauty contest an un- 
biased jury might well award 
the palm to her rather than to 
her eldest sister. 

The fact may as well be 
stated now as later that elderly 
Miss Quebec had better look 
to her charms. So much has 
been sung about them that the 
visitor is likely to set his ex- 
pectations too high. I must 
confess, for my part, that I 
had hoped for a trifle more of 
the picturesque than I found 
—bolder heights, more old- 
time narrow streets, more 
weather-beaten architectural 

The traveler's first sight of 
Quebec is usually from Levis, 
a suburb where he detrains to 
board a ferryboat across the 
St. Lawrence. The river, a 

mile wide, furnishes a shining foreground for the picture. Between the 
shore line and the cliffs that rise close beyond are clustered the build- 
ings of the venerable Lower Town. Above them, on the plateau of the 
bluffs, sits a walled city and the historic Citadel tops the summit of the 
heights. This is delightfully like the Old World; so much so that you 
find yourself comparing Quebec with Edinburgh. 

In a desperate attempt to state the case conservatively, Baedeker 
characterizes Quebec as "perhaps the most picturesque city in North 
America." The perhaps is perhaps superfluous. In her own class — a 
group of venerables — -Quebec is a North American champion. 

You may begin your explorations in the richest section of this pic- 
turesqueness the moment your foot touches shore. Though its extent 
is small, this Lower Town is worth half a day of any tourist's time. 
He steps from the ferry house into an Old World square; the cabbies 
are saluting him in French, the policemen's helmets are reminders of 
Paris, even most of the posters about, pleading for recruits for King 
George's army, are in French. If he turn to the left, into Champlain 
Market, he finds an acre more of France; if he turn to the right, down 
St. Peter Street, which is unmistakably the headquarters of the local 
financial district, he finds it more like the Bourse than like Lombard 
Street or Wall. 

The fact is that there are many citizens of Quebec who can not speak 


a dozen words of English. This class includes, as I was amazed to dis- 
cover, a few young men who are wearing Britain's military khaki. 
Nearly nine-tenths of the population of the city are of French origin 
and prefer to speak and read the language of their fathers. The largest 
daily papers are printed in French. These are not, however, quite after 
the Parisian model in makeup and choice of material. In appearance 

they are more American than 
Continental. If you read 
French it will delight your 
heart to follow in, say, Lc 
Soleil, the full account from 
Boston of a World's Series 
baseball game. The only 
humor of the sort quite com- 
parable with it is a French 
translation of the dialect of 
Huckleberry Finn. 

Here is a quaint little Old 
World square, with a fountain 
in the center. Here is Nep- 
tune Tavern by Sault au Mate- 
lot Street. One can't resist 
taking a turn down a highway 
that owns so alluring a name. 
The effort is worth while, not 
only for this street itself, but 
also for the place to which it 
leads. A promontory of rocky 
cliff juts out into the Lower 
Town near the north end of 
Sault au Matelot. Hugging 
the very base of this cape is 
a narrow, crooked alley appro- 
priately named Sous-le-Cap. 
This quaint old street is 
lined with a variety of architectural relics. Numerous bridges and bal- 
conies cross it and overhang it, and clothes lines strung across the 
street out of the second and third story windows add to the general 
medieval effect by furnishing a substitute for fluttering banners. The 
pavement is heavy planking. I doubt if there be any place else in 
America with more flavor of the Old World about it. 

One morning I heard a carter singing, as he drove over these rumbling 
planks, an old voyageur ballad. He had a clear baritone voice and no 
self-consciousness about letting it go. An old song ringing in that me- 
dieval lane under the cape — there was an experience to treasure ! 

With some of us the love of travel is truly a ruling passion. To 
gratify that craving we can deny ourselves all other luxuries, our lives 
seem the fullest only when we are on the move. A few golden moments 
from Sous-le-Cap are as precious to us as gold is to a miser. . . . 

Tiens! See what the lure of the "picturesque" does to a conscientious 
reporter who had firmly resolved to set down nothing but cold and un- 
varnished facts about this picturesque city. . . . Well, if it isn't too late, 
here is the first unvarnished fact about Sous-le-Cap. This venerable 
street is for the most part a slum. Another sad fact about it is that its 
width is just great enough to admit the passage, twice a day, of a 
rubberneck automobile loaded with fat tourists — fat gentlemen compla- 
cently puffing at fat cigars and their double-chinned wives surveying 


Lower Town is built upon a narrow strip of level land between the rivers and the cliff, 
and is responsible for the distribution and variety of Quebec's stairways 


The citadel crowns the summit of the rocks, while below, at the right, extends Dufferin Terrace. Quebec is built in the form of a triangle, the sides of which are the 

St. Lawrence and the St. Charles Rivers and the historic Plains of Abraham 



the quaint medieval thoroughfare superciliously through their lorgnettes. 

Quick — away ! We shall seek solace in places where no rubberneck 
car — not even a caterpillar-wheeled tank from Flanders — could follow. 
We shall take to Breakneck Steps, to the elevators, to the terraces, even 
to the top of the city walls. And, seriously speaking, this is the best 
way to see Quebec. The choicest sights are from viewpoints inacces- 
sible to motor cars. 

Back from Sous-le-Cap, then, toward the south and skir- 
mish up Sous-le-Fort Street to assault the heights. At the 
end of this lane is Little Champlain Street. Here the Ameri- 
can general Montgomery fell attempting to take the city in 
the winter of 1775. On the wooden stairs that used to climb 
the hillside at the right (now replaced with iron ones) a 
great many other folk used to fall in the winter — so many, 
indeed, that the stairs were named Breakneck Steps. If you 
do not care to mount the steep slope to the Upper Town on 
foot, an elevator, which makes you think of Montmartre in 
Paris, will give you a lift to the level of Dufferin Terrace 
for a nickel. 

You pop up onto a beautiful wide boardwalk, a quarter of 
a mile or more long, clinging to the very edge of the Upper 
Town's plateau. Every foot of this walk is an observation 
station. From here, looking back east, you may take in 
the city's magnificent situation. Around to the left of the 
promontory sweeps the River St. Charles into the St. Law- 
rence ; and at the far horizon to the north is the purple 
outline of the Laurentide Mountains. Below you are the 
closely clustered roofs of the Lower Town and the mile- 
wide St. Lawrence with its shipping; on the other shore the 
heights of Levis. Back of you, to the south, the Citadel rises 
above the terrace, and to the west looms a huge chateau-like 

Day or night, the view from this terrace ought to be an 
inspiration. But again we must set down the unvarnished 
truth — never can this panorama be an unmixed delight so 
long as the city permits an enormous cigarette sign to occupy 
the choicest roof-top of the Lower Town. The sign sticks 
up in the daylight not like a sore thumb, but like a whole ugly fist. After 
dark this sign and another conspicuous billboard (also advertising ciga- 
rettes) are illumined by electric lights. Any way you point your camera 
these blemishes nose into the foreground. 

Give up the attempt to make a picture of that panorama. It will be 
a cigarette advertisement, not a view. Put up your camera and descend 
to the Lower Town again by way of twisting Mountain Hill Street and 
Breakneck Steps. Follow Little Champlain Street along the base of 
the cliff and out into Champlain Street proper. After you have walked 

half a mile or so, an odd sight will be your reward — a slum on a country 
road. Between the water's edge and the base of the cliffs there is, for 
a distance, barely room enough for two rows of houses. About half of 
these houses are deserted, and some of those that have tenants appear 
to be about to sag at the knees and collapse. One is forced to wonder, 
on this walk, if Quebec has a building inspector; there is something posi- 


A busy square in the commercial district of the Canadian metropolis. The Bank of Montreal, in the background, 
is reputed one of the wealthiest corporations in America, and on another side the square is flanked by the mag- 
nificent church of Notre Dame 


Ottawa has placed her beautiful Gothic parliament buildings on a bluff above the river and bor- 
dered them on the opposite side by Wellington Street, a broad, well-kept boulevard, faced by the 

principal government buildings 

tively drunken about the air of these dilapidated houses. All the time, 
as you stroll, it is well to look sharp in making your way along the 
neglected wooden sidewalks. There may be a building inspector, and 
those drunken-looking houses may have been inspected and been found 
safe for habitation, but surely Quebec has no sidewalk inspector. 
Champlain Street is the proof. 

You need not retrace your steps all the way back to town. A long 
flight of wooden stairs mounts the hill to the west of the Citadel and 
gives access to a famous plateau, the Plains of Abraham. Though you 
find yourself out of breath at the summit, the 
satisfaction remains that no rubberneck car can 
close in on your trail. A barbed wire barricade 
warns the tourist away from the vicinity of a 
modern rifle factory; near it are two old round 
towers as reminders that Mars has had posses- 
sion of this property for many a year. It was 
on the Plains of Abraham, you will recall, that 
the armies of Wolfe and Montcalm clashed and 
both leaders fell mortally wounded. 

Deploy to the north around the Drill Hall and 
out into the Grand Allee. Turn east and follow 
St. Louis Street to the arch of St. Louis Gate. 
Sacre! A rubberneck car is approaching. 
Flee for your life to the top of the city wall. 
This is comparatively easy to do, for St. Louis 
Gate is itself a part of the walls and a good 
flight of steps is at hand. In these troublous 
times you will do well to head south instead 
of toward the Citadel. This avoids unpleasant 
conflicts with sentries. A walk on the old wall 
is a rare treat. From a grass-carpeted elevation 
we have on our left, as the rubberneck man 
might say, an unsurpassed view of the provin- 
cial Parliament Building; on our right, in the 
esplanade, a drill sergeant is usually putting 
some rookie soldiers through their paces. 

At St. John Street the wall is broken by the 
street and you must descend from your eleva- 
tion. Sentries, guarding government property, 
will keep you away from the line of the wall 
until you reach Palace Street. From this point 
the way is clear again and you may follow the 

JANUARY , 19 17 



old wall around the edge of the plateau and back almost to Cigarette 
Sign Terrace (alias "Dufferin" Terrace). In the valley of the River 
St" Charles, to the northwest and the north, you will view, meanwhile, 
the newer business and manufacturing district of Quebec. Along the 
wall are mounted numerous antiquated cannon. Nearly anywhere in 
the older sections of the city you can find an antiquated cannon within 
a stone's throw. As an outdoor museum of obso- 
lete artillery Quebec perhaps (we strive to be con- 
servative, like Baedeker!) perhaps leads the world. 
She has obsolete pieces of every description on 
view — long lean ones, short squat ones that look 
like toads, middle-sized ones on trucks, cannon from 
Bunker Hill, cannon from South Africa. 

Another thing in which Quebec (perhaps, again) 
leads the world is in the distribution per capita and 
the infinite variety of the stairways disposed about 
her landscape. 

Like Edinburgh, Quebec has a new town and an 
old. Like Edinburgh, she has a fortress on her 
highest cliff. She even has, like Edinburgh, the 
architectural fashion of closes, with dark entrances 
inviting your fancy into little court yards. A 
Scotchman would fall in love with Quebec on first 
sight. Yet — again we must tell the unvarnished 
truth — he would emphatically deny, and with jus- 
tice, that the New World's Edinburgh could snatch 
away Auld Reekie's world championship laurels. 
Quebec falls a bit short of being in a class with 
the "romantically beautiful" Scotch capital: the 
rock upon which old Edinburgh Castle perches is 
bolder and higher than the Citadel's site; the sky- 
line of the Royal Mile is a picture more memorable 
than the outlines of Quebec's Upper Town ; and, 
furthermore and lastly, Caledonia is still happily 
behind the times in the matter of billboard adver- 

When the traveler arrives in Montreal he will 
find himself not yet out of "New France," but he 
must resign himself to expect much less of the for- 
eign and quaint than he saw in Quebec. As in 
Quebec, he will meet a few priests who wear Old World costume and 
he will discover a few survivals of old-time architecture. But these 
are scattered. In compensation he will find that he is in Canada's me- 
tropolis, where, albeit the landscape is less picturesque, the picture is 
full of animation. 

One of the most memor- 
able travel experiences 
available in Montreal is a 
walk down St. Catherine 
Street — in the course of 
which, almost before he 
can realize it, the visitor 
strolls out of America into 
France. From his rail- 
way station the traveler 
has climbed a hill, passed 
a handsome square and 
been shocked by suddenly 
coming across a New 
York Child's Restaurant, 
transplanted from Broad- 
way, complete in every 
detail, even to the pancake 
tosser in the window. 

You start down St. 
Catherine Street after 
that and it is all as Amer- 
ican as Main Street in 
Kansas City. Motion pic- 
ture theaters advertising 
the Perils of Gertie; the 
shops and cigar stores and 
typewriter agencies, all 
with familiar signs ; ko- 
daks, sporting goods, the 
windows of big depart- 
ment stores. Why, then, 
are those signs in French 
on the pay-as-you-enter 

street cars? The question suggests itself idly to your mind. 

Here is a fire sale, advertised in two languages; then a jeweler who 
is also a bijoutier; a shap which is "for rent" and "a louer." Suddenly, 
with no apologies, up pops a notice that "On demande les services d'une 
jeune fille connaissante la stenographie." Then a cafe, Parisian in 
every detail, and the signs in French begin to replace the English all 

Hugging the base of Quebec's rocky point is a narrow, crooked alley, 

appropriately named Sous-le-Cap; numerous bridges and balconies 

cross it and overhang it, and the pavement is heavy planking, so that 

one might easily imagine himself in the Old World 


gate is part of the wall of the old city and from here steps lead up to the walk on the top of the wall. 
Beyond the gate, St. Louis Street continues out to the Plains of Abraham 

along the way. And now, too, everyone is speaking French, except a 
pair of young fellows in khaki. It is amazing. You rub your eyes and 
your ears to be sure you are awake. These young gentlemen who wear 
American store clothes and discuss with so much animation the results 
of the World's Series are talking French. Somehow you have walked 
right out of America into a foreign land. 

The most fascinating thing about Montreal, and per- 
haps the most vital, is just this half-and-half division 
of its stock, as typified by St. Catherine Street. The 
sights of Montreal are, for the most part, the sort- of 
thing that the megaphone man of the rubberneck car 
delights to point out — government buildings, a great as- 
sortment of churches, the city hospital, a college campus, 
a street of substantial modern residences. But these are 
not stirring sights to one fresh from the quaintness of 
old Quebec. Such a one soon tires of Montreal. He 
leaves it with respect for its half a million of popula- 
tion, for its ideal situation with regard to railways and 
canals, the great lakes and the sea. Yes, and with 
admiration for the view from Mount Royal Park. But 
most of his interest is exhausted after that. The thriv- 
ing metropolis has little to stir his imagination except 
a market (reminding him of New Orleans) and the 
sight of some ships. The most absorbing thing about 
Montreal remains, at last, the almost even division of her 
population into two camps— one of Anglo-Saxon stock, 
the other a people once strongly in sympathy with 

The qualifying "once" is necessary here because it is 
notorious that many of the French-Canadians of mili- 
tary age have been slow to take up arms in the Euro- 
pean war either for Canada or for France. Posters 
calling to them in their own tongue that France is in- 
vaded and ravished, "bleeding, and her blood cries out 
to you," plead for French-Canadian recruits; but on the 
street corners beside these posters you may see uncon- 
cerned young men blowing smoke rings and discussing in 
French the merits of Monsieur Carrigan's ball players 
contre those of Monsieur Wilbert Robinson's boys. The 




Set down in the middle of a sparsely settled prairie land, in forty years Winnipeg has grown from a trading post of the 
Hudson's Bay Company to the third city of Canada, with a population of a quarter of a million 

patriotic Canadian finds this frame of mind decidedly vexing and often 
speaks of it with considerable warmth. To find a contingent still sulk- 
ing over the woes of Evangeline at this late and trying date makes him 
pretty hot under the collar. 

This is not to say that hundreds of French-Canadians have not risen 
to the emergency and gone forth like real Frenchmen to lay down their 
lives, if need be, 
somewhere in 
Flanders, for 
they have — and 
have distin- 
guished them- 
selves for valor. 
But the fact can- 
not be blinked at 
that hundreds of 
others have not. 
These others are 
still lounging 
against lamp 
posts and patri- 
otic posters, 
blandly smoking 
cigarettes and in- 
dulging in frivo- 
lous conversation. 

In Ottawa one 
finds the same 
half and half di- 
vision of the pop- 
ulations as in 
Montreal, but in 
Ottawa the sur- 
prise lies in the 
sharpness of the 
geographical line 

of demarcation. As you step out of the railway terminal into Con- 
naught Place and take a post of vantage on Dufferin Bridge, you see 
right below you a ravine and the locks of the Rideau Canal — France 
lies on the right of that moat, Britain to the left. 

Close beside you looms a chateau, as handsome in design and as pic- 
turesque in location as the heart could desire. It is a hotel, but it is 
also, unofficially, a public building, for it is Society's capitol. Back of 
it, like an estate, is a beautiful public park, six wooded acres. Close 
to the chateau's western ramparts, like a moat, the canal mounts the 
hill from the Ottawa River in half a dozen locks. On the high bluffs 
west of this rise the Gothic spires of the Dominion's parliament houses. 
These occupy another park, the southern boundary of which is Welling- 
ton Street, Ottawa's Fifth Avenue. Parallel with this boulevard and 
a block farther south is the city's chief retail business street (Sparks), 
which, like Welling- 
ton Street, pours its 
traffic into Connaught 
Place and across the 
wide bridge — really 
two bridges consoli- ' i ' 

dated — which is our 
vantage point. For a 
striking effect upon 
the newly arrived 
traveler nothing could 
be better planned. 
And mark this — it is 
planned. Ottawa 
didn't "just grow"; it 
was built according to 
diagrams, after 
Queen Victoria, less 
than sixty years ago, 
selected this place to 
be the Dominion's 
capital. (At that time 
the city's population 
was only a little more 
than 10,000. To-day 
it is somewhere in the 
neighborhood of ioo,- 

To state the case 


"Portage Avenue" is a name that brings back to middle-aged men the memory of frontier days; new it is a wide 
business street, modern to the nth degree, walled with high buildings and thronged with shoppers, automobiles and 
crowded street cars — a Broadway of the northern prairies 

tersely, Ottawa is as picturesque and as beautiful as Quebec, but Ot- 
tawa's charm lies in the new, not in the old. More than this comparison 
the present writer does not venture to state, for better artists have 
already described the capital's charms. Edward Hungerford's article 
on Ottawa, published in Travel last year, and the illustrations for it 
by Vernon Howe Bailey, inspire one to a modest reticence. 

In old Quebec, 
in the metropolis 
and in the capital 
you have found 
two stocks of 
people and rival 
languages ; so, by 
the time you ar- 
rive in Toronto, 
you may be ex- 
pecting to see 
every large city 
of Canada di- 
vided into two 
camps. But To- 
ronto will treat 
you to a surprise, 
for she is as An- 
glo-Saxon as 
London or Liver- 
pool. In travel- 
ing from Ottawa 
to the seat of On- 
tario's provincial 
government you 
have traversed 
only a little more 
than 200 miles, 
but have as sure- 
ly traveled out of 
France as if you had crossed the English Channel from Calais to Dover. 
A unanimity of purpose makes itself felt in Toronto; the thing we 
call "city spirit" is strong enough here to impress the visitor at once 
with a great faith in the city's future. I liked Toronto at first sight, 
almost to the point of becoming a partisan; and here and now I may 
as well confess that if I were to cast my lot in Canada, Toronto would 
be the place in which I would choose to live. This is not because of 
any surface aspects ; she is poor in picturesqueness of the old, as com- 
pared with Quebec, and in beauty of the new as compared with Ottawa ; 
for the tourist she has not even so much to show as has Montreal. The 
ground is almost level and the streets are laid out with a T-square. 
In the way of public edifices one is not likely to remember much more 
than the City Hall, the buildings of the University of Toronto and 
University College. In the way of residences the most charming pic- 
ture is the old Colon- 
ial mansion called the 
"Grange," home of 
the late Professor 
Gold win Smith. 
There are a few hand- 
some boulevards, the 
most notable of them 
University Avenue, 
which is too short 
physically and ap- 
pears to be shortly 
doomed to fall into 
the hands of com- 
merce. Yonge Street, 
King Street and 
Queen Street are 
bright, bustling and 
full of interest if you 
like to saunter around 
downtown and study 
faces and shop win- 
dows. Queen's Park 
is charmingly laid out 
and not too remote 
from the business sec- 

With no deep im- 
(Cont. on page 47) 

JANUARY, 1917 


Photo by Janet M. Cumming 


The gray walls that encircle Hangchow are covered with vines and the gale towers are sadly in need of repair; in one place the stones have 
been torn down to make room for the railroad tracks. Hangchow no longer resists the invasion of the West 




Carroll K. Michener 

1HAVE pilgrimaged to a mecca 
of poets— a place that has in- 
spired more verses, perhaps, than 
any spot familiar to us of the 
Western world. It is an ancient 
place, full of the traditions of 
forgotten centuries, yet possess- 
ing youth as verdant as when the 
oldest nation was young. Kings 
of dim dynasties came to it, 
pleasure-seeking, and poets sang 
of it in verse almost too ancient 
now to decipher. Yet the kings 
of to-day go there (they are the 
youth of the youngest republic ! ) 
and with them the poets — always 
the poets. And it is the same 
place — little changed, if we may 
trust China's somewhat inexact 
historians ; there are the same 
gray walls of Hangchow city, 
nestling between mountains and 
sea ; there is the same West Lake, 
reflecting pagoda-crowned hills, 
exhaling the fragrance of young 
peach blossoms amid a very 
dreamy halo of old times. 

To this mecca of poets I went 
with books of verses, but I found 
little need of them so long as Lee 
would humor me and translate 
the clustered ideographs adorn- 
ing the walls, the gates, the 

Types of Chinese priesthood 

(C) Stereo-Travel Co. 

thresholds. There was poetry 
everywhere ! I went, too, with a 
copy of Marco Polo in my pocket, 
to tinge the journey with a ro- 
mance borrowed from his ancient 
pilgrimage in the pomp and glory 
of the days of the Grand Khan ; 
yet if I had but realized it then, 
I had no need of Marco, for 
what greater romance could be 
mine than to visit China's place 
of most pleasant tradition in the 
company of Lee, the master of 
arts from an American univer- 
sity, and his sisters, the charming 
King and Ling? 

It came over me as we sat in 
the morning train out of Shang- 
hai that perhaps no pilgrimage 
ever struck more sharply at Chi- 
nese tradition than this. Truly, 
the spirit of the Revolution and 
of the New China, had gone far ! 
For here was I, of the ilk the 
Boxers strove to exterminate lit- 
tle over a decade ago — a man oi 
remote, middlemost America — 
sitting face to face in a train, 
holiday-bent, with a pair of very 
young, upper class, unmarried 
Chinese women I It must be un- 
derstood, to appreciate this situ- 
ation, that in the old days there 




Nearly every bridge has its peculiar superstition; over some a woman cannot cross 
when there is a boat beneath; over others one must not speak as he passes 


The ripples have been smoothed from the lake, and one's boat drifts among trees 
and flowers and carved temples that mirror themselves in this liquid setting 

was no open-sesame for foreigners to the intimacy of the Chinese fam- 
ily. It must be remembered, too, that until these piping days of the 
New China there was no social intercourse between proper men and 
decent women. If a man must appear in public with his wife, she 
walked behind, at a discreet distance ! Only in the company of a cour- 
tesan did Chinese propriety impose upon him no necessity of shame. 

The marvel of this new-world tableau grew upon me as I heard these 
young women, who so serenely brought tumbling about them the slow- 
bunt traditions of the centuries, babbling in mission English, and in 
words of book-taught French. I thought of the Confucian classic that 
has defined for so many generations the status of the Chinese woman: 

"Daughters shall be born. . . . They will be put to sleep on the ground; 
They will be clothed with wrappers, they will have tiles to play with. 
It will be theirs neither to do wrong nor to do good: 
Only about the wine and the food will they have to think, 
And cause no sorrow to their parents." 

King, who is seventeen and still skirtless, cracks roasted watermelon 
seeds between her teeth, and munches the slender kernels. Seeing my 
difficulties in attempting to do likewise she laughs, says something mys- 
terious in Chinese, and then cracks my seeds for me until I have had 
enough — much more than enough ! Femininity, it seems, is the same 
the world over. 

As King looks out through the windows, watching the moist, green 
truck farms glide past under the morning sun, she gives me an oppor- 
tunity to take careful inventory of her appearance. For a Central 
China girl she is tall, and so is Ling, who is nineteen. To the Western 
eye neither, perhaps, is beautiful; but beauty, of course, is only a rela- 
tive term. King is in trousers because of her youth, but neither girl 
is dressed ornamentally. It is only the courtesan who is gilded and 
dazzling before the public eye. King's jacket is of padded silk, and the 
collar comes fashionably up to her ears. Her cotton trouserettes — 
perhaps that is the term for them — have a large black and white check. 
On her feet are white socks and boat-shaped shoes. Her sister, of 
course, has an ample black skirt, very much in the foreign fashion, 

which, since the Revolution, has begun to exert astounding influence 
in the lives of Chinese women. These girls are of the New China, and 
their feet are unbound. Their heavy black hair is brushed back from 
the forehead into a simple knot, and there is no straight-shaved line 
across the brow as in the predominating type of Chinese hairdressing. 

Lee stops his munching of sweetened rice cakes, and sings in the 
odd Chinese falsetto. The words sound classic, and in my book of 
translations from the Shih-King (China's poetry classics) Lee finds 
them for me. He sings again, mournfully, as I read, of a tragic love 
of ancient days — the quaint story of a girl in Ke, whose "hair was 
gathered in a knot," and of a lad from far-off Tsin, "selling of silk," 
who passed her way. 

The sisters are not fond of these musty classics, so Lee sings ballads 
full of shocking modernity as the train creeps on through the morning. 
We lunch upon Chinese food from the dining-car kitchen, but here, 
through some unaccountable survival of Chinese tradition, the sisters 
sit apart, and it is not until the ivy-covered walls of Hangchow are 
visible that they return to us. The train roars through a gap in the 
wall — with what profanation of the silent sanctity of the gods that 
watch over the city ! — and we step from the passenger coach into a 
station building modern enough for an American city. A menacing 
throng of hotel criers press against a barrier, and we escape them 
only to be confronted with an army of sedan coolies, from whom we 
must select eight for the chair journey to West Lake. 

There is exemplary economy in the Chinese sedan chair. It is made 
for one, no more ; but scarcely for one, when the one is a foreigner ! 
There is difficulty, I find, in packing myself away in the narrow wooden 
cage, perched upon a narrow, unupholstered ledge. The knees exhibit 
a tendency to interfere with the chin, to avoid which the head only 
embroils itself with the unyielding canopy. After sundry hours of this 
incarceration the foreigner must wonder what punishment there can be 
in the medieval cangue for such as have grown up to the inconvenience 
of the sedan chair ! There is one consolation, I find : if the chair is too 
small for me, I am too large for the chair, with the result that the coolies 
groan extraordinarily as they stagger under the burden.. 

JANUARY, 19 17 



The idols of an ancient monastery near Hangchow. Instead of the carved stalls of 
the West, the monks of China use round prayer mats without arm supports 


A walled enclosure, in its beauty and grotesqueness no less than a fairyland, 
a rock cliff, overhung with vines, a row of Buddhas looks down 

The streets of some Chinese cities are wide enough for rickshas, but 
Hangchow was built long before the rickshas and shows no inclination 
toward accommodating itself to them. That is the reason for the 
chairs. The coolies bear us through ill-paved streets, so narrow some- 
times that pedestrians must flatten themselves against the walls of the 
buildings to let us pass; we become almost inextricably tangled with 
the traffic on dense street crossings; dismal alleys, full of the familiar 
odor of Far Eastern cities, swallow us up with their squalor; clattering 
donkeys, with Chinese merchants astride, dispute passage with us, or 
rudely jostle our chairs as the coolies exchange verbal abuse with the 
riders; and always there assails our ears the vocal stridence of the 
Orient — the clacking of a myriad never-stilled tongues. Our coolies, 
emitting their rhythmic, mournful cries with every other step, add to 
this endless babbling, until the effect becomes drowsing as the sound 
of murmuring waters. 

At a stone-arched bridge over a green-scummed canal Lee halts the 
procession, nearly tying up the multitudinous traffic, to explain a super- 
stition. Women must not cross this bridge, he says, when there is a 
boat beneath. So, in sheer recklessness — the new order of things — the 
young women insist upon waiting until there is a boat beneath, and then 
faring across, to the keen distress of our superstitious coolies. There are 
certain bridges here, Lee says, upon which one must utter no word as 
he passes. 

We emerge at last from the welter of the city into a sun-baked area 
of ruins, where once stood dwellings of the rich which fell under the 
scourge of the Taiping fanatics in the "sixties." Beyond rises the de- 
crepit but majestic tower of the western gate, the Chien Ling Men, and 
passing through a wide archway we find at our feet the lapping waters 
of West Lake. 

The restfulness and grace of the shimmering water, the majesty of 
the temple-crowned hills that mirror themselves in this liquid setting, 
grow upon us as we emerge from the fierce turmoil of the city. We 
are in the midst of trees and flowers; there is an endless fragrance in the 
air; there is the color of blossoms, the color of trees, sky. Even the 
stone and tile of the dwellings seem to have assumed color, magically 

— a thing to marvel at the more because of the habitual drabness of man's 
handiwork in China. It becomes clear that this is a place set apart, an 
oasis of artificial color and beauty, a playground of the gods, and of 
royalty — as, indeed, it was in those half-forgotten days when kings 
created it from waste places, and the first of a thousand temples was 

We pass, close to the edge of the water, the mansion of a rich mer- 
chant. It occupies, perhaps, the site of a king's palace of old. 

"Where curve the river banks with graceful sweep, 
And purple mountains to the northward lie; 
As grow the bamboos in a solid heap, 
Or clumps of pine trees pointing to the sky, 
So stands the palace, large and wide and high — 
Here kings may dwell. . . ." 

The chair coolies, puffing and wiping the perspiration from their faces 
with the ends of cloth belts intended to hold a single garment in place 
at the waist, set us down presently at the back door of a Chinese inn. 
My coolies, with an air of injury, demand a huge sum. The foreigner 
is heavy, they say, crooking their backs asd groaning, to indicate how 
great the burden. But in Lee they are Greeks meeting Greek, and the 
pantomime of protest yields them little. 

Half an hour later we find ourselves on a latticed veranda which is 
flooded with the drifting odor of peach blossoms. The sun is low in 
the sky, but at the end of a garden path the lake invites, so we step 
into a canopied skiff and the boatman paddles us through a gently re- 
sisting field of lotus and water lilies. King nearly loses her balance in 
the girlish glee with which she pulls at the stems. 

The boatman stops to ask where we will go. 

"Everywhere !" sighs King, intoxicated by the mirrored beauty of hills 
and temples. 

But there are many places, the boatman says ; palaces and gardens 
and shrines — so many we could not see them all in days. 

So King points vaguely, and the boatman obeys with a smile. 

There is no longer a breeze. The ripples have been smoothed from the 




The streets of some Chinese cities are wide enough for rickshas, but Hangchow was built long before the rickshas and shows no inclination toward accommodating 
itself to them. So one travels by sedan chair, through ill-paved streets and dismal alleys, so narrow, sometimes, that pedestrians must flatten themselves against the 

walls of the buildings to let the chair coolies pass 

floor of the lake. There is a scented silence, broken only by some occa- 
sional far call. We drift on this mirror that reflects the beauty of 
dreams. I turn to my volume of poems and read there : 

"Peach boughs and apricot boughs hang over a thousand gates; 
At morning there are flowers to cut the heart, 
And evening drives them on the gently drifting waters. 
Petals are on the gone waters and on the going. ..." 

King has pointed out, it seems, the summer home of a rich merchant. 
It is deserted at this season, and the caretaker, whose demeanor grows 
from stern refusal to the most courteous hospitality under the spell of 
a handful of coins, welcomes us. There are quaint labyrinths and grot- 
tos of artificial stone to explore. There are bamboo aisles — archways 
of green where we walk under a canopy of interlaced limbs — a sure 
retreat from the summer sun. Emerging from one of these aisles we 
come unexpectedly upon a lotus pond, facing one wing of the rambling 
house. In the still bosom of waters is mirrored the house, with its 
masses of flowered wistaria. The spot is shut off completely from the 
rest of the world, a rich gem smothered in its own beauty. 

We linger among the empty corridors, and gaze into somberly mag- 
nificent reception halls. But there is something too melancholy in this 
tenantless mansion, so we return to the boat, and King sings to us softly, 
and a bit shyly at first, looking dreamily into the lengthening shadows. 

Across the lake a water temple calls to us with the sleepy note of an 
evening bell. Lee halts for a moment at the landing to decipher an 
inscription carved upon a stone archway. He spars for words a bit, 
and then translates: 

"Through the laced branches of the fir shines the clear moon ; 
Over the fountain's flags flow the pure waters." 

. We walk boldly into the shadowy, incense-filled temple — not with too 
much reverence, for we are Christians all. We laugh, even, when there 
is no temple attendant to see, at the grotesque idols and the dusty poverty 
of their smoke-stained abodes. King, it is to be feared, has made a 
mouth at the last of the gods we have visited — though she denies it with 
a droll anxiety about the corners of her lips. 

And so we linger in wistaria gardens, poke at gorgeous gold fish in 
mossy aquariums, stroll through endless bamboo lanes and along count- 
less mosaic pathways, until twilight comes, and Lee mentions a certain 
inn on an island, made immortal by the poets. It is a suggestion that 
is not taken amiss ! We leave the gardens, where 

"... rushes dank and green, 
And deep black pools beneath a sunset sky, 
And lotus silver bright 
Gleam on their blackness in the dying light." 

JANUARY, 19 17 

3 1 

From the lake, as we 
look into the encompass- 
ing hills, four pagodas are 
limned against the even- 
ing glow. They, are all 
famous, Lee says, and all 
in a state of magnificent 
decay. It is no Broadway 
cafe to which Lee pilots 
us. There is music, but 
only the fitful wail of a 
Chinese violin, possibly 
from the stable — certainly 
not from the dining-room 
(if there can be any cer- 
tainty that there is a din- 
ing-room ! ) The master 
of the inn, a thin-whis- 
kered person resembling a 
mandarin in an old Chi- 
nese print, leads us 
through a knot of coolies 
supping on noodles and 
rice, and up a stairway. 
We interrupt a party of 
Chinese as we pass from 
one room to another — 
young men who are rather 
far gone in rice wine, 
with sing-song girls chat- 
tering at their elbows. We 
are seated at last in a 
room open to the twilight 
and to the misty smells of 
the dark lake. Our host 
lights little red candles for 
us and sets them in por- 
celain candlesticks, one at 
each corner of a table. 
There are great horn lan- 
terns swaying from the 
ceiling, decorated in the 
queer color and design of 
Chinese craftsmen, but 
apparently their mission 
here is ornamental. On 
the walls are none of the 
mirrors and embroideries 
we have in our American 
chop-suey houses; instead, 
they are dingy and undec- 
orated save for a cheap 
scroll or two, and the print 
of a Confucian philos- 

Lee orders well, and the 
service is swift. Before 
the hot rice wine has 
cooled in the silver cups 
there comes to us a steam- 
ing dish. It is fish, caught 
from the lake, and killed 
for us on the way to the 
frying pan. It is delicious, 
and even with the handi- 
cap of chopsticks I man- 
age to get my share. It 
is so good we must have 

While we wait there 
happens an event. Ling- 
produces from somewhere 
on her person a handful 
of cigarettes. She offers 
one to me and lights it 
from a candle. Then she 
fires one for herself and 
puffs serenely, until a 
word and a laugh from 

f^-~ ■ 

Plioio oy Janet JVL. Lumming 


The gateway, almost a complete circle, is a unique feature of Chinese architecture, the culmination of 
those curved lines with which the Chinaman builds his bridges and finishes the corners of his roofs 

The Misses King and Ling, two 

youthful exponents of the new order 

of things in China 

There is exemplary economy in a Chinese sedan chair; it is 

made for one only — and scarcely for one when he is a foreigner 

from the United States 

Lee cover her with con- 
fusion. She looks at me 
with wide eyes and lays 
the cigarette aside. But I 
protest that I am not scan- 
dalized, even though I 
come from a long line of 
Puritan forefathers, and 
that I well know this 
charmingly wicked habit 
(if you so please) is one 
that is possessed in com- 
mon by most of the 
women of the Orient. So 
Ling resumes the cigar- 
ette doubtfully, and King 
lights hers, smiling. 

The fish comes, and af- 
ter it a dish of chicken 
with a sauce of shrimps. 
Then eels and a dish of 
salt beef, which no one 
likes save Lee, and — the 
crowning glory of the din- 
ner — a whole turtle, 
served in his own shell ! 
With it all, rice and tea. 
I am not clever with my 
chopsticks, and some of 
the food is elusive — so 
very elusive to the blunt 
little implements ! So the 
sisters have compassion 
upon me, and with their 
own sticks place on my 
plate choice morsels from 
their own ! There are no 
serving knives and forks, 
it appears, and we must 
fish about in the common 
platter for what pleases 

It is late and a starless 
night. The boatman, call- 
ing up to us on the ver- 
anda, with all the frater- 
nite and egalite of China's 
common people, urges 
upon us that it is far to 
go and the fish gates may 
be closed. So we set 
forth, a kerosene torch 
lighting our way into the 
black shadows of the lake. 
The boatman is right: we 
come to an arched bridge 
at last where the fish weir 
is closed and the keeper of 
the gate asleep. 

"Da-goal" calls the 
boatman, "Elder brother ! 
Elder brother !" One must 
be polite at this time of 
night to the keeper of a 
gate. We wait long. The 
sisters huddle together in 
a mild fright, for they 
fear a pirate plot. But 
Lee and I, professing a 
security we do not feel, 
reassure them. The gate- 
keeper, grumbling, lets us 
through in his own good 
time. . . . 

The Chinese bed is hard. 
There are no springs ; it is 
meant, perhaps, to 
straighten the limbs — but 
{Continued on page 50) 




A species of dinosaur that stood on its hind legs like a kangaroo and fed on the 

foliage of the tree tops, twisting the branches between the spike-like thumbs that 

rounded off its short stubby arms- 



Frank K. Evans 

THAT famous animal dealer, Mr. Carl Hagenbeck, has had erected 
in his park at Hamburg a wonderful array of life-size represen- 
tations in cement of those strange beasts that inhabited this globe in 
the distant past. The models of these prehistoric animals have been 
built around the shores of a delightful little lake, and depicted among 
the trees and shrubs, as well as standing in the lake itself, they look dis- 
turbingly natural and present a strange spectacle — a veritable historic 

The "restoration" of these "lost creations" is absorbingly interesting, 
as, little by little, the mighty beasts assume coherent form and one ob- 
tains some idea of their shape and size, and with it a knowledge of how 
they must have lived. There are several representations of the dino- 
saurs (a Greek term meaning "thunder lizards"), including the iguano- 
don, which towers some twenty-five feet in the air, dwarfing the sur- 
rounding trees ; the diplodocus, whose length of sixty-six feet and 
height of eighteen feet make a mere pigmy of the modern elephant; the 
stegosaurus, with bony plates on its back and spikes on its .tail; the 
triceratops, twenty-five feet long, with a collar of spines around its 
neck and three formidable horns upon its face; as well as prehistoric 
birds, crocodiles and tortoises, compared to which the living specimens 
are nothing more, in size, than a dog to a dray horse. 

The first animal to be erected was a specimen of the iguanodon, a 
herbivorous dinosaur that walked on its hind legs like a bird. That this 
creature habitually strolled about in this fashion is proved not only by 
the tracks found in Europe, but also in this country. It made footprints 

A stegosaurus with its young. This animal had a double row of blades running down the center of its back, some of them a yard in width, while its tail was armed 
with eight sharp spikes. It measured at least twenty-five feet from head to tail. More than twenty specimens of this animal have been discovered in rock strata of the 

Rocky Mountains 

JANUARY , 19 17 



Fossil remains of the diplodocus indicate that the length of the animal was between eighty and ninety feet and its height as great as thirty-five feet. It weighed at the 

least fifty tons. Although the biggest creature that ever walked on four legs, it was singularly ill-fitted to hold its own in the struggle for existence and was, no doubt, 

killed off by the smaller but more powerful carnivorous dinosaurs of its day, which was some seven million years ago 

thirty inches in length and four to five feet apart. Some twelve years 
ago as many as twenty-five specimens, in the shape of fossil remains, 
of this great biped were brought to the earth's surface from the colliery 
of Bernissart in Belgium, said to have been one of the most remarkable 
single discoveries in fossil research. The shape and size of this animal 
are as well authenticated as if it were still plodding about the earth 
browsing the leaves from the tops of full-grown trees and twisting the 
branches between the spike-like thumbs that rounded off its short, stubby 
arms. Every bone in this animal's body has been found and cast in 
plaster of paris, so that a reconstruction of the creature in authentic 
fashion is beyond doubt. One of the most remarkable features of the 
iguanodon was its great thumb. It had every appearance of a big spike 
or dagger a foot and a half long; and when the first skeleton of the 
iguanodon was found, the thumb, detached from the rest of the body, 
was mistaken for the animal's horn ! 

The completion of the iguanodon model was followed by a represen- 
tation in cement of the diplodocus, another of the herbivorous dinosaurs. 
The diplodocus was the greatest of them all — in fact, the biggest terres- 
trial creature that ever lived, so far as has been discovered. Fossil 
remains have been found showing that it attained a length of between 
eighty and ninety feet, its arched back reaching thirty to thirty-five feet 
in height. The one at Hamburg has a length of sixty-six feet and is 
virtually a duplicate of the skeleton of one of these creatures recently 
found in Central Wyoming with the flesh added. As will be seen from 
Mr. Hagenbeck's restoration, this creature had a long, thick tail, like a 
lizard ; a long, flexible neck, like the ostrich ; a thick, short, slabsided 
body, and straight, massive, post-like limbs, suggesting the elephant. 
When alive such a creature would turn the scale at fifty to eighty tons, 
and as it walked about leave footprints one square yard in extent. It 
was amphibious, living chiefly in shallow water, feeding upon the abun- 


The plesiosaurus, whose period is put at ten million years ago, was half mammal, 
half fish; and lived entirely on flesh, probably snapping up lizards and birds 


The pterodactyls were a large family that varied in size from those no larger than 
a sparrow to creatures measuring from wing to wing eighteen feet or more 




The triceralops was possibly a remote ancestor of trie rhinoceros, but far surpassed it in size and formidable appearance. In addition to the three horns upon its face, 
its neck was encircled by a collar of spines or spikes. Skeletons of the triceratops have been found in Wyoming, Colorado and Montana 

dant vegetation. Although the biggest creature that ever walked on 
four legs, it was singularly ill-fitted for holding its own in the struggle 
for existence, and was, no doubt, killed off by the smaller but more 
powerfully built carnivorous dinosaurs of that day. 

One of the strangest of the dinosaurs was the stegosaurus. This 
creature carried a double row of blades in the form of a ridge running 
down the center of its back. Some of these curious weapons measure 
a yard in width, while the creature's tail was armed with eight big 
spines or spikes. The animal had a length of some twenty-five feet. 
More than twenty specimens of the stegosaurus have been discovered 
in rock strata in the neighborhood of the Rocky Mountains. 

A terrible looking crea- 
ture was the triceratops. 
It had a head like a rhi- 
noceros, but unlike the 
rhinoceros of to-day it 
carried three formidable 
horns upon its face and a 
collar of spines or spikes 
around its neck. Then its 
length of twenty-five feet 
renders it a veritable giant 
compared to the modern 
rhinoceros. Many speci- 
mens of this animal have 
been found in the Rocky 

These dinosaurs, or 
"thunder lizards," lived 
upon the earth some seven 
to ten millions of years 
ago. The plesiosaurus, a 
strange marine monster, 
was even an older inhabit- 
ant. This creature, half 
mammal and half fish. 
possessed a long neck like 
a serpent, the head of a 
lizard, the teeth of a 

Another member of the numerous dinosaur family, the remains of which were discovered in the rock 
strata or Montana. 1 he tyrannosaurus was carnivorous, but resembled the iguanadon in appearance 

crocodile, the ribs of a chameleon and the paddles of a whale. It could 
probably swim under water as well as on the surface, and when in the 
latter position could snap up small lizards and birds, as it lived entirely 
on flesh. It had a length of twenty-two feet. 

Altogether, Mr. Hagenbeck has had constructed some thirty of these 
ancient beasts, but more are to follow. There are now being erected 
specimens of the flying reptiles, the pterodactyls. They were as aerial 
as birds or bats, and varied considerably in both size and shape. Some 
were no larger than sparrows, while others towered eight or nine feet 
in height, with a total wing expanse of eighteen feet or more. Then 
we have prehistoric crocodiles, prehistoric fishes, curious fin-backed 

lizards said to have lived 
many millions of years 
ago, and a host of other 
wonderful beasts. 

The fossil remains of 
these animals would not 
have been preserved and 
handed down to us 
through the ages had they 
been exposed to the air. 
Fortunately for the scien- 
tists of to-day, when these 
animals perished, the rock 
which holds their remains 
was merely soft mud or 
drifting sand. It encom- 
passed the carcass of the 
animal, held it tight from 
air and water, and during 
the intervening ages 
passed through various 
processes until it became 
solid rock. Geologists, on 
examination, can tell the 
age of the rock, which 
gives them the date at 
which the animal flour- 

JANUARY, 1917 




Ruth Danenhower 


A wall tower of the old fort at 
St. Augustine 

VOID this tale of the cruise 
of the Drone, all you whose 
idea of a yachting trip is to recline 
in spotless white on a deck whose 
brass work outshines the water, 
and to demand tall glasses of ice- 
tinkling drinks from a natty stew- 
ard. Our spotless white was worn 
only on our few landings at civi- 
lized ports. The rest of the time 
it was replaced by corduroys, oil- 
skins, or kitchen aprons. Our 
brass work did not shine because 
we swam or fished instead of 
spending time polishing it, and 
our consumption of iced drinks was 
limited by the fact that we had to 
crack the ice and wash the glasses 

All the work of our forty-five- 
foot power yacht was done by the 
Skipper who owned it, the doctor, 
his wife and me. To the big win- 
ter resorts like St. Augustine and 
Daytona and the hotels of Palm 
Beach we gave no more than a few hours' attention, scarcely more than 
time to get gasoline and galley supplies. On this trip we heard the 
whistling of the wind over the dunes instead of ballroom orchestras and 
golf scores. 

In the comfortable old Drone, with her thirteen-foot beam and roomy 
cabin and staterooms, we had cruised down the coast for four weeks at 
a speed of not more than seven miles an hour. Now we had crossed 
the line into Florida for a month in sunny, southern waters. Strange 
to say, the monotonous landscape of marshes did not immediately give 
place to waving palms, nor did the thermometer go up with a bound that 
twenty-sixth of January. 

Beyond the lumber town of Fernandina we ran slowly through a nar- 
row canal with thick surrounding swamps that gave us our first sense of 
being in the south. The ash trees and swamp maples were all in new 
leaf, their shiny yellow-greens and brilliant reds standing out startlingly 
against the dull gray of pines, palms and moss-hung live oaks. Drifting 
without the engine we had our first fishing, catching several sea trout 
and an eel. From a laconic lumberman at the bridge where we tied up 
for the night we learned that the only industry in this swampy country 
except lumbering was the cutting of young shoots of palm trees to send 
north for the churches on Palm Sunday. 

The next noon, above St. Augustine, we came to a place which the 
Skipper, from former experience, had described on the chart with two 
alluring words, "Hard clams." Going up a winding creek we reached 
over the side of the rowboat, and by digging elbow-deep in the soft mud, 
found all we wanted for a fine chowder. 

We spent a day at St. Augustine, exploring the quaint old Spanish 
part of the town and the ancient fort that still keeps the atmosphere 
of the grim times when it was equipped with torture chambers. 

The next day we were running close to the sea, separated from it 
only by a strip of narrow dunes. People often speak of this inland 
route in Florida as if it were in fresh water far from the sea, while in 
reality we were never away from the ocean atmosphere. The so-called 
■"rivers," such as the Halifax and Indian, are really long, narrow sounds 
of brackish water close to the sea which feeds them at frequent inlets. 
After a night at Matanzas Inlet far from any sign of civilization, came 
two days on the beautiful, broad Halifax River, whose banks are green 
with orange groves and palms. Ormond rears its great hotel on the 
river with golf links on the dunes near its far-famed beach. An aviator 
was taking passengers up in a hydro-aeroplane, using the hard-packed 
beach as a place for starting and descending. 

Daytona, which is pre-eminently a tourist resort, made a stopping- 
place for the night. From it we started boldly across Mosquito Inlet 
through confusing hundreds of small islands covered with the thick 
mangroA r e growth we were to find flourishing all through southern Flor- 


The tarpon reaches a length of six feet and tips the scale at a hundred pounds; and 

to fish for tarpon with a rod and reel is a pastime that holds plenty of thrills. Of 

the hundreds of fish with which Florida waters are accredited, the tarpon is the 

favorite catch of the sportsman 

ida. The mangroves grow right to the water's edge, sending down shoots 
which become roots and make impenetrable tangles. To the cruiser each 
island looks exactly like all the others, and the way is very confusing. 
Many a skipper does not attempt to find the narrow winding channel 
marked out on the chart, but gets a pilot at Daytona. However, the 
Drone's Skipper had made the trip before, and studying the chart and 




The so-called inland water route of Florida is never far away from the Atlantic, and in 
land, the water will be brackish and the air full of the salty flavor of the 

making frequent soundings with a bamboo pole, we came successfully 
through the maze of islands, only to go suddenly and unexpectedly 
aground in the Hillsborough River. Gloom descended upon us, for the 
disaster had occurred at high tide. We put out anchors and all four 
of us frantically pulled and strained in a vain attempt to kedge off. 
Our efforts only dragged the anchors along the muddy bottom instead 
of pulling the Drone off her resting place. We thought of stories of 
boats that had stayed aground two days— three days— a week. Certainly, 
if such were to be our fate, we had not chosen a very interesting place. 
On one side was a waste of mangroves, on another a strip of dunes with 
a deserted house. 

Our one hope was a yacht, the Killamey, which had anchored near 
us at Daytona and was coming down the river to-day. Perhaps her 
owner would offer a helpful tow-line. The Skipper cheered us with 
talcs of how he had been towed before and had often helped other boats 
in similar plight. Surely the owner of the Killamey would prove as 
friendly. We made our tow-line all ready in order to lose no time when 
the proffer of help came. When we saw the gleaming white of the 
yacht in the distance our hopes ran high. The pilot and the owner 
were consulting together at the wheels, eyeing us through binoculars. 
Our water-line showed plainly, as did our list to port. Yet that proud 
yacht steamed serenely by with never a word! Half a mile beyond 
us they stopped to land the pilot, who started back toward Daytona on a 

the midst of wood- 

bicycle. By the deserted house opposite us he 
stopped to stare at our plight — derisively, we 
thought. The probability was that he had told the 
Killamey's owner that to go near enough to us to- 
get a tow line would be to court going aground. 
Thus do pilots wreak vengeance on those who do not 
hire them ! 

Nothing was to be done till the next high tide at 
ten o'clock that night. Leaving the Skipper to watch 
for passing craft, we others rowed ashore to the 
deserted house, which we soon left to the mosqui- 
toes, its enthusiastic tenants. The weather was 
windy and overcast, too cold to go swimming, but 
the surf was magnificent. The only amusement ex- 
cept watching it was to go back to the Drone and 
catch inedible black-fish and blow-fish. 

Luck was with us, for the strong southeast wind 
was bringing water from Mosquito Lagoon below us 
to the river where we lay. So the high tide at ten 
o'clock was enough higher than the morning's tide 
to enable us to kedge jubilantly off and anchor in 
a safe depth for the night. 

The high wind was not so welcome the next day, 
for it added to the difficulties of seeing the shallows 
in the great width of Mosquito Lagoon. When by 
the middle of the morning the Skipper had success- 
fully navigated them, it was the part of prudence to 
tie up at "The Haulover," the narrow mile of canal 
leading into the Indian River, and wait for a chance 
of less wind the next day. 

The air was hot and sultry. Winter had been 
suddenly made summer. At the entrance of the 
canal we enjoyed the first swim of the season, after 
which we investigated Allenhurst, the settlement 
where we were moored. There was only a combined 
post office and store, one frame house, and one little 
cabin on the canal bank with the sign, "Free Mu- 
seum." There we found Dad Collins, a kindly old 
man of seventy-nine, who, years before, had been 
sent to Florida for specimens by the Smithsonian 
Institute, and was still living there with a dog, live 
snakes, alligators, and civet cats as his only com- 
panions. He had papered his cabin with hundreds 
of pictures and mottoes from magazines and news- 
papers, every sort of thing, from "God Bless Our 
Home" to Mutt and Jeff. 

A threatening sky drove us from the old man's 
tales to see that the Drone's ports were tightly 
closed. How it did rain ! All tropical torrents I 
had ever heard described were outdone, and through 
the heavy sound of the downpour came the strange 
croaking of a toad fish under the boat. 

Our next day was spent on the Indian River, which 
is even wider than 

the Halifax, and, like 
it, is lined with green 
banks. The sea was not so near as usual, 
for at our left was Merritt's Island, with 
the Banana River beyond it, before there 
came the dunes and the sea itself. 
Merritt's Island is considered the 
finest orange-growing country in 
the world. On that warm, sunny 
day its green banks looked very 

JANUARY, 1917 


That night was one to be remembered. We were 
at anchor at the mouth of the Sebastian River where 
it empties into the Indian. The moon shone over 
the water and on the cabbage palms waving to us 
from the shore. We lounged on deck listening to 
the splashing of a school of porpoises that played 
around the boat and sometimes showed at the sur- 
face in the moon's path. 

The next day was dedicated to exploration of an 
orange grove on the Sebastian River owned by 
friends of the Skipper. The shrub-like trees, thickly 
laden with oranges and grapefruit, trailed their 
branches down to the white sand from which they 
sprang. Their growth was so thick that they made 
of each spot where we paused a little hedged-in en- 
closure that shut out the rest of the world. Between 
dark, gloomy trees the sunlight lay white on the 
sand, the whole scene an ultra-modern landscape in 
black, white and orange. The stillness of the place 
was broken only by the gurgle of a brook of warm 
sulphur water, and the contented quacking of ducks 
bathing in it. 

In the absence of the owners of the grove a little 
woman who was their caretaker welcomed us. One 
of the two roughly dressed men who were with her 
offered to take us up the Sebastian River in his 
launch, as the stream was too shallow for the 
three and a half foot draught of the Drone. On 
inquiring his rates we were rather disconcerted 
to discover that he was offering us the free services 
of his launch and of the other man, his employe. 

The launch looked as if it had been made of 
"four spools and an old tin can." Indeed, the me- 
chanic proudly announced he had made it himself. 
To push off, he lunged madly around, nearly spear- 
ing us with a boat-hook. His engine stopped every 
few minutes and had to be inundated with oil. 
However, such incidents only gave spice to the fine 
run up the narrow, winding river, where live oaks, 
covered thickly with moss and air plants, met over- 
head. From this dense jungle, cabbage palms leaned 
out toward the rniddle of the stream. Some of the 
air plants had red, orchid-like blossoms. On the 
banks splendid crimson and yellow flowers grew 
among strange white lilies. The whole atmosphere 
was weird and exotic. The Skipper pointed out 
places where the weeds had been worn down by alli- 
gators. Suddenly, what seemed to be a log on one of 
these slides moved, and a five-foot alligator slid into 
the water before we could get our kodaks into play. 
For the next two days our way led through a 
highly cultivated country. First came Hobe Sound, 
lined with well kept winter homes, whose grounds 
were bright with many shrubs and flowers protected 
from the winds by tall lines of drooping Australian 
pines. After a night at Jupiter Inlet there came 

more winter homes on Lake Worth and 
the hotels at Palm Beach. We could not 
deny that their gardens were beautiful, 
but after our weeks of roughing it we 
did not feel at home in conventional 
clothes and surroundings. When a 
heavy rain storm came up we were glad 
to return to our oilskins on the Drone 
and embark again the next day. 

Our course was through a narrow 
canal in a rich truck-gardening country. 
Long wind-breaks of banana trees, ole- 
anders and Australian pines pro- 
tected the plantations. A yellow- 
flowered vine, and purple, red 
and white morning-glories gave 
color to the canal banks. That 
afternoon at Hillsborough Inlet 
we climbed the lighthouse for a 
view of the Gulf Stream. It was 
only a mile off shore, bubbling up 
in an unpleasant way and show- 
ing a darker color than the water 

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The giant palms grow boldly down to the water's edge, Daytona extends for nearly two miles along the 
banks of the Halifax River, and is a favorite gathering place for pleasure craft of every kind 

near shore. A small tramp steamer was floundering around unpleasantly 
in it. 

Our next stop was at Fort Lauderdale on the winding and picturesque 
New River. This "boom town" is only two years old, and very pros- 
perous from successful truck-farming. One man owns most of the town 
and outlying truck land, which he "half-crops" — that is, lets other men 
farm, while he provides the seed or tomato plants, and takes half the 
crops in payment. The day we arrived the half-croppers were in great 
anxiety over frost. The thermometer was down to sixty-five, so cold 
that the school was closed. Sixty-five in the daytime meant a much 
lower temperature after sundown. That night the crops barely escaped. 

Seminole Indians from the Everglades are frequent visitors at Fort 
Lauderdale ; grave-looking men in white cotton shirts and short, full 
skirts of white trimmed with bands of red and blue going around them 
barber-pole fashion. The more civilized wore ordinary trousers and 
white shirts trimmed with the stripes. We were told that the women 
wore long skirts that trailed to the ground, and must be rather a nuisance 
in their camp life. 

While the town of Fort Lauderdale was our base of supplies, we found 
the House of Refuge at the inlet three miles from the town an at- 
tractive place to spend our time because of the fine beach and good 
swimming in the breakers. The House of Refuge sounds like a 
{Continued on page 45) 




An old print showing this first naval conflict between iron-clad vessels, which occurred in Hampton Roads near Old Point Comfort in 1862. The fight was a draw so far 

as any damage was concerned, but in a naval sense it was one of the decisive battles of the war 



Johnston MacKenzie 


you all will 
have good weather at 
the Point," said the 
Virginian as the boat 
swung down past 
Thimble Light and 
the turf ramparts of 
Fort Monroe came 
into view. But the 
words were hardly 
out of his mouth 
when there came a 
rift in the clouds, and 
the morning sun 
streamed out across 
the greenest water, 
the reddest buildings, 
and the whitest door- 
ways I ever saw. 

The stage manage- 
ment was superb. 
The curtain went up 
on a setting of earth 
and sky and sea, with 
all the dramatis per- 
sona? in full view — 
soldiers, villagers and 
tourists; gulls wheel- 
ing through the air 
and battleships riding 

iltfe ■■■ill 

«■«■■* ««■■■« mw 


I iff I I 111 I 

^IfHB mm ^m*»m 

The accent everywhere is on the military and naval, and officers in uniform mingling with civilian visitors no! 
only lend a martial air to the scene but local color as well 

at anchor in Hampton. 
Roads. A yawl-rigged 
boat came into the 
wind, tacked, and af- 
ter a few moments of 
jockeying fluttered to 
her mooring. 

Old Point Comfort 
stands for a great va- 
riety of things. The 
name suggests honey- 
moons, Southern hos- 
pitality and health. 
The army post there 
at Fort Monroe is pic- 
turesque and interest- 
ing, but not hospit- 
able, especially to 
would-be foreign in- 
vaders, but when you 
meet the people of the 
place you cannot for- 
get for a minute that 
you are in Virginia. 
Seen from the water 
as you approach, the 
Point promises all of 
these things, and then 
gives you more. Its 
300-year-old name is 
just as appropriate 

JANUARY, 1917 


to-day as when it was bestowed by a gentleman 
named Smith, who bore the title of Captain and 
the distinction of having an Indian Princess 
for a wife. 

It is not often that you can find a place where 
there is everything to do and nothing to do; 
where the scenic interest and historic atmos- 
phere both reach the same high level ; where the 
climate is perfect, and where you can have all 
the material benefits that one can get in the 
European spas that are now unavailable to 
Americans. These things may be found, how- 
ever, at Old Point Comfort. "Everything to 
do" includes golf on an eighteen-hole course, 
motoring to some of the most charming spots 
in eastern Virginia, bathing on the beach in 
summer time and in a most luxurious and 
roomy pool in winter, sailing over the historic 
waters of Hampton Roads, and many another 
outdoor diversion. "Nothing to do" means that 
at Old Point Comfort one does not feel op- 
pressed by a sense of responsibility, even the 
responsibility of finding entertainment. There 
is always a moving-picture show on Hampton 
Roads that you can watch all day from an easy 
chair, and there is no flicker to tire the eyes 
such as you get from looking at film produc- 
tions. You can amble to your heart's content 
and without restriction, except in the immediate 
vicinity of the big gun emplacements at the 
Fort, and you can be as lazy as fancy or your 
physical condition dictates. 

A long time ago the family doctor was con- 
sulted by my parents in regard to the best man- 
ner of correcting the round shoulders I had 
developed. His terse advice was, "Either take 
him to Old Point Comfort or get him a pair of 
shoulder braces." I got the braces. Then for 
years I puzzled my young head over the problem 
of what peculiar quality in the air of Old Point 
Comfort could have prevented the slouch I wore, 
solved a few hours after I first visited the Point. 

Most boys are impressed by the romance that surrounds a military 



Cameras are forbidden in the vicinity of the gun emplacements except to government photographers who took these 
pictures. The velocity of the projectiles seen is so great that a special high-speed lens shutter is used, giving 
an exposure of infinitesimal time and operated automatically by the concussion of the guns 

The enigma was 

man. His uniform and his carriage are admired by youths, and, failing 
the uniform, they emulate the carriage. Round-shouldered soldiers are 
as rarely seen as actors with full beards; and as there are several sol- 


Although visitors are permitted to visit the fort enclosure, it is difficult to get near the modern guns, which are so placed as to be invisible from the water side of the fort. 
Fort Monroe is the seat of the Coast Artillery School, and once a year for a period of several weeks the garrison is instructed in the science of aiming and firing the 

big pieces of ordnance 




There are several entrances to the fort, each approached by a bridge across the moat 
and guarded by a draw 

diers to each civilian m Old Point Comfort, it is easy to see why the 
doctor prescribed as he did. 

The accent everywhere is on the military and the naval, but the social 
forms a very important syllable in the name of the place. Few of the 
•officers are seen in mufti, and in the presence of so much khaki, broad- 
cloth and gold braid one just naturally throws out his chest and doesn't 
feel too proud to fight. This state of mind is considerably enhanced by 
a visit to Fort Monroe, which, strictly speaking, it is no longer correct to 

The old fort enclosure is like a little walled city in the interior of 
which is the broad parade ground. Overlooking this on all four sides 
are the barracks, mess hall, and officers' quarters, and bordering it are 
venerable live oaks and real Southern magnolias. There is a saying 
here that the evergreen magnolias won't grow north of Old Point Com- 
fort; certainly I have never seen them grow to much greater perfec- 
tion farther south. The houses in which the officers live include two 
or three large ones that date from the time of the Confederacy, and 
the quarters of the "non-coms" are under the ramparts, through the 
turf tops of which can be seen the smoking chimneys of these snug 
little abodes. Happy-faced children play about these martial door- 
yards and are brought up with the tremendous advantage of being 


A company of infantry returning to the fort after a marching .and camping trip into 

the adjacent country 

able to see a parade every day. But they do not seem to appreciate it. 

The best general view of Old Point Comfort is to be had from the 
ramparts of the fort. At your feet is the tidewater moat which sur- 
rounds the whole enclosure, to the east and south the waters of Chesa- 
peake Bay and Hampton Roads, and to the southwest the great hotel, 
which, being on a Government reservation, may be torn down over night 
in case of military necessity. Perhaps you have secured a permit from 
the Adjutant to carry your camera inside the fort; if so, the soldier 
who is detailed to accompany you sees that you do not take any pictures 
that by any stretch of the imagination could show points of strategic 
importance. There is, however, so much of the picturesque that the 
merely strategic does not tempt the kodaker to become indiscreet. 

If you are interested in the size of Fort Monroe take your choice 
between Baedeker, which generously allows it eighty acres, and a local 
guide, which with possibly greater accuracy gives twenty-seven. You 
will agree, at any rate, that it is roomy enough for all practical purposes. 
What you will like best is its atmosphere, which has been slowly matur- 
ing for three centuries. 

A year after the redoubtable Captain John Smith christened Old Point 
Comfort, a palisade was constructed by the colonists of the London 
(Continued on page 48) 


> from the ramparts of ■ the .for. A. your feet i, the tidewater moat which surrounds the whole enclosure; to the east and south the waters of 
,n Roads; and to the southwest the great hotel, which, being on a Government reservation, may be torn down over night in case of 

military necessity 

■ lit uwi |jciiciai view 19 Hum II 

Chesapeake Bay and Hampton 

JANUARY, 19 17 















7 '-"V 

Wwwwf'GmR I 


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The Travel Club's Successful 

THE dinner of The Travel Club of Amer- 
ica, held at the Hotel Majestic on De- 
cember 2 last, was, to use a somewhat trite but 
expressive phrase, a' pronounced success — a 
success both because of the very interesting 
talks and pictures giving glimpses of our two 
continents, and because of the large attend- 
ance and of the general good-will and interest 
displayed on the part of the members of the 

The great ball room of the Hotel Majestic 
was taxed to its full capacity and every seat 
at every table was occupied. It was with re- 
gret that the committee in charge of the 
dinner was obliged to refuse applications that 
came in during the afternoon of the date of 
the dinner. 

In his brief opening remarks, Henry Collins 
Walsh, who presided, spoke of the growing 
difficulty of securing accommodations suf- 
ficiently spacious to accommodate so rapidly 
growing an association. But he went on to 

say that this was the only way the club could 
be embarrassed by numbers, for numbers were 
eminently desirable in order to carry out the 
far-reaching objects for which the club was 
organized. Mr. Walsh called upon the mem- 
bers present to co-operate with the officers of 
the club in increasing its membership as the 
most effective means of increasing the useful- 
ness of the club. He then presented Dr. Wil- 
' Ham C. Farabee as a distinguished and in- 
trepid explorer who had penetrated into the 
very heart of darkest South America, a con- 
tinent whose interior is less known than that 
of Africa. 

Dr. Farabee related his remarkable expe- 
riences among the wilds and jungles of the 
great Valley of the Amazon with a singular 
charm and modesty. So unaffectedly were the 
stories of his extraordinary adventures told 
that the hearer hardly realized their real won- 
der and all the risks and dangers that such 
an expedition involved. The newspapers of 
Europe have given some intimation of Dr. 
Farabee's explorations in the heart of un- 
known South America, but the real expe- 






riences of this fearless explorer, however, 
had never been ' told except in a talk 
given a week previously at the University of 
Pennsylvania, which institution had sent Dr. 
Farabee out on his great quest. In his talk 
and by means of beautifully colored slides, the 
explorer introduced to The Travel Club a 
number of tribes and peoples pertaining to 
the Amazon district that had never before seen 
a white man or been seen by one. Novel cus- 
toms and manners and novel costumes ren- 
dered the revelations given of these interior 
tribes all the more interesting because of their 

Mr. Harry A. Franck, the famous globe 
trotter and explorer, who has probably cov- 
ered more miles afoot than any other living 
man, gave the club some illustrated side lights 
and incidents of a four years' tramp in South 
America. He depicted life as seen from an 
original point of view in some of the more 
settled cities of South America, as well as 
among the country people and in lesser known 
sections, for during his long and record-break- 
(Continued on page 45) 


A flashlight photograph showing a part of those who attended on December 2. Guests at the speakers' table are seen standing at the far end of the room, 
secure copies of this picture measuring 11 by 18 inches from Dmcker & Co., 204 West Forty-third Street, New York, for $1.50 postpaid 

Members may 




THE motorist who has not yet satisfactor- 
ily solved the question of headgear and 
eyegear will welcome the new and scientific 
Van Zile Air Deflector cap, which protects the 
eyes from dust and wind without a covering of 
glass. The cap represents years of scientific 
experiments made by an expert in ventilating, 
Mr. H. L. Van Zile, who is responsible for 
clever methods of introducing fresh air into 
large office buildings, hotels and theaters. The 
cap itself is made of fine French aeroplane 
cloth, with leather side-protectors, and is ad- 
justed to the head size by a broad rubber strap 
at the back. The deflector forms the visor. 
The one-inch opening under the light tin top 
catches the air and by a series of curved shut- 
ters deflects it downward away from the eyes 
and nose; the force of this current directed 
downwards being of sufficient strength to re- 
sist the incoming current under the shutter. 
By the use of this invention glasses are ren- 
dered unnecessary, the air and dust striking 
only the lower part of the face. For packing, 
the top is hooked down over the shutters. 
Those who have used this cap, among whom 
are motorcyclists and engineers, as well as 
motorists, praise it highly. Lord & Taylor are 

A new motoring cap, which deflects the dust and 
air away from eyes and nose 

showing them in their autowear department. 

For any outdoor winter sport, but especially 
for motoring, there is devised a warm fur cap 
with adjustable visor which may be pulled far 
over the eyes when desired, and close-fitting 
neck protector which generously covers the 
neck and ears — very desirable for either man 
or woman. The one pictured is of French 
seal, so soft and comfortable that one more 
than suspects that this fur is the famous 
rabbit-skin that was considered good enough 
to wrap precious "Baby Bunting" in. How- 
ever that may be, it is fully worth the $5 
asked for it by Lord & Taylor. The other 
cap, cut somewhat on the same pattern, is a 
more or less familiar style, but shows the 
extra long cut of the back and the continuous 
ear-tab so comfortable on cold days, which 
folds inside the cap when not in use. This is 
a comfortable companion for early spring as 
well as winter. In rough black and white 
mixed wool, with stiff visor, the price is $2. 

The principal attraction in the sled pictured 
below is the flat skee runners which make for 
speed and ease in coasting. The skee sled will 
comfortably seat two adults and costs $15 at 
Abercrombie & Fitch's. 

There are certain standard styles of soft 
hats, suitable for traveling and motoring, made 
by such houses as Knox, that always retain 
their fresh and chic appearance. One of these, 
of panne velvet, trimmed with green irides- 
cent breast, sells for $30, and is suitable for 
occasions where a purely sport hat would not 
be sufficiently dressy. 

A very useful companion for the traveler is 
the radium face alarm watch, which may be 
carried in the pocket as a regular watch, or 
opened and set up as a clock, the back cover 
opening to form an easel. The works are pro- 
tected by glass, and the figures and hands are 
coated with radium, which shines with useful 
brilliance in the dark. The watch may be set 

Two splendid types of comfortable caps for sport and motor wear, the fur model suitable for cold climates, 

and the wool useful for winter and spring 

The skee-sled is a rapid traveler and rides easily over the crust-a worthy rival of the old-time "bob" 

A dressy hat of panne velvet that has the fashionable 
"sport"' air 

to ring an alarm, the same as any alarm clock, 
and sounds a spunky summons. The clock is 
from Gall & Lembke, and sells for $16. 

B. Altman & Company and James McCreery 
& Company are showing most attractive wear 
for the sojourner at southern resorts, and both 
Abercrombie & Fitch and the New York 
Sporting Goods Company make a specialty of 
sport and travel clothing. 


The accessories illustrated and described on 
this page may be purchased either direct from 
the shops mentioned or through this depart- 

To travel comfortably is to travel efficiently. 
Unless one be provided with the real necessi- 
ties and some of the luxuries of travel the trip 
loses much of its charm. 

Different places, different seasons of the 
year, require different wearing apparel. We 
shall be glad to advise regarding both wearing 
apparel and accessories for your next trip. 

This advice is entirely for the benefit of our 
readers — there is no charge of any kind. 
The Efficient Traveler, 
31 East 17th Street, 

New York. 

radium face alarm watch is a most useful com- 
bination and is as thin as the ordinary watch 

JANUARY , 19 17 






THIS is the type of loom generally used by the Pe-pa-whan, or 
"Tribe of the Plains," a semi-civilized people of the island of 
Formosa. Weaving is the principal industry of the women of the tribe, 
who make a fine quality of cloth from hemp, obtaining the ornamental 
effects in which they delight by the use of brightly colored threads im- 
ported from Europe. The threads are held at the proper tension by the 
weaver bracing her feet against the body of the loom, while she works 
the shuttle with her hands, a rather fatiguing labor, it appeared to the 
photographer, though the women sit stolidly at their looms hour after 
hour. J. M. C. 

SOMEWHAT akin to 
the cock fights for- 
merly popular in the 
sporting circles of so- 
called Christian lands 
are the snake and mon- 
goose contests of India. 
If you have never heard 
about the redoubtable lit- 
tle mongoose, read Kip- 
ling's "Rikki-tikki-tavi," 
and you will learn that, 
contrary to appearances, 
it is usually the snake 
that gets the worst of 
the encounter, as the 
mongoose has very keen 
sight and is incredibly 
swift in its movements, 
never hesitating to at- 

J- P- 

THE last ten minutes of the ascent to the crater of Mt. Vesuvius 
is made by a wire rope railway, which carries its passengers to 
within 500 feet of the smoking bowl of the volcano. The first rope rail- 
way was destroyed during the eruption of 1906, and at the same time 
the station which had been built at the crater's edge was demolished, so 
that the new terminal was placed at a respectful distance. Here the 
travelers leave the car and may rest a while and inhale the sulphurous 
fumes until they gather up courage and, accompanied by the guides, who 
are obligatory, climb over the soft mass of lava and ashes to the crater. 

J. B. P. 

HERE is a practical application of the adage that cleanliness is next 
to godliness — a Hindu devotee performing his ablutions before 
entering the mosque at Ahmedabad. The faithful must always wash 
their faces, hands and feet before going in to pray or before they form 
in line in the great inside court to be led in prayer by one of their 
priests. To facilitate this exercise of the pious, a huge wash basin has 
been built before the mosque at Ahmedabad. J. B. P. 

IT is estimated that 20,000 people are bitten by poisonous snakes in 
Brazil every year, and the progressive State of Sao Paulo has estab- 
lished a snake farm with a view to dealing with the evil scientifically. 
There is a laboratory attached where experiments are made to find 
serums that will prove antidotes for the poison. It is a unique philan- 
thropy and one which deserves international support, for the knowledge 
gained will benefit the whole world. M. L. R. 




THE RAMBLER has always considered that animals in the Orient 
form a great deal of the local color. A team of oxen yoked to 
a plow is typical of many Eastern countries, and the ox replaces the 
horse entirely in Egypt, India, Burma and Java for agricultural labor. 
They give a picturesque finish to the picture. They line the country 
roads of Ceylon for miles, hauling heavy loads of tea from the hills, 
and in the towns they plod around a small circle, working the mills 
that reduce cocoanuts to oil. These mills are primitive affairs, each con- 
sisting of a large stone wheel attached to a pole to which the oxen are 
hitched. This wheel revolves on a stone base and the cocoanuts are 
crushed between them. The driver, perched upon the pole, is usually 
asleep, but the oxen keep stolidly moving at the same slow pace. Every- 
thing is restful and conducive to slumber and The Rambler doesn't won- 
der "that the European who settles in the East soon loses all energy. 
In India, oxen perform similar work in connection with brick making, 
the difference being that the pole is attached to a post in the center, and 
the stone wheel revolves at a point near the oxen, running in a circular 
trench in which the clay is worked to the desired consistency. In Java, 
the ox is mainly confined 
to the rice fields and may 
be seen, his body only 
above water, plowing up 
the muddy bottom of a 
flooded field. Their re- 
markable strength and en- 
durance enable them to 
perform tasks in the trop- 
ical heat to which a horse 
would soon succumb. 
Then again, horses in In- 
dia, and the East gener- 
ally, with the exception of 
the large cities, are very 
scarce, and those in evi- 
dence but sorry specimens 
of skin and bone. Horses 
are only, in demand by the 
natives on state occasions, 
such as a wedding or 
when a chance European 
visits the locality. 

A native wedding pro- 
cession in India is a sight 
to remember. One is first 
aware that something un- 
usual is happening by 
hearing a weird sound of 
discord in a busy native 
street. Soon a dozen na- 
tives, clad in vivid rai- 
ment, usually red tunics cast off by British soldiers, their heads adorned 
with cocked hats formerly the property of some naval officer, amble 
along aimlessly, producing discordant sounds from instruments some- 
what resembling Scottish bagpipes in the effect produced, but luckily 
rendered partially inaudible by the din of a score of energetic drummers 
who come next in the procession, beating, as fancy dictates, on large 
oval-bottomed drums. Then comes a skeleton of* a horse, painfully 
dragging an obsolete tikka gharry, a covered four-wheeled vehicle some- 
what resembling a "Black Maria" in external appearance, but with 
scarcely room enough inside for four thin natives to squeeze themselves. 
This vehicle is usually covered with a pall, as an extra precaution to 
prevent a glimpse of the happy couple from being caught by the public. 
On the wooden roof of the gharry are seated some half a dozen children, 
dressed for the occasion in tawdry clothing bedecked with tinsel. 

A large crowd of relatives and admirers bring up the rear on foot, 
and the procession parades up and down the various streets for a couple 
of hours before disbanding. 

Another animal in general use in both India and Egypt is the water 
buffalo, and it is a common sight to see natives riding homeward on these 
ungainly animals after a day's work in the fields. 

Camels and donkeys are also in use in India, although not so exten- 
sively as in Egypt, where the former carry huge loads, and one often 
meets a long line of moving mounds of grass or cane on the desert 
roads, to discover when close at hand there are camels beneath. 

But the strangest sight of all is the huge yak, which looks terribly out 
of place hitched to the tiny native carts in Rajputana, where they are in 

(L> stereo-Travel Co. 


Oxen replace horses entirely in many countries of the East for agricultural labor, as their remarkable 
strength and endurance enable them to perform tasks in the tropical heat to which a horse would 

soon succumb 

common use. Two of these harnessed to the quaint vehicle totally ob- 
scures it from sight if viewed from the front. It is a very stately method 
of transit, for they are slower than the average ox. 

Europe provides few novelties in the use of animals. In Italy the 
method of driving a horse is rather curious, for the bit is not usually 
used, and the animal is checked by means of a contrivance which pinches 
the nose when the reins are pulled. Whether this is a more humane 
method is an open question. The use of dogs in Holland is also a nov- 
elty, and they may be seen everywhere trotting merrily along with wag- 
ging tail while exerting their strength in pulling the milk cart to which 
it is harnessed. The stranger is apt to pity the animals, but they seem 
to enjoy the work, and when a halt is made usually curl up contentedly 
under the vehicle, to take a nap before the owner is ready to resume 
the journey. 

Wild animals are often heard of but seldom seen in the East save 
in captivity. Rajahs are fond of keeping tigers, and most native rulers 
have a tiger cage attached to the palace, but the animals are very disap- 
pointing, and the energetic prodding of the native who proudly exhibits 

them rarely stirs them . 
from their sluggish de- 

Monkeys are very plen- 
tiful in some parts of In- 
dia. The Rambler a few 
years ago was traveling 
on a train which for some 
reason was brought to a 
standstill for an hour in 
the heart of the Rajpu- 
tana jungle. Soon a 
couple of huge monkeys 
appeared and retreated 
chattering into the depths 
of the forest, to reappear 
with a horde of their kin. 
Before long, several hun- 
dreds of monkeys crowded 
the side of the line and 
watched and imitated the 
movements of the passen- 
gers with great gusto un- 
til the whistle of the loco- 
motive sent them scream- 
ing back to the jungle. 

But of all wild animals 
the elephant is the only 
one who takes kindly to 
captivity. In southern 
India some of the temples 
house sacred elephants 
that, beyond the inconvenience of a trunk painted in weird designs, and 
the annoyance of being hauled out at stated times to be worshiped, live 
a life of unalloyed laziness and luxury. In Burma things are different, 
and the elephant has to work for its living. He performs prodigious 
feats of strength in hauling the huge teak logs from the heart of the 
forest to the nearest stream, where they are floated to the Irawaddi 
and later to Rangoon to be hewn into planks at the mills. For many 
years the "elephants piling teak" at the Rangoon mills were a feature 
of the place, but machinery is gradually lessening their work, although 
many are still used for moving logs from one part of the yard to an- 
other. The remarkable ease with which they curl their trunks round 
giant trees and walk off with them is only excelled by their wonderful 
intelligence and docility — a guttural order from the mahout being in- 
stantly understood and obeyed. And yet their intelligence apparently 
stops at a certain point. A gentleman who uses a great number of ele- 
phants in Burma recently told The Rambler of one that would go to a 
large water tank when thirsty, turn on the tap and place his trunk be- 
neath until he was satisfied, but would always walk off without turning 
off the tap. A continued watch was necessary to prevent the waste of 
water. Although every method was tried to induce him to turn it off, 
he could never be taught. 

Nowadays one can often visit a lumber yard in Rangoon without 
seeing an elephant at work, but a tip of a couple of rupees to the mahout 
will induce him to bring out his elephant. Which shows that, no matter 
how the animals of the East may differ from those of the West, the cus- 
tom of tipping is the same the world over. Walter Pontin. 

JANUARY, 1917 


{Continued from page 41) 

ing tramp Mr. Franck made his way to remote 
corners, worked with peons in the mines, 
camped out with Indians, and studied the peo- 
ple and their characters as few men have 
done. There were a freshness and originality 
about his talk that was greatly enjoyed by all. 

Mr. Leroy Jeffers, F. R. G. S., followed Mr. 
Franck and jumped the Travel Club members 
over a wide stretch of territory to the regions 
of the Canadian Rockies. The majesty and 
grandeur of this mountain scenery appealed 
to all, as did the interpretation by Mr. Jeffers 
of the attractions of mountain climbing and 
the inspiration that comes from the spreading 
scenery of high altitudes. 

This interesting program closed with a 
motion-picture portrayal of Mount Rainier 
National Park with a few explanatory remarks 
by Mr. Edward Frank Allen, Editor of Travel. 



{Continued from page 37) 
reformatory, but is merely one of the places 
planted by the government at hundred-mile 
intervals along the coast for the reception of 
shipwrecked sailors. An extraordinary idea, 
as wrecks might easily occur fifty miles away 
from any of them. 

Thirty miles beyond Lauderdale is Miami, 
that Mecca of yachtsmen. The whiteness of 
its coraline streets and houses is shaded by 
cocoanut palms and Australian pines, and 
bright with hybiscus and bougain-villsea. Bis- 
cayne Bay, on which the town fronts, is wide 
and beautiful with many sand flats frequented 
by pelican, that most grave and dignified of 

The bay and river fronts were lined with 
boats of every type when we arrived, from big 
yachts to sponging vessels manned by Nassau 
negroes. Every day boats were coming in or 
going out to points among the keys south of 
Miami. On the docks cruisers of many types 
hob-nobbed together over the all-absorbing 
subject of fishing. Trophies of craw-fish, 
rock-crabs, sharks, stingrays, turtles, and 
countless varieties of fish were proudly shown. 
During the ten days that we stayed at Miami 
I'm sure we saw or heard of every one of the 
700 kinds of fish with which Florida waters 
are credited. 

When the time came for us to cease to be 
cruisers and become prosaic travelers on a 
north-bound train, we found in the weekly 
journal of a "boom town" south of Miami this 
suggestion to prolong our stay: 

"Wives wanted in Florida City 
Matrimonial Department Organized." 

But I warn anyone tempted by the name of 
one of the forty-eight "high-grade young gen- 
tlemen" superscribed that she may not find the 
Florida of that "farthest south city" as attrac- 
tive as the Florida we saw from the shelter of 
the good ship Drone. 

* "(WWW 

Best and Cheapest Service in the World 

Here are some comparisons of telephone conditions 
in Europe and the United States just before the war. 

Here we have: 

Continuous service in practically all exchanges, 
so that the telephone is available day and night. 

A telephone to one person in ten. 

3,000,000 miles of interurban or long-distance 

Prompt connections, the speed of answer in 
principal cities averaging about 3/2 seconds. 

Lines provided to give immediate toll and 
long-distance service. 

In Europe: 

Nine-tenths of the exchanges are closed at 
night, and in many cases, at mealtime. 

Not one person in a hundred has a telephone. 

Not one-eighth as many miles in proportion ta 
population and territory. 

In the principal cities, it takes more than twice 
as long for the operator to answer. 

No such provision made. Telephone users are 
expected to await their turn. 

As to cost, long-distance service such as we have here was not to be had in Europe, 
even before the war, at any price. And exchange service in Europe, despite its inferior 
quality, cost more in actual money than here. 

Bell Service is the criterion for all the world, and the Bell organization is the most 
economical as well as the most efficient servant of the people. 

American Telephone and Telegraph Company 

And Associated Companies 

One Policy One System Universal Service 

CUBA -A Winter Paradise 

Title of a beautifully illustrated 64 page book- 
let telling you all about the enchanting island 
CUBA .~^Jm>i sent on receipt of 

3 cents postage. 


.8ui*t#t in.»a..i l lgj^tfti r '«ff*tm 

rFrank Roberts, G.P.A. 

Suite 1115 42 Broadway 

New York 

In writing to advertisers, please mention Travel 



By a caprice of the Missouri River, and the 
law fixing State boundaries, the Iowa Point 
school district of Doniphan County, Kansas, 
must pay the tuition of seventeen children in 
Missouri schools. These pupils live on Rush 
Island, which, although a part of Kansas, has 
the current of the river between it and the 
Iowa Point schoolhouse. It has been impos- 
sible for them to cross the river and so the 
school district arranged to pay their tuition in 
a nearby Missouri school. — The Earth. 


New York isn't always ice-bound in Janu- 
ary, but — here's the rub — it is apt to be. Simi- 
larly, Augusta and Aiken are not always 
balmy, but — here's the joy — they are pretty 
sure of being. Between New York and these 
two famous winter resorts there is, in time, 
only the space of twenty-four hours; in cli- 
mate, the difference is about four months. 

In writing to advertisers, please mention Travel 


Substitute Chicago for New York in the fore- 
going and its accuracy is not impaired to any 
appreciable degree. In other words, Augusta, 
Ga., and Aiken, S. C, are the winter resorts 
of the whole of the eastern United States. 
They are only a few miles apart, yet each has 
its own individuality, and while each is noted 
for some especial characteristic diversion, yet 
there is little that one cannot find to do in 
either place. 

(C) Underwood & Underwood 

At one of the polo games for which Aiken, South 
Carolina, is famous 

Aiken is famed for its polo matches, on ac- 
count of which fashionable society follows the 
many well-known players who go there to par- 
ticipate in this royal sport. Golf, too, is a lure 
that is splendidly provided at both resorts, and 
some of the finest courses in the country are 
located hereabouts. Practically every outdoor 
sport on the calendar, except those to which 
snow and ice are requisite, can be indulged in 
at Aiken and Augusta. Riding and driving 

(C) Underwood & Underwood 

A group of hunters in the woods near Aiken and 

are particularly popular, for there are good 
roads and bridle paths leading through the 
piney woods, and the nearby country gives an 
opportunity for the game hunter to exercise 
his skill on quail, woodcock and snipe, the open 
season for which lasts until the middle of 
March. For the expert marksman there are 
trapshooting contests where thousands of clay 
birds meet an untimely end every week. 

Aiken and Augusta combined form a sort 
of winter capital for the society of the nation. 
Even those who go for a time to the east coast 
of Florida stop at one or the other to break the 
return trip. This is not to suggest that life 
is all pitched in too high a key for those of 
moderate means, for there are accommoda- 
tions that will not strain an average income 
yet present all the comfort of the centers of 
life and gayety. 

JANUARY , 1917 



(Continued from page 26) 

pressions from anything else that I saw, I still 
declare that I have a greater affection for 
Toronto than for any other city I visited in 
Canada. The explanation lies in the feeling 
that Toronto possesses a compelling city spirit. 
Though her population is not so great as that 
of Montreal. Toronto has as many marks of a 
metropolis about her. The comment on To- 
ronto that I heard most frequently was to the 
effect that "she's a real city!" 

A night, a day, another night, and then 
almost until sunset of another day a train on 
"the Trancontinental Line" bore us northwest. 
At last we were out of the forests and skim- 
ming over the prairies. Our Pullman porter 
came through the car wearing his best grin 
and flourishing a whisk broom. It struck some 
of us that he was getting busy rather early, 
for not the faintest sign of the outskirts of a 
city could be discerned. I submitted to the 
hrush and dutifully surrendered a tip; then, of 
course, peered out again. The prairie was still 
a blank. I decided that it must have been a 
false alarm, that we might not arrive in Win- 
nipeg for half an hour. So I settled myself 
comfortably in a corner of the seat and closed 
my eyes for a brief doze. A jiffy or two later 
the train was rumbling over a bridge ; I looked 
up and found myself in a great city, which had 
been set down in the middle of the prairie as 
if by Aladdin-like magic. 

Does some one superciliously raise his eye- 
brows at the words "great city"? That is 
none the less an exact, not a fanciful descrip- 
tion. Winnipeg is the real thing. A distance 
of 1,255 miles of sparsely settled country lies 
between her and Toronto, but here in mid- 
continent springs up a Canadian Chicago. 
Forty years ago her main streets were Indian 
trails and Winnipeg was on the map by virtue 
of being a trading post of the Hudson's Bay 
Company. By 1902 her population had risen 
to 48,000. Eight years later it had passed 
160,000. To-day Winnipeg is the third city 
of Canada, with a census somewhere in the 
neighborhood of a quarter of a million. 

I had been first impressed by the city by 
the dramatic suddenness of my introduction 
to her. The big modern railway station in 
which I alighted added something more to the 
impression. I emerged from here and barely 
a block away loomed a hotel, new and glisten- 
ing white, a dozen or more stories high and 
large enough and handsomely enough ap- 
pointed to deserve a rating along with the 
finest hotels in New York or Chicago. 

From there, by a quiet, leafy side street, I 
struck off toward Portage Avenue to have a 
look at the business section. "Portage Ave- 
nue" is a name that can conjure back to mid- 
dle-aged men the memory of frontier days. 
But you see it now a wide business street, 
modern to the nth degree, walled with high 
buildings and thronged with shoppers and 
automobiles and crowded pay-as-you-enter 
street cars — a Broadway of the northern 

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Two cardinal properties — pliancy and 
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Their quality makes them higher-priced — 
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Goodyear Tires, Heavy Tourist Tubes and 
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prairies. A massive department store, as huge 
and as metropolitan in every detail as anything 
in New York City, is the most conspicuous 
building. Down at the foot of the avenue, 
office skyscrapers cluster near the intersection 
of another thronged highway which bears the 
uninspiring name of "Main Street." In spite 
of its name, Main Street is thoroughly metro- 
politan. For the section of it near the foot 
of Portage Avenue, "Wall Street" would be 
more appropriate ; most of the buildings are 
dignified bank structures. A few blocks away 
is a massive squarish office building — the grain 
exchange and the wheat pit. Winnipeg makes 
claim to being the greatest grain market on 

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the continent, and whether she is or not she 
knows how to look the part. 

I spent three days in Winnipeg and found 
plenty of sights to hold my interest through 
that period. All but a few of them, however, 
are such pictures as are familiar to any resi- 
dent of a thriving modern American city — 
for, in brief, Winnipeg is another Chicago. 
She is even cosmopolitan in population, like 
Chicago, for of late the government has been 
distributing immigrants from this center in- 
stead of pouring them into a seaport. My 
most vivid recollections are of vociferous 
newsboys, crowded street cars, ambulance 
bells, scurrying jitneys and the doorman at 





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A scenic wonderland of marvelous beauty — 30,000 square miles, 80 mountain peaks 

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Through Pullman, Drawing and State Room Sleeping Car Service, Daily to Asheville, N. C. 

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the Orpheum bellowing "Fifty !" Only two 
suggestions of the nearness of frontier days 
stick in my memory. One was the sight of an 
Indian — he was wearing a khaki uniform and 
swinging a swagger stick. The other was the 
sight of a steer, bounding across Main Street 
at Sutherland Avenue; a crossing patrolman, 
wearing the uniform of a London bobby, 
herded him off in the fateful direction of the 

50c. the case of 6 glass-stoppered bottles 


{Continued from page 40) 

Company who founded Jamestown and named 
Fort Algernoune. It is conceivable that some 
one of the etymologically inclined among the 
Company construed Comfort to mean "come- 
fort," but the chances are that its position as 
a safe refuge against hostile Indians or other 
unfriendly invaders had much more to do with 
the fortification. Since Fort Algernoune there 
has been a succession of forts here until the 
In writing to advertisers, please mention Travel 

present one, which was begun in 1819 and 
completed twenty-one years later. 

Fort Monroe did not figure in the Revolu- 
tionary War, but in the War of 1812 it had 
varying fortunes, being held by both the Brit- 
ish and the Americans. It was then that the 
United States Government took over the land 
on the pensinsula; and as this was done at the 
instigation of President Monroe, the fort that 
was built was given its present name. 

During the Civil War the famous battle 
between the Monitor and Merrimac was staged 
in Hampton Roads within view of the fort. 
Almost every foot of ground and water sur- 
face in the vicinity has connected with it some 
historical memory, and there are few whose 
apperceptive faculties do not react to the at- 
mosphere of the place. And then, you are in 
Virginia. I can't name it, but there is some- 
thing in the Old Dominion that "gets into 
you." The quality is as elusive as it is potent. 
It may be the historical association, perhaps it 
is the Southern hospitality and the fact that 
you are addressed as "Colonel"— it doesn't 
matter much except that you feel it and glory 
in it. 

Within an easy afternoon's jaunt from Old 
Point Comfort are some of the most beautiful 
and interesting spots in the State of Virginia. 
A pleasant walk across the causeway that 
spans Mill Creek brings you to the sleepy- 
looking town of Phoebus. It looks sleepy, but 
in reality it is quite busy, for it is a fishing 
center of no small importance. Baltimore, 
Philadelphia and New York receive large con- 
signments of "Friday food" from Phoebus, 
and it is probable that most of the crab flakes 
that come to the metropolitan district have 
their origin in the waters adjacent to this little 
town. From Hampton, a town of much greater 
size and importance a short distance farther 
along, also come great quantities of fish, but 
Hampton's chief interest centers about a 
higher form of life. Overlooking the waters 
of Hampton Roads, their grounds impinging 
on one another, are the National Soldiers' 
Home and the Hampton Agricultural and Nor- 
mal Institute. At the one some 2,500 or 3,000 
veterans of the country's wars are passing 
their twilight years in peace and comfort ; at 
the other high-minded, serious colored youths 
of both sexes are being fitted to give practical 
training to their race. The situation and 
grounds of this Institute give it as fine an 
appearance a'S most of the older American uni- 
versities, and when you consider that more 
than half of the 135 buildings have been con- 
structed by the students themselves, the won- 
der of it grows. 

One of the finest bits of architecture in 
Hampton is a public school — the Symmes- 
Eaton Academy. To understand its full sig- 
nificance you must know first that where 
Hampton is now was the Indian town of 
Kecoughtan (pronounced kek-o-tan). In 1607, 
at the time Captain John Smith settled the re- 
gion, Pochins, a son of the famous Powhatan, 
was the Chief. In 1635 a public-spirited and 
far-seeing citizen named Benjamin Symmes 
gave 200 acres of land "with milk and increase 
of eight cows, for the maintenance of a learned 
and honest man to keep upon the said ground 
a free school for the education and instruc- 

JANUARY , 19 17 


tion of the children of the adjoining parishes 
of Elizabeth City and Kecoughtan." 

Thus the first public school in America was 
established. Twenty-four years later, one 
Thomas Eaton established a similar school 
nearby. The funds were afterward consoli- 
dated, and $10,000 of the joint fund is still 
intact, and the income is used for the Elizabeth 
City schools. The present Symmes-Eaton 
school was erected by the city of Hampton in 
memory of the men who gave public education 
its first impetus in America. 

Newport News — locally pronounced "Newpt 
Nooz" — and Norfolk, which is anything but 
"Nor-fawk," are cities of considerable size and 
importance commercially. They are not in the 
gem class, like Old Point Comfort and Hamp- 
ton, but they lend variety to a sojourn in the 
region and they are remarkably fine examples 
of well-groomed Southern cities. 

I was once expatiating to a friend of mine 
on the charms of Old Point Comfort, and as 
he was a traveler of some experience he 
showed less interest than I thought the subject 
warranted. I put his apathy down to pique 
that the war in Europe had prevented him 
from going abroad, and I was partly right. 
Then I found out that the man was tired out 
and generally run down, and couldn't be ex- 
pected to be interested in much of anything. 

"If I could only spend a few weeks at one 
of those European cures, I'd get back my pep. 
Ordinary travel doesn't appeal to me now." 

In telling him about Old Point Comfort I 
had left out one of the attractions for which 
it is almost as famous as the great spas of 
Europe. And so I told him of its medicinal 
waters, its baths and the treatment that has 
been designed to meet the needs of just such 
people as he. "I'll go," he said; and he did. 

There is no sanitarium at Old Point Com- 
fort. It is not a resort for invalids. It is, 
however, a place for rest, for recuperation, 
and for prevention ; and "the cure," so-called, 
is taken largely by people who, having no 
serious disorders, wish to store up energy 
against the future. The location and sur- 
roundings are not the least valuable part of 
the treatment, but the duplication of all the 
best known and efficacious types of hydro- 
therapy used abroad makes it possible to get 
any special treatment that is needed. I doubt 
if there is a more complete system of baths — 
Nauheim, Spitz, Vichy, Turkish, electric light, 
and so on — in the Western Hemisphere. I 
doubt if in all Europe there is a more health- 
ful medicinal water than that which you drink 
at Old Point Comfort. Certainly we need ask 
no odds of Europe when the question of "tak- 
ing the cure" is considered. 

And when it is remembered that Old Point 
Comfort is within a day's travel of any point 
on the Atlantic seaboard and of a considerable 
distance westward, the advantage of accessi- 
bility weighs heavily in its favor. But were 
it merely a beautiful place with a mellow ra- 
diance of historical memories to give it the 
body of charm, then would it have scarcely 
less point for those to whom its comfort is a 

THE goodness of Nabisco is 
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fruits or beverages, Nabisco seem 
the logical accompaniment. In ten- 
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ANOLA — Another confection suited to 
all dessert purposes. In ten-cent tins. 


NAB 1 


required by the Act of Congress of August 24, 191 2, of Travel, 
published monthly at New York, N. Y., for October 1, 1916. 

State of New York, County of New York: 

Before me, a Notary Public, in and for the State and county 
aforesaid, personally appeared Edward Frank Allen, who, having 
been duly sworn according to law, deposes and says that he is the 
editor of the Travel and that the following is, to the best of his 
knowledge and belief, a true statement of the ownership, manage- 
ment, etc., of the aforesaid publication for the dates shown in the 
above caption, required by the Act of August 24, 1912, embodied 
in section 443, Postal Laws and Regulations, printed on the re- 
verse of this form, to wit: That the names and addresses of the 
publisher, editor, managing editor, and business managers are: 
Publisher, Robert M. McBride & Co., 31 East 17th Street, New 
York; editor, Edward Frank Allen, 31 East 17th Street, New York; 
managing editor, Edward Frank Allen, 31 East 17th Street, New 
York; business managers, none. Owner: Robert M. McBride & 
Co., Inc., a corporation; Robert M. McBride, 31 East 17th Street, 
New York; Hampton Anderson, 31 East 17th Street, New York; 
Samuel McBride, 100 Lefferts Place, Brooklyn; Ernest Hall, 62 Wil- 
liam Street, New York; Edna Brown Anderson, 1087 Boston Road, 
New York; Isaac H. Blanchard Company, 418 West 25th Street, 
New York. Stockholders in Isaac H. Blanchard Company; Isaac 
H. Blanchard, 108 High Street, East Orange, N. J.; Ancel J. Brower, 
311 Rugby Road, Brooklyn, N. Y.; J. Cliff Blanchard, 15 Vernon 
Place, East Orange, N. J. 

In writing to advertisers, please mention Travel 

Known bondholders, mortgagees, and other security holders 
owning or holding i per cent or more of total amount of bonds, 
mortgages, or other securities; J. B. Lippincott Company, East 
Washington Square, Philadelphia, Pa.; The Acceptance Corpora- 
tion, 55 Liberty Street, New York; Architectural Publishing Com- 
pany, Philadelphia, Pa. 

That the two paragraphs next above, giving the names of the 
owners, stockholders, and security holders, if any, contain not 
only the list of stockholders and security holders as they appear 
upon the books of the company, but also, in cases where the stock- 
holder or security holder appears upon the books of the company 
as trustee or in any other fiduciary relation, the name of the person 
or corporation for whom such trustee is acting, is given; also that 
the said two paragraphs contain statements embracing affiant's 
full knowledge and belief as to the circumstances and conditions 
under which stockholders and security holders who do not appear 
on the books of the company as trustees, hold stock and securities 
in a capacity other than that of a bona fide owner; and this affiant 
'has no reason to believe that any other person, association or cor- 
poration has any interest, direct or indirect, in the said stock, bonds, 
or other securities than as so stated by him. 

(Signed) Edward Frank Allen. 
Sworn to and subscribed before me this 6th day of October, 1916. 

John T. Elsroad, Notary Public. 
(My commission expires March 30, 1917.) 



;i l >l,iillillllllillillllll!lllll>{; 


The Lure of California 
and the Favored Way 

The Military 
at El Paso and 
West provide a 
panorama every 
loyal American 
should see. 

California - - the land of bluest 
skies and sun-kissed waters, California 
-the land of flowers, where summer 
seems eternal, California— the coastal 
gem of the Pacific — awaits you with 
open arms. Reach her via the 

"Golden State Limited" 


" Calif ornian" 


-superb limited trains in a Rock 
Island— El Paso Southwestern— South- 
ern Pacific, whose steel cars fly direct 
over the most comfortable route of 
lowest altitudes, through scenes of 
thrilling interest. 

No quicker time — no better service via any 
route to Southern California. 

Less than three days — Chicago or St. 
Louis to Los Angeles — no excess fare. 
Route of the United States Mail. 

Tickets permit ten day stopover at El Paso. 

Automatic Block Signals 

Finest Modern All-Steel Equipment 

Superior Dining Car Service 

Tickets, reservations and information at any 
Rock Island Travel Bureau, or address 

L. M. ALLEN, Passenger Traffic Manager 


Room 720, La Salle Station, Chicago 



(Continued from page 31) 
I shall have no difficulty in sleeping after such 
a day ! 

At dawn the sisters are tapping at our win- 
dows. They toss blossoms to us from the gar- 
den, and the petals are wet with scented dew. 

Breakfast of tea and pork pies, with tinned 
biscuits for dessert ! And then away again 
for a morning on the lake. The bells of Ling 
Ying monastery, tolling in a far valley, call to 
us, and we direct the boat into a narrow 

At a squalid village we disembark and. take 
our way through a mile of lanes and garden 
paths, lined with vendors of tinfoil "spirit 
money" with which the pious worshiper pro- 
vides for the spirit-world wants of his ances- 
tors, and with raw-sored beggars whining at 
our elbows for alms. We come at last to the 
monastery gates, and enter a walled enclosure 
that in its beauty and grotesqueness is no less 
than fairyland. There are massive stone 
courtyards lined with ancient trees ; great 
wooden buildings with dragon roofs, housing 
calm Buddhas ; cloisters and gardens filled 
with the songs of birds, the fragrance of 

In writing to advertisers, please mention Travel 


flowers, and the incongruous tread of ashen T 
garbed ascetics. 

There has been a morning shower, and the 
peach blossoms 

"... are deeper red; 
The willow fresh green ; 
Twittering overhead; 
And fallen petals lie windblown, 
Unswept upon the courtyard stone." 

In one of the cloisters we come upon the 
master of the monastery, a short, squat monk 
with a kindly face. We confess a feeling that 
we are intruding — and no doubt we are; prob- 
ably this spot where he walks alone, lost in 
cloistral meditation, is his private garden. 
But he welcomes us, nevertheless, and there 
follows, in the true formula of Chinese cour- 
tesy, the customary cross-examination about 
the health of our fathers, our ages, and all our 
present and completed conditions of servi- 
tude. While Lee speaks of our purpose, and 
explains our identity, the monk sees King bury 
her face with a gasp of delight in a cluster of 
tree flowers ; whereupon, clapping his hands 
for a servant, he orders plucked for her the 
finest blossoms in the garden, and places them 
in her arms, a fragrant setting for her blush- 
ing gratitude. 

When we come to the inn again from this 
medievalism, the modern world is a-calling. 
There is a train to catch. Into the blazing 
afternoon sun again, and away toward the 
reeking city, while the coolies drum dizzily 
with their bare feet upon the hot stones, and 
shout their hoarse cries; away, too, with re- 
gret, from this dream-place of the Chinese 
poets ! 




(Continued from page 13) 

can be clearly traced the outline and golden 
wings of Annunciation Angels, painted by a 
Portuguese artist — also a Christian — from the 
island of Goa, the birthplace of Miriam. 

But the Hindu Jodhai of Jodhpur was the 
favored queen, for in addition to a fine spa- 
cious palace she had her own little temple, 
where she worshiped in accordance with the 
customs of her race. She was the first Rajput 
princess to be given in marriage to a Moslem, 
and the mother of Akbar's heir, Prince Salim, 
named for Salim Christi, the saint, whose tomb 
of shell pearl, enclosed within a mausoleum of 
pierced white marble with ebony doors, stands 
over the cave where he sat and repeated the 
sayings of Jesus before Fatehpur-Sikri was 
built. On the spot where his eyes most often 
rested towers the great Baland Darwaza, the 
finest gateway in the world. Its doors, which 
have not been closed for two centuries, are 
covered with the shoes of sick horses, some of 
ancient pattern and strangely wrought. 

Across the top the King, whom men have 
called heathen, placed the inscription : 

"Said Jesus, on whom be peace: 'The world 
is a bridge, pass over it but build no house 
thereon. The world endures but an hour, 
spend it in devotion.' " 

JANUARY , 1917 


HooKf for 
Many Interest** 

Training for the Stage 


Editor of " Theatre Magazine." 
David Belasco has written the Preface and T in a 
letter to the author, says: "It contains much of 
great interest to the professional. It should also 
be of equal value to the novice. Your treatment 
of the subject is very unusual and of course most 
skilfully handled as the result of your long experi- 

8 illustrations. Net, $1.25. 

Training for the Newspaper 


Business Manager, "New York World." 
The author was Joseph Pulitzer's right hand man. 
The young men and women of to-day who wish to 
know what they are "letting themselves in for" 
when taking up newspaper work will find a practi- 
cal guide in this remarkably interesting and in- 
structive volume. 

12 illustrations. Net, $1.25. 

Open That Door! 


A stimulating volume with a "kick" upon the 
relation of books to life; the part great books play 
in our goings and comings, in the office, in the 
street, and in the market place. The relation of 
poetry to the suburbanite. 

Similar in size and style to those popular sellers, 
"Why Worry?" "Peg Along," etc., etc. 

Fight for Food 


Advising Member of Kansas State Board of Health. 
The high cost of living is everybody's problem. 
This book presents the reason and stimulating 
thoughts upon the solution. It treats the problem 
from the producer's, the middleman's and the 
consumer's viewpoints. 

Net, $1.25. 

Clothing for Women — Its Selec- 
tion, Design aud Construction 


Teachers' College, New York City. 

The first volume in " Lippincott's Home Man- 
uals" will be prized by every woman who receives 
it as a gift. It is simple and practical, and the 
directions are easily followed. 

7 colored plates. 262 illustrations. Net, $2.00. 

From Nature Forward 


The public mind is unsettled; the individual lives 
a day-to-day existence, wrestling with disease, 
mental troubles and unsatisfactory issues. This 
book outlines a system of psychological reforms 
that can be followed by every man and woman. 
Limp leather binding. Net, $2.00. 

Betty at Fort Blizzard 


This sequel to the famous "Betty's Virginia 
Christmas" is a straightaway army love story, 
presented in a delightfully dainty gift book style. 
There are four illustrations in color and numerous 
decorations by Edmund Frederick. Handsomely 
bound in a sealed packet. 

Net,. $1.50. 



■ m 





The realization of your dreams of an 
ideal trip to an ideal land. You will find 
all the little luxuries of home, hotel or 
boudoir— the courteous service of every 
employee — the pleasant companionship of 
shipboard acquaintances — the thrill and 
freedom of happy hours at sea. New 
York to Jacksonville stopping at Charles- 
ton, with connections for all Florida East 
and West Coast resorts. 

Circle Tours; going by steamer and re- 
turning by rail with liberal stopover priv- 
ileges. For further particulars address 

Arthur W. Pye, Passenger Traffic Manager 
Pier 36, North River, New York 




Carries the very breath of the Golden State 
to the reader's nostrils, and this without re- 
course to the hackneyed places and things 
usually described. Mr. Saunders pictures such 
delights as camping in the open, exploring the 
desert, and touring the back-country, and gives 
practical directions for realizing them. 
Illustrated. $2.00 net. 


The floral and arboreal growth of California 
is one of its chief points of interest, even to 
those who have no botanical knowledge. Here 
is a book that tells you what "that funny- 
looking tree" is, and the name of the exotic 
flowers of which so many are seen. It is in 
language for the layman, but equally of interest 
to the botanist. Illustrated. $2.60 net 


In writing to advertisers, please mention Travel 







Certainly of all "winter 

lands" California has most 

to offer the traveler— matchless 

glories of climate and scenery— every facility for out 

o'doors sport— splendid hotels— the smart diversions 

of a fashionable society. 

Experienced travelers say Now Is the Time to Go 

—and the train is 

" The Tacific Limited " 

Through and direct service to both Los Angeles and San Francisco. 
Superb equipment, splendid service, every convenience, every 
luxury, without extra fare. 

Daylight departure from Chicago — Daylight arrival in California 

California literature and full information sent on request to 
F. A. MILLER, General Passenger Agent, CHICAGO 

The Proper Private School 

for your children is perhaps the most important choice you 
have to make. You need the best guide in existence and that 
undoubtedly you will find every month in the 

Educational Directory of Harper's Magazine 

for it is in Harper's Magazine that you find the announce- 
ments of more private and preparatory schools and colleges 
than in any other publication — the widest, the best, and the 
most dependable selection. 

Would you not like to have your own child go to school 
with children whose parents read Harper's Magazine? 

In writing to advertisers, please mention Travel 


the kD/V criminating 


Joseph Pennell's Pictures of the 
Wonder of Work 

This is unquestionably one of the finest collec- 
tions of pictures done by the "master draughts- 
man" of the age, and in this case he has chosen a 
most interesting subject, "The Wonder of Work," 
the building of giant ships, skyscrapers, railway 
stations, etc., etc. The artist tells about each 
picture in a short introduction. 

52 Plates. Net, $2.00. 

Winter Journeys in the 


Makes the golfer, the automobilist and the trip- 
per of every sort begin immediately to pack his 
grip for the kingdoms of wonder south of Mason 
and Dixon's line. If you can't go, then enjoy 
from your armchair the fun, the beauty and the 
humanity of the Southern pleasure. 

64 illustrations. Net, $8.50. 

Parks — Their Design, Equipment 
and Use 


Official Landscape Architect, Public Buildings and 
Grounds, Washington, D. C. 
This is the only exhaustive book on the subject 
and by the foremost authority in America. It 
contains many new hints from the finest European 
examples of park work, as well as American. Land- 
scape architects and all others who wish to see 
beauty given a place in their cities will find this a 
most inspiring and practical volume to work with. 
16 J/, illustrations. Frontispiece in color. Net, $6.00. 

Practical Book of Early American 
Arts and Crafts 


Authors of" ThePractical Book of Period Furniture." 
Will delight and instruct all lovers of old pewter, 
silver, wood, needlework, glass, etc., etc., of early 
Americans. The professional or amateur collector 
will find it a treasure. The result of great research 
and wide knowledge of the subject. Artistically 
bound. Boxed. 
232 illustrations. Colored frontispiece. Net, $6.00. 



Author of "The Curious Lore of Precious Stones" 

and " The Magic of Jewels and Charms." 

The story and romance of rings in ail ages and 
climes. Everything you may wish to know about 
rings is here — from the rings of savage peoples to 
those of famous men and women, and ecclesiastics. 
A storehouse of valuable information. 
290 illustrations in color and doubletone. Net, $6.00. 

Practical Book of Architecture 


Not only a book for the man or woman who 
wishes to build a home (and for whom it is more 
helpful than any work previously published), but a 
book which tells the general reader what he needs 
to know about architecture — about the buildings 
he sees in America or Europe, public as well as 

255 illustrations. Net, $6.00. 



Pod, Bender & Co. 


Remember Raffles? Remember young Walling- 
f ord and all the host of amiable villains of literature ? 
Here are their worthy successors in Pod and 
Bender, the two arch-crooks whose exploits teem 
with excitement and humor. Mr. England is a 
master in this field of fiction and this engrossing 
story is among his very best. $1.35 net. 

The Certain Hour 


A book for the man or woman who finds pleasure 
in the company of people of wit and graciousness 
and daring. Ten men are its heroes; and none is 
unmemorable. And of its women, all were loved 
once, and here remain lovely. Mr. Cabell has 
written nothing more graceful than these delightful 
tales. $1.35 net. 

From the Hidden Way 


A book of poems that recalls the spirit of earlier 
times and gives more than the promise of beauty 
to us of to-day. Mr. Cabell here reveals himself 
as much a master of the poetic form as of prose, 
and as the possessor of a lyric gift of extraordinary 
power and sweetness. $1.35 net. 

A Russian Garland of Fairy Tales 


A collection of folk-tales from the old Russian 
chap-books which retain to a remarkable degree 
the native charm and colorful imagination of those 
legends of the people. The reader will welcome 
several old friends of fairyland in new and delightful 
guise, and will make many new friends among these 
appealing characters of Slavic folk-lore. 
Illustrated in color, $1.50 net. 

Finding the Worth-While in California 


Author of "With The Flowers and Trees of California" ''Under 
the Shy in California." 

A convenient and compact pocket guide con- 
taining everything which the tourist will require 
to know about this great pleasure ground of the 
Pacific Coast — and written in an inspirational as 
well as a practical vein. It gives lists of hotels 
and accommodations, itineraries for motoring, 
riding or walking, describes intimately the scenic 
and natural attractions of the State, and suggests 
the proper clothing and equipment for all seasons 
and local conditions. With Maps. §1.00 net. 

A Citizens' Army 


The paramount lesson of the present war for the 
United States is that this nation must have suffi- 
cient trained soldiers to guard against invasion or 
to check an invader until we can develop our latent 
resources. To accomplish this end without the 
dangers of militarism is a vital problem. This 
book, by its scholarly and explicit study of the 
Swiss military system, points the way clearly and 
definitely by analogy to a realization of these aims 
by the United States. Illustrated. $1.25 net. 

Seven Secrets of Success 


A little book of inspiration for every man and 
woman who seeks encouragement and guidance in 
the business of life. Dr. Peters has selected seven 
of the most important qualities which tend to make 
the successful person, and he points the way for 
everyone to make these qualities his or her own. 
75 cents net. 

ROBERT M. McBRIDE & CO., Union Sq., New York 

ate scene* that take one 
hack to the tomarkic 
Spanish days © ® ® 


Luxurious tesoit hotds 
arew-hours apart. 

Thehfae Pacific high 
Ser^andyour favor* 
ite out-door sport 

No hetter way to go 

four trains every day 

Sanm Fe de<Lwce 
Harvey meal service 

En route visit Grand 
Canyon and Petrified 
Forest in Arizona^ 
aii afterwards 

' vim and 

I «* <^ Jw ww i<VM 



By EDWARD EARLE PURINTON, Author of "Efficient Living." 

A straight from the shoulder presentation of the facts of efficiency in the greatest business 
of all — life. There is nothing mysterious about efficiency; it is merely a combination of work 
and common sense. The work is your job; but here is the result of Mr. Purinton's fourteen 
years of experience as a student and teacher of efficiency — plus his inspired sanity — to help you. 
$1.35 net. Leather Edition $1.75 net. 
N. B. — "Efficient Living," Mr. Purinton's other popular book, and "The Triumph of 
the Man Who Acts," make a splendid combination. 

The Two Books in Leather, Boxed, $3.50 Net. 

ROBERT M. McBRIDE & CO. 31 Union Square North, New York City 












'-■"v, . ..,,» 

4§ ■ 


The Gateway to a Thousand-and-One Entertainments 

THE Columbia Grafonola is an instrument of infinite possibilities. 
Its power to tHrill, amuse, inspire — its mastery of every sound 
and emotion — and, above all, its sheer perfection in all the 
numberless roles it plays, make the Columbia Grafonola the one 
incomparably versatile and delightful entertainer. 

The Columbia Grafonola, playing Columbia Double-Disc Records, 
is the living, breathing embodiment of art; for the tone of Columbia 
Double- Disc Records is life /^//—REALITY! "Hearing is Be- 
lieving." Arrange a hearing at your dealer's today. 

Ne?c Columbia /Records on sale the 20th of every month 

Columbia Grafonola 

The instrument illustrated above is the $200 Grafonola — 
the apex of achievement in cabinet instruments 




Read Clayton Sedgwick Cooper's Striking Article with its Many Remarkable Pictures 




$3 a year 



developed the art of personal expression in perfume, which the Great 
African Queen sought to attain through her wise men and the efforts of 
her hunters for rare oils, gums, civet, musk and amber. Queen of Sheba's 
resources, however, never produced an artistically harmonious fragrance, 

Mary Garden Perfume 

which is identified with the spirit and personality of the great soprano 
herself and is equally effective in expressing the personality" and natural 
charm of Everywoman. 

Mary Garden Perfume, Toilet Water, Sachet, 
Talcum and Face Powders, Rouge (Vanity 
Case), Massage, Cold and Greaseless 
Creams, Soap and Breath Tablets. 


New York 

— the only odor true to the living flower. 

F E B R I ' A R ) ' 

mMMMmMSMm ^■.MMh^^nmm 






Wm .E . Leffingwell . Pres. 

Break away from social and 
business stress. Enjoy the 
rest and recuperation that 
goes for rejuvenation of 
body and brain. Get back 
to normal here at The 
American Nauheim — the 

Only Place in America Where the 
Nauheim Baths are Given with a 
Natural Calcium Chloride Brine. 

Here are mineral springs 
famous for their medici- 
nal properties; private 
parks with miles of walks 
graded for Oertel hill 
climbing; scientific, bene- 

ficial treatments; excellent 
prescribed diet; gorgeous 
scenery; abundant recre- 
ations; everything to make 
the business of resting a 
delightful pastime. 



■pTXT" RATHS are < ^' rect '>' connected with 
* ***■■ *J*» * *Aw ^q hotel. Treatments are 
particularly adapted to HEART, CIRCULATORY, KID- 

Illustrated Booklets, with full information about rales, 
reservations and treatments, mailed upon request 

f7lim/UslSWnl)UNWl^J/^W ^ 


By Agnes C. Laut. Illustrated. $2.00 net. 

The standard boek on this most fascinating section of the country, 
so full of historic interest and scenic grandeur. 

By Edw. Frank Allen, Editor of TRAVEL. $1.00 net. 

A handy and compact pocket-guide containing every necessary 
bit of information about our great national playgrounds. 

By Charles Francis Saunders. $1.00 net. 

Practical and convenient. Carefully selects and describes things 
which no tourist can neglect in visiting California. 


TRAVELER By Charles Francis Saunders 

UNDER THE SKY IN CALIFORNIA. Illustrated.$2.00 net. 

Mr. Saunders has lived in the deserts and the mountains of Cali- 
fornia, he has wandered through the country and felt the pulse of the 
great outdoors. 

Illustrated. $2.50 net. 

This delightful introduction to the wonders of California plant life 
is not a scientific treatise, but is at once a useful guide and a charming 
"taking home" gift for the tourist. 


Learn to Shoot ( 

Learn how to handle a gun. Take a "crack" at the clays. Get j| 

your share~of the Sport Alluring. Add health to pleasure and ac- H 
curacy to recreation. Develop your bump of concentration. 


is a bully sport for both man and woman and tends toward self H 

Go Out to the Gun Club To Day | 

get a taste of this truly American Sport. Learn its fascination and M 

the good fellowship that prevails among "gunbugs" then you'll W 

know why hundreds of thousands of people are "dyed-in-the-wool- M 

enthusiasts. || 

Send today for our booklet The Sport Alluring 
and get the name of your nearest gun club. 





The Belleview 

Belleair Heights, Florida 

Special Golf Privileges to Hotel Patrons 



No. 1 Course 621S YARDS, No. 2 Course 5763 YARDS 

For information, booklet, etc., address 

H. D. SAXTON, Mg'r. 


In writing to cdve\ 

tiscrs, plcse mci.twn Travel 



Safer than Currency 

to carry 

has often been remarked 
when talking of 

K. N. & K. Travelers' Checks 

Experienced Travelers 
Use Them. 

Checks not countersigned 
may be replaced if lost. 

Considering the protec- 
tion afforded, their cost ii 

Denominations of 
$10, $20, $50 and $100 

at a premium of 50c on 
one hundred dollars* worth 

Get them from your banker or 
write for full particulars. 

Knautl) -Nacljob & Kuljnp 



To the Tropic* 
A Cruise 

To the West Indies 

Under the American Nag 

A few rooms are available on 
Travel Department's luxurious 
24 day cruise to Cuba, Jamaica, 
Panama, Costa Rica. 

Sailing March I Oth 

Continuous voyage, New York 
to New York, by palatial steam- 
ship "Tenadores". Numerous 
Shore Excursions. 

Write for booklet today 



Philadelphia Boston Cleveland 

Chicago St. Louis 
Los Angeles San Francisco 


4 3rd and 4 4th Streets and Madison Avenue 

The center of social life at 


Ideally convenient for 
suburban dvJellers 

t (Eljaite f 

Along ocean front, with a superb view M 

of strand and famous Boardwalk,_ the g 

St. Charles occupies an unique g 

position among resort hotels. It has g 

an enviable reputation for cusine and = 

unobtrusive service. 12 stories of n 

solid comfort (fireproof) ; ocean porch jj 

and sun parlors; sea waters in all m 

baths; orchestra of soloists. Week- g 

end dances. Golf privileges. • jj 

Booklet mailed §| 



liiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 

Hotel Palmer 


A Modern Hotel Noted for its Cuisine 

Newly furnished and decorated; Capacity 150: 
Elevator; Running Water; Private Baths; All 
outdoor sports. Booklet "T." Telephone 365. 
T. T. Dolbey, Manager, formerly Hotel Glad- 
stone, Narragansett Pier. 


Honolulu, Suva, New Zealand 

The Palatial Passenger Steamers 


(20,000 tons) (13.500 tons) 

Sail from Vancouver, B. C, Feb. 14, Mar. 14, 

April II. May 9, June 6. 

Round Pacific Tour, $337.50 up. Honolulu, $135 up 
For further particulars apply Can. Pacifio Ry., 
1231 Broadway, N. Y., or to Can. Aust. Royal Mail 
Line, 440 Seymour St , Vancouver, B. C. 


* A Go there now! Voyage is delightful via 
Honolulu and Samoa, Splendid 10,000 ton, 
twin screw American steamers every 21 days 
from San Francisco (Feb. 20, Mar. 13, Apr. 3, 
Apr. 24). Return first class, $337.50; 2nd class, 
$225; including China and Japan 1st class, $575; 
to Honolulu, $65. Folders free. 

H. E. BURNETT, 17 Battery Place, New 
York, or 669 Market Street, San 



HOWE & TWOROOER, Manager, 

Best location and equipment on the Islands. Modem 

appointments throughout including grill room and 

tiled swimming pool. Accommodates 400 guests. 


Climate mild but invigorating. Driving, saddle 
riding, tennis, golf, yachting and sea bathing. 


Made from Plates or Films, 25c each 
From Photographs, Maps, etc, 40c each 
A Set of 20 Interesting Slides of New 

York City. 85.00 
65 subjects to select from. A list sent on request. 

S . L0EF f LER, 2 1 2 Broidway, New York, N.Y. 

^lCSI mi 

DAvVDe Luxe Tours 



Feb. 21 S.S. Shinyo Maru, 22,000 tons 
Mar. 20 S.S. Korea Maru, 18,000 tons 


J gast 

A quiet, luxurious 
Residential Hotel, 
affording the Ei- 
clusiveness and 
Elegance of a pri- 
vate Residence. 
IV • J*. Opposite the Met- 

ropolitan Club and the 6tb Ave. Entrance 
to Central Parle Apartments, single or 
en suite, for long or short periods. 

Army Auction Bargains 

Saddles, S3. 00 up. New uniforms, 
$1.50 up. Army 7 shot carbine 
S3.50; ctges. lfec each. U. S. N. Win- 
chester high power rifle 6m'm, $9.85. 
Team harness $21.65 up. C. W. Army 
Revolvers, $1.65. Remington Army Re- 
volver, $4.85; ctges. lc each. Mauser 
High Power Rifle with 200 ctges. $19.85. 
15 Acres Government Auction Goods 
Bargains illustrated and described in 428 
large page wholesale and retail cyclope- 
dia catalogue, mailed 25c east and 83c west of 
Mississippi Rliver. 


j The most beautiful spot In all Florida, offers care- 
! lully restricted lake frontage residences, citrus 
I groves, golf links, bathing, fishing and hunting, 
j Two trunk line railroads. Dixie Highway and 
I fine local roads. A high class, exclusive Florida 
j home at moderate cost, combined with exception- 
j ally profitable investment. Box 1053, Leesburg, 
I Florida. 


' Ibursto 


~ JAN.27 
. FEB.2I 




The Essential Features 
of out tours are Perfect 
comfort, Luxury when 
obtainable, Freedom 
from bother, Individ- 
ual independence, Un- 
limited opportunities 
for enjoyment. 



7buistomfTU\, SA^OA, RAB aj OMSA TAHITI 


TASMANIA Send for booK et ot tour in 

anc/ which you are interested. 



Raymond & Whitcomb Co. 

Dep. II, 17 Temple PI., Boston 

New York Phila. Chioaero San Francisco 




k wisTIndies cajisEs I 

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(Florida Everglades! 

Lake Okeechobee) 

| Caloosahatchee River) 

1 See the wide beauty and strange | 
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| the Scenic Route through the heart | 
1 of the Everglades, across Lake | 
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| beautiful Caloosahatchee River. | 
1 Make this trip the feature of your f 
| sojourn in Florida this winter. | 
| Boat connects Fort Lauderdale on | 
| the East Coast with Fort Myers on 1 
1 the West Coast, passing en route 1 
| through the home of the Seminole | 
1 Indians, haunts of the beautiful 1 
1 birds of plumage, and the famous f 
| Moorehaven and LaBelle farming \ 
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| attractive and unusual trip in their \ 
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| Forbes Pioneer Boat Lines, Inc., Gen- | 
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I Althouse Tours Co., 1333 Walnut 1 
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Take advantage of the only 
opportunity to see the Sun at Mid- 
night on this continent at Fort 
Yukon, Alaska, on the Yukon 
River within the Arctic Circle. 

Two trips sailing from Seattle 
about June 13 and 16Ithrough the 
famed inside passage to Skaguay, 
by rail over the White Pass to 
White Horse, thence down the 
ever interesting Yukon. A trip 
unequaled for sheer interest and 
magnificent scenery with the Mid- 
night Sun as a grand climax. But 
early reservations are absolutely 

The Atlin Lakes may be visited 
returning. Booklets and detailed 
information on request. Write 
today — it's worth while. 

Herman Weig,~G. P. A. 

113 W. Washington St. 


A. F. ZIpf, T. M. 

806 Alaska Bldg. 

Seattle, Wash. 




With personal escort on magnificent steamships of 
the United Fruit Co/a "Great White Fleet" 
leave New York February 3, 17; March 3. 
24 day cruises. Fares include COfifl nn 
shoreexcursions, hotels. etc. «P£OU UJJ 

Other Tours de Luxe 
SOUTH AMERICA— Feb. 3 and 17. 

15, April 12. 

EAST — February 14. 

Send for Protean Desired 


245 Broadway, New York 

Boston. Philadelphia. Chicago, Los An- 
geles. San Francisco, Montreal, Toronto 

FEBRU ARY , 1917 




(Continued from page 40) 

their festal clothes are put aside, 
and the ones of rude labor in the 
fields and house are donned. 

"Marriage is generally arranged 
by some elderly woman friend, of 
whom there are always one or two 
in the village who really regard 
this as their business. She makes 
the inquiries or pourparlers. Then 
one fine morning a friend of the 
prospective Benedict will arrive at 
the girl's house with a bottle of 
wine, closely followed by the bride- 
groom himself, and hey presto ! she 
is engaged. There is rarely the 
wooing, trysts or tender avowals of 
love customary in the West, which 
lend such a glow and glamor to the 
course of Love's Young Dream ; 
but notwithstanding this rather 
matter-of-fact and business-like 
arrangement of their destinies, the 
marriages are generally fairly 
happy. Perhaps the absence of 
romance and idealism leads to a 
clearer acceptance of life, hard and 
working as it really is. 

"The pops, or priests, who wear 
their hair long, are generally of 
humble origin and lead hard-work- 
ing, self-sacrificing lives. They 
are exalted in the eyes of their 
parishioners by reason of their sa- 
cred office, but for the most part 
follow the simple, laborious life of 
the people they dwell among. 

"They are bound to marry be- 
fore taking Holy Orders, and gen- 
erally take to wife one of the 
daughters of the clergy, or a wom- 
an with a little money, as they have 
little means of their own and their 
stipend is small. 

"A bishop, before assuming the 
duties of his office, must be either 
a widower, or else he must divorce 
his wife, who goes into a convent 
— a striking proof of conjugal self- 
sacrifice for the sake of her hus- 
band's advancement and in the 
interests of Holy Church. Be- 
fore his consecration a bishop re- 
tires to a monastery for a few 
months' retreat. 

"I saw many pops, but only met 
one to talk to. He was a very 
popular and well known preacher 
in Bucharest, and a cheery, jolly 
soul, who spoke excellent French 
and understood English, which he 
had studied for the sake of our 

And so this sprightly narrative 
proceeds, imparting information of 
every sort interlaced with more or 
less pertinent but inevitably divert- 
ing anecdotes, commenting with 
fresh enthusiasm on every human 
element of the Balkan States and 
their people, and presenting a 
graphic sketch of the history and 
politics of each government. 

Besides the countries mentioned 
in the foregoing there are chapters 
on Turkey, Bosnia, and Herzego- 
vina, Montenegro and Albania. 
They are all fascinating, and the 
book forms not only a source of 
pleasure to jaded readers of travel 
books, but a really valuable con- 
tribution to travel literature. 



of the Old 
Spanish days 

along themotoi 
boiflevatds of 




■ Sportman's Paradise, overlooking the broad and beautiful Caloosahatchee 

I Bay, Golf Course built by and under the direction of Donald Ross, the premier golf 

1 course architect of America. Hunting, fishing, motoring, horseback riding; large 

g swimming pool. Music and dancing. 150 rooms, 140 private baths. The table 

1 a feature. The Hotel Royal Palm Booklet will be sent upon request. 


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In writing to advertisers, please mention Travel 

/GETTING WELL isn't so difficult, if 
^* you go about it in the right way. It's 
natural to be well, so getting well is simply 
getting back to normal conditions and ought 
to be a pleasureable experience. 

Live for awhile at one of the most comfortable, attrac- 
tive resort hotels in America, easy of access and climatically 
just right all the year round. 

Walk, drive or motor amid unusual, interesting sur- 
roundings. Dance, play Tennis, or play Golf on the 
wonderful Eighteen Hole Golf Course. See the Drills 
and Parades at one of the largest Army Posts in the 
country. Watch and ever-changing marine panorama. 
Go sea-bathing every day, if you like. 

Take some Treatments at one of J:he most scientifically 
administered, best equipped Bath Establishments in 
America. These won't interfere in the least with the 
pleasures of your "outing." On the contrary, they add 
zest to the diversions that are always at hand. 

Enjoy appetizing Southern Cooking, including delicious 
sea-foods of all kinds. 

Drink a very valuable natural medicinal water, which 
is always flowing, free to you. 

That's all ! A very delightful programme, isn't it? 

And the only place in America where it is possible 
to do all these things is Hotel Chamberlin, at Old Point 

I'll be glad to send you a book which tells about 
many persons who have followed this programme, 
and been "Cured;" also, a complete description of our 
Treatments, the Hotel, the Climate, the Medicinal 
\\ ater and our Golf Course, if you wish these, too. 


vnttng to advertisers, please mention Trave 


"The most interesting Magazine In the World" 


for February 


Booth Tarkington 

Ellen Glasgow 

W. L. George 

Mary E. Wilkins Freeman 

Alice Cowdery 

and other celebrated writers 

Under Fire at Verdun 

Walter Hale has had the unique 
privilege of visiting Verdun during 
the momentous days of its siege, and 
of contrasting the beleaguered, shell- 
torn city of to-day with his recollec- 
tions of it during a visit five years 
earlier. Mr. Hale was accorded 
unusual courtesies by the French 
army commanders at Verdun, by 
whom he .was entertained. He is 
the first war correspondent per- 
mitted to sleep in the citadel. He 
has made some remarkable drawings, 
contrasting the Verdun of five years 
ago with the city as it is to-day. 

The Prophet from America 

M. E. Ravage, a young American 
of Rumanian birth, has written a 
most striking and unusual narrative 
of the return of an emigrant to his 
native land, and the vision of 
America which he pictured to his 
fellow-countrymen, which resulted 
in an almost nation-wide exodus to 
the United States. 

New Facts About Pneumonia 

By Burton J. Hendrick.. It has 
recently been proved that there are 
really four kinds of pneumonia great- 
ly difFering from each other in their 
origin and effect. This is but one 
of a notable series of discoveries re- 
cently made at Rockefeller Hospital 
which are revolutionizing medical 
knowledge, and which are described 
in interesting detail by Mr. Hen- 

On the Crest of the 
Lost Atlantis 

Of the little-visited Azores, none 
is more interesting than San Miguel, 
a tiny island honeycombed with 
geysers, hot-springs, and "devil's 
cauldrons." Charles Wellington 
Furlong vividly describes these 
strange volcanic activities and the 
picturesque life of the people. Il- 
lustrated with photographs. 

Psychology of Shopping 

Simeon Strunsky writes with a 
gentle satirical humor but with a 
penetrating insight into woman and 
her ways of shopping in the great 
department stores. 

35 cents a copy; $4.00 a year 





The ice stage at Healy's Golden Glades whereon an elaborate cabaret performance 

is made up chiefly of remarkable figure skating. The diners sit at tables ranged about 

three sides of the rink. Enjoying the unique sensation of eating at the edge of an 

indoor ice-pond and watching a host of performers 


a nUT,' 1 you reply, "New York 
*^ was skating last winter 
and the winter before that, and as 
far back as the memory of man 
reaches." True enough, but this 
winter it has arrived at the point 
of being an obsession, much the 
same as dancing was a few sea- 
sons ago. As an outdoor sport it 
has always been popular, but neces- 
sarily dependent on the vagaries 
of the weather. Now there are 
rinks aplenty, and one restaurateur 
has even arrived at the point of 
providing an ice stage whereon 
cabaret performers glide, pirouette 

way or another to maintain its 

At the Biltmore Hotel is a dif- 
ferent kind of rink. Here New 
York goes to perform rather than 
to look on. High above the street 
in a spacious court is a sheet of ice 
that is both a temptation and a de- 
light — a temptation to skate and a 
delight to the eye. One may skate 
in the open air and then, without 
removing the skates, repair to the 
glass enclosed balcony for tea or 
other refreshment and watch the 
rest. The picture is kaleidoscopic, 
both in color and movement, par- 

The outdoor skating rink on the roof of the Biltmore Hotel. At the farther end is 
a glass enclosed balcony where the skaters and others may have afternoon tea or 

indulge in dancing 

and even dance on skates. Eleven 
out of the twenty-six numbers on 
the elaborate program at Healy's 
Golden Glades are remarkably ar- 
tistic and even thrilling exhibitions 
of skating. It is an unique sensa- 
tion to dine at the edge of an in- 
door ice-pond, but the novelty and 
variety of the performance and the 
nicely worked out plan of illumi- 
nation combine to make it an en- 
joyable one as well. The crisp ring 
of polished steel on the ice mingles 
with the orchestra's syncopated 
strains with gay effect — an effect 
that New York must have in one 

taking of the esprit and atmos- 
phere of a winter carnival in Pe- 
trograd. There are occasional ex- 
hibitions of figure skating by pro- 
fessionals, and after dark, when 
the Man in White and the Lady in 
Pink seem to float in the spotlight 
that moves about the ice, and the 
soft glow of Japanese lanterns 
makes the place seem like a gar- 
den party in winter, then you are 
glad that New York has taken 
madly to such a healthful, pictur- 
esque fad as skating. Next winter 
it may be relegated to the realm of 
sport again. 

In writing to advertisers, please mention Tiavel 

The Only Girl 

Who Ever 

Commanded A 

Nation's Armies 

A simple- little «irl of 
sixteen played one 
day in a little lost 
village. The next 
year, in supreme 
command of all the 
troops of France, 
she led them in tri- 
umph to victory. 
Great dukes bowed 
before this girl who 
could not read. Sin- 
ful men, men who 
had cursed and drank 
and murdered all 
their days, followed 
meekly her every 

It is the most dra- 
matic, the most 
amazing story in the 
whole story of human 
fe. In the dim, far- 
off past, Joan 1 of Arc 
went her shining way 
in France — and her 
story was never told 
as it should have been 
till it was told by an 
American — 


To us whose chuckles had turned 
to tears of pathos at "Huckle- 
berry Finn" — to us who felt the 
cutting edge of a "Connecticut 
Yankee" — to us who saw the 
keen vision in "Innocents 
Abroad" — the coming of "Joan 
of Arc" from the pen of Mark 
Twain was no surprise. 

We were ready to receive from 
him this book. It has almost the 
simplicity, the loftiness of the 
Bible — it has a whimsical touch 

which makes it human. Mark 
Twain's Joan of Arc is no cold 
statue in a church — no bronze on 
a pedestal, but a warm, human, 
loving girl. 

Read "Joan of Arc" if you would 
read the most sublime thing that 
has come from the pen of any 
American. Read "Joan of Arc" 
if you would know Mark Twain 
in all his greatness. It is accu- 
rate history, told in warm story 

The Price Goes Up 

25 VOLUMES J£* %A fifS 

to make a perfect set at a reduced price. 

Before the war we had a contract price for paper, so we could sell this set 

of Mark Twain at a reduced price. 

The last of the edition is in sight. The price of paper has gone up. 

There can be no more Mark Twain at the 


The Great 

Born poor — growing up 
in a shabby little town on 
the Mississippi — a pilot — 
a seeker for gold — a print- 
er — Mark Twain was 
molded on the frontier of 

The vastness of the West 
■ — the fearlessness of the 
pioneer— the clear philos- 
ophy of the country boy 
were his — andtheystayed 
with him in all simplicity 
to the last day of those 
glorious later days when 
German bmperor and 
English King, Chinese 
Mandarin and plain 
American, all alike, wept 
for him. 



Franklin Sq. 
New York 

Send Coupon; No Money 

There never again will be any more 
Mark Twain at the present price. 
Get the 25 volumes now, wni.e 
you can. 

Every American has got_ to 
have a set of M ark Twain in 
his home. Get this now 
and save money. / SrSmerI 

Your, children want / S((0are 

Mark Twain. You / jjewtorfc 

wanthim. Send 

the coupon to- y £<;nd me ^ charge3 
day— now— / prepaid, a set of Mark 
while you / Twain's works in 25 vol- 
are look- / umes, illustrated, bound 
ingatit / j n handsome green cloth, 
stamped in gold, gold tops and 
deckled edges. If not satisfac- 
tory, I will return them at your 
expense. Otherwise I will send 
you Ji.oo within 5 days and $2.00 a 
month for 12 months, thus getting the 
benefit of your half-price sale. 






In this department will be found a complete stock of Travelers' 
Requisites, including Wardrobe, Steamer and Dress Trunks, 
Suit Cases and Fitted Cases for Men or Women, Motor Res- 
taurants, Week-end Cases, Hat Boxes, Steamer Chairs, etc. 

At Moderate Prices 

James McCreery & Co. 

6th Avenue 

New York 

34th Street 


February, 1917 

Number 4 


INDIA Cover Design 

MIDS OF EGYPT Contents Design 



Clayton Sedgwick Cooper 9 

TRAIN. Charles Phelps Cushing '. 17 

ROCCO. Cyrus French Wicker 21 

Batchelder • • • 28 

PHY. Johnston Mackenzie 32 

Eleanor Maddock 34 




TRAVEL. Charles Phelps Cushing 43 

Published monthly by Robert M. McBride & Company, Inc., Union Square North, New York City; Rolls House, Breams Bldgs., London, E. 
C 25 cents per copy; $3.00 per year. For foreign postage, add $1.03, Canadian, 50 cents. Entered as sseond class matter at the Post-Omce at 
New York, under act of March 3, 1879, and copyrighted 1917 by Robert M. McBride & Company, Inc. 

Edward Frank Allen, Editor 

Travel assumes no responsibility for the damage or loss of manuscripts or photographs submitted for publication, although due care will be taken 
to insure their safety. Full postage should always be sent for the return of unavailable material. 





•(C) Newman Traveltalks and Brown & Dawson, Stamford, Conn. 


The arms above the lintel and the doorway itself are relics of the days when Spanish rule rested heavily upon the City of the Sun. The present inhabitants of Cuzco, of 
which the Indians in the picture are fine types, are the descendants of the Incas who built the original city before the coming of the Spaniards 






CO Newman Traveltalks and Brown & Dawson, Stamford, Conn. 



It is carved out of the solid mountain side and faces the rising sun, which was the god of the Incas. Below is the great fortress of hewn rock that protected 

Cuzco from attack until the Spaniards came 



Clayton Sedgwick Cooper 

Author of "The Modernizing of the Orient" 

JUDGING from many of the books written upon Cuzco and southern 
Peru, one might easily gain the impression that the chief and only 
attraction of this old Inca city existed in the big rocks from which the 
people in some pristine age constructed their houses and fortresses. 
Enough has been written concerning these poor old rocks to fill a geo- 
logical library. The reading to most people would get monotonous 
from repetition, since it would run somewhat as follows : 

"These stupendous boulders were lifted to their places with no aid 
of modern machinery. They were laid without mortar, and so close 
together that you cannot insert a knife-blade between them (this knife- 
blade simile is invariably associated with the Cuzco rocks). The cor- 
ners are rounded marvelously. Although thousands of square yards 
of these walls yet remain, many have been ruthlessly destroyed by the 
adventurous Spaniards, or by later Peruvian vandals, etc." 

There are many variations more or less verbose, but the above is the 
main text from which writers from Pizarro until now have preached 
their stone sermons anent Cuzco, and if the guidebook-loving traveler 
spends all his precious hours in this fascinating city of the Andean 
tablelands nosing about among the old tottering walls of very ordinary 
houses, and misses the real Cuzco of picturesque Indian life and modes 
of existence reflecting the Middle Ages — let him not blame Cuzco, but 
rather the authors and grave-diggers who love the dead and dug-up 

things more than live people and present-day conditions of living. 

To me, an hour in the Plaza de las Armas of this City of the Sun, 
surrounded by the vast protecting hills that hold the old city of the 
Incas in their bosom, where one sits in a four-ringed circus of moving, 
colorful, primitive life which no single spot I have ever visited on the 
wide face of the earth affords in a like degree, leaves a memory as 
unforgettable as it is impossible to delineate. A phantasmagoria of 
color, of antiquity in architecture, of absolutely unusual specimens of 
humanity and animals ranging all the way between ponchoed and 
shawled Indian men and women of the far distant sierras to the would- 
be modern cholos, wearing hats made in Germany, and from the two 
teams of mules that drag the Cuzco horse cars to the long trains of 
lofty-necked llamas that sweep by you, each with his backful of alpaca 
from the high interiors. 

We called it a four-ringed circus, and so it is; as you sit in this great 
flower-filled square, more than 11,000 feet above sea level, the semi- 
tropical sun shedding its warmth radiantly upon your head through the 
thin, transparent, cloudless air, you find yourself wondering which way 
to face lest something of the ever strange, unfolding scenes escape your 
gaze. One side of the square is lined by a row of little shops filled with 
fifty-seven varieties of merchandise, in which predominates gaily colored 
saddles and diverse accoutrements for the burros and pack animals, with 


(.C) Xewman Traveltalks and Brown & Dawson, Stamford, Conn. 


The present lown is built on the site of the ancient City of the Sun, more than 1 1 ,000 feet above sea level, and surrounded by mountains on every side, 
the street can be seen one of the gates of the old Inca capital, while in the foreground are three llamas, the Peruvian beast of burden 

At the end of 

profuse decorations of red and green and blue wool; before these 
shops sit Indian and cholo women, holding in their hands spindle spools 
which they manipulate dexterously during the intervals of trade, spinning 
the wool which later they weave into the ponchos and caps and full 
skirts of the native dress. It interested me to learn that the riot of color 
seen in these Indian dresses and ponchos was attributable to the famous 
aniline dyes that Americans find it difficult to import these days from 
overseas. Above these quaint places of merchandise in the top of the 
two-storied houses are homes with elaborately carved balconies over- 
hanging the street in old Spanish fashion, while above, the red-tiled 
roofs glitter in the sun, spreading over the sidewalks and supported by 
deep pillars. Here and there, through some opening, you will catch a 
glimpse of a patio within these houses, and a four square cloister effect 
out of which the homes open to the sunlight. 

On another side of the plaza stands the ancient cathedral, built, as 
one is told, of the famous Inca stone and containing the bones of the 
brother of Pizarro and that Spanish conqueror's partner, Almagro. On 
the doors of the chapel of Santiago adjoining the cathedral, one can 
read the legend preserved in archaic sculpture of St James coming 
down visibly on his white horse, standing with lance in rest to turn 
the tide of battle in favor of the Spaniards, thus witnessing the last 
throes of the famous Inca Empire. 

If you can divert your attention from the passing throng of travel 
from the hills that confront one on still another side of the square, you 
can study the remarkable facade of the old Jesuit church, and the ancient 
University of Cuzco, founded in the Sixteenth Century, which build- 
ings are said to be connected by an underground passage, associated 

with many an historic intrigue in the old days of the Conquistadores. 

These great piles of ancient masonry look straight away to the East, 
where the Cyclopean structure often called the ninth wonder of the 
world, the great megaHthic fortress of Sacsahuaman, tops the hill, 700 
feet above the city, and where one climbs to behold the rock remains 
which guarded the aboriginal Inca Empire of Manco Capac, pristine 
king of the vast west coast of South America. Halfway up the slope 
an old Inca home can be seen hidden among the eucalyptus trees, while 
on the summit stands a cross bearing an inscription to the effect that 
to him who climbs the hill, kisses the crucifix and says a prayer at the 
foot of the cross a hundred days of indulgence shall be granted. 

Here one can sit for hours and dream out again the scenes that were 
enacted on these bounding terraces overlooking the heart of the Inca 
city — a drama of pastoral life for the most part of which no Virgil has 
ever arisen to sing, an epic poem as romantic and tragic as any siege 
of Troy caught in Homeric numbers. 

It was an agricultural empire, was this far-famed empire of the Son 
of the Sun. It was a kingdom of labor and a nation that depended upon 
the land. On one great slope of hill which is now waving with golden 
grain, the Cuzconian will point out to you the place where, in order 
to dignify labor, the old Inca kings themselves were wont to initiate 
with their own hands the seasons of planting and harvest. The king 
Inca, amidst pomp and festival, would go to the terraces of the Col- 
compata and begin to break up the soil with a golden pickaxe, while the 
populace stood below in the famous square with uncovered heads. Later, 
when the maize and quinoa had ripened, he again went out amid the 
rejoicing of the multitudes to signalize the harvest time by plucking the 


first fruits of the high standing grain. These harvests were invested 
with a sacredness akin to the worshipful wonder connected with the 
rising flood of the Nile for the ancient Egyptians; they were under the 
direct supervision of the Inca Son of Heaven, and seeds from this first 
harvest were distributed throughout the Empire. 

Again, from this central gathering place of the descendants of the 
Incas the traveler will be shown far on the heights a certain rounded 
corner of the road where the Indians coming down from the high 
country catch the first glimpse of this beloved City of the Sun lying 
with her red tiles shining in the white light a thousand feet below. It 
is here that the native still halts as in bygone days, and removing his 
hat gazes down upon the city of his forefathers, murmuring in Kechua 
the half-praverful greeting, "O Cuzco, great city of the Sun, I greet 

As one wanders out of this picturesque square, he meets on all sides 
strange and fascinating scenes.. There are colonnaded sidewalks filled 
with shops, resembling a bit the souks of Tunis, where the small shop- 

(C) Newman Traveltalks and Brown & Dawson, Stamford, Conn. 


The crocheted cap and short, tight-fitting trousers are typical, but this water carrier 

has substituted a shawl for the usual poncho, which is a large and generally colorful 

blanket with an opening for the head 

(C) Newman Traveltalks and Brown & Dawson, Stamford, Conn. 


At the left are the huge rock foundations of the famous Inca Rocca Palace used as 
part of a Spanish-built structure, as is the case with many of the ruins 

keepers sell and barter with the Indian. It is color, color everywhere. 
The ponchos or blankets worn are slipped over the head by a hole in 
the middle, and are striped red and yellow, brown and blue — every color 
of the rainbow. The Indian wears a little crocheted cap of red or yellow 
or some other bright color, with little ear flaps that pull down over the 
side of his face, leaving his black hair as a setting for his swarthy fea- 
tures. His trousers are short, coming a little below the knee, and slit 
up a certain distance to facilitate his walking. There is always a gaily 
embroidered bag hanging. from his waist in which he carries his coca 
leaves. This coca, which he chews constantly, provides him virtually 
with food and drink in his long marches. It is mixed with ashes to 
bring out the properties of the alkaloid, somewhat as the East Indians 
mix lime with their betel nut. Although it is generally admitted that 
the prolonged use of coca befogs the mind of the Indian and becomes 
at last an ally of his ignorance and paganized religion to rob him of 
his enlightenment and his years, it does his motor faculties and brain 
less injury than does the white man's alcohol, and its solace helps to 
mitigate the monotonous adversity of his chill and barren existence. 
Even the missionary to these folk of the lofty tablelands is loath to take 
away this omnipresent cheekful of coca. It is said that the native of the 
sierra will trot cheerily along for days with his heavy, back-breaking 
burdens, providing only that his coca holds out, but without it his 
strength fails and even food is inadequate to supply his drooping spirits. 
The Indian women of Cuzco, who abound on every side, wear a very 
full skirt of hand-woven wool, reaching about to their bare brown ankles. 
Many dresses have a border of a contrasting color. They are particu- 
larly fond of all shades of red, from the brightest cerise to the deepest 
cardinal, and over their shoulders they wear a shawl of another shade 
of red or brown. In this shawl the laboring woman carries her burden, 
whether it is the baby or the vegetables she buys from the market, or 
the chickens she is delivering to a Cuzco customer. On her head she 
wears a flat hat with an upturned rim, and this is as fancy as she can 


(C) Newman Traveltalks and Brown & Dawson, Stamford, Conn. 


Beneath the cool shelter of the colonnade the Indians stand and barter with the shopkeepers whose wares line the 
walk. Everywhere is color, and it is interesting to find that the dyes used are the aniline products so difficult to 

obtain since the war 

afford. Many of these hats are covered with tinsel embroidery. Like 
most of the Cuzco inhabitants of the lower classes, she goes barefoot 
or wears a crude sandal. Skirts are added, one over the other, accord- 
ing to the temperature, and one is reminded of the saying in common 
use in China as to the degree of cold : It is "one-coat weather," or it 

An Indian herdsman from the outlying mountain 

district who has brought down a load of alpaca wool 

to sell in the town 

is "five-coat weather." 

Bathing in Cuzco is 

evidently a lost art. 

When the rains begin during the first week of November it has become 
customary in modern times for the people to take their annual bath. 

(O Newman Traveltalks and Brown & Dawson, Stamford, Conn 


The home of Pizarro'. lieutenant Almagro. during the period of the Spanish Conquistadore, in the Sixteenth Century. In the center of the photograph can be seen the original 

decapttahon basin used for the execution of the unfortunate Inca prisoners— a fate which later befell Almagro himself 




The potato is the staff of life among the Peruvian Indians, and it is claimed that this popular vegetable was first 
cultivated by the Incas and introduced by them to the neighboring races 

A vase found among the ruins of the City of the Sun. 

The Incas worked in both clay and metal, and were 

extremely skilled in working in bronze, which they 

used for both ornaments and tools 

It is really a kind of 
"Festival of the Bath," 
and it is said that a good 
proportion of the inhab- 
itants get pneumonia as 
a result, so unaccustomed 
are they to this civilized 
exercise. The mission- 
aries will tell you that 
one of the first evidences 
of a man's conversion is 
that he takes a bath. 

The custom of bathing 
is not popular even with 
the better classes of 
Cuzco, the people con- 
necting the contact with 

guides and repeating the monstrous exaggerations concerning Cuz- 
conian relics. These little urchins are very clever, and they know 
that the foreigner is looking for antiquities ; consequently everything 
they show one is "antigua, muy antigua." One clever little chap followed 
us around the market, and noticing that we stopped to examine a basket 
of ordinary black beans, which are one of the chief articles of diet, 
came up to us with a serious look on his face, but with a roguish twinkle 
in his black eyes, took up one of the beans and said, "Antigua, muy 
antigua, senor." 

No one can remain long in Cuzco without realizing that this city 
was the seat of the Inca religion, a city filled with temples dedicated to 
the worship of the celestial luminaries. It was to Cuzco that the entire 
Inca population journeyed on pilgrimages for worship, much as the 
Mohammedans to-day travel to Mecca, and Hindus to the shore of 
Mother Ganges. Upon these temples was showered the largess of the 
entire land, and the Temple of the Sun, which had few rivals in its 
richness and glorious worship, was justly called "The Place of Cold." 

water almost superstitiously with the contraction of 
disease. We were told by an English trained nurse 
of her advice to a woman who came to her for 
medical help. The nurse prescribed nine baths for 
the patient, and the obedient Cuzconian took the 
whole nine in one day ! 

The Cuzco market will not soon be forgotten by 
the foreigner who sees it. It is fairly alive with a 
swarming mass of picturesque humanity, composed 
of Indians and cholos mixed in marvelous promis- 
cuity. Women seem to be the owners of the stalls, 
their wares being placed on mats on the ground. 
All manner of vegetables are sold, onions and red 
peppers predominating. Along the edges of the 
market place are dry goods stalls, the. wares hang- 
ing up so as to be plainly visible to the would-be 
purchasers; the brown clay jars used by the Indians, 
some of them copies of the old vessels found in the 
Inca graves, are everywhere for sale. 

Fortune tellers abound and are invariably sur- 
rounded with groups of women. On one side we 
encountered an enterprising Spaniard who had set 
up a stall where his trained birds at his call pick 
out a small envelope for senor or sefiorita, which is 
supposed to contain infallible destiny. There are 
little religious Punch and Judy shows from which 
the Church reaps considerable profit, while on all 
sides are beggars, and small, keen-eyed cholo boys 
who follow the tourist, offering their services as 


Cuzco is the residence of a bishop, and the cathedral is one of the finest in South America, 
before the church the two Almagros, father and son. were executed 

In th 

,e square 

1 4 


.Although there are remains of 
many temples which the traveler 
will find in and about Cuzco, the 
Temple of the Sun is of predomi- 
nant interest, for a portion of the 
original wall is standing and the 

dieval-looking monks who show 
you about, preserve something of 
the ancient romance 
and glory clinging 
to this i uzco tern- 

A vivid picture of 
the extravagant 
richness of the Tem- 
ple of the Sun has 
given by Pres- 
cott, the historian : 

"The interior of 
the temple was the 
most worthy of ad- 
miration. It was 


Cuzco is the gathering place of all the Indians of the surrounding country, and in the market one can see many types, each 
distinguishable by the cut and design of their garments 

The clay portrait of an Inca chief- 
tain who lived four hundred years 

of enormous dimensions, thickly powdered with 
emeralds and precious stones. It was so situ- 
ated in front of the great eastern portal that the 
rays of the morning sun fell directly upon it 
at rising, lighting up the whole apartment with 
an effulgence that seemed more than natural, 
and which was reflected back from the golden 
ornaments with which the walls and ceilings 
were everywhere incrusted. 

"Gold, in the figurative language of the peo- 
ple, was 'the tears wept by the sun; and every 
part of the interior of the temple glowed with 
burnished plates and studs of the precious metal. 
The cornices which surrounded the wall of the, 
sanctuary were of the same costly material, and 
a broad belt or frieze of gold let into the stone 
work encompassed the whole exterior of the 

It seemed the irony of conquest that this re- 
splendent golden image of the sun, which had 
looked down upon countless generations, shoul 1 
have been ruthlessly gambled away in a night 
by one of the Spanish cavaliers to whom this 
fell as his share of the looted temple. 
Even to-day a typical gambler in Spain is de- 
scribed in a proverb as one who follows the 
Spanish adventurer Leguizano: "He plays 
away the sun before sunrise." 

Not only in the ruins of these ancient temples. 
almost every turn in the narrow cobblc- 
stoni streets in Cuzco one is reminded of the 
sad story, written in blood, the story of the iron 
conquesi of tnca Peru by the heroic but 'con- 
scienceless knight errants of the Spanish Six- 
teenth Century. Yet the place which the trav- 
ill be shown to-day, where the Pizarros 

literally a mine of gold. 
On the western wall 
was emblazoned a rep- 
resentation of the 
Deity, consisting of a 
human countenance 
looking forth from in- 
numerable rays of light 
which emanated from 
it in every direction in 
the same manner as the 
sun is often personified 
with us. The figure 
was engraved on a 
massive plate of gold 

A shawl takes the place of 
of the women, and in it 
whether babies, marketing 

beheaded the Inca lords and nobles, was also the tragic place of decapi- 
tation of the losing Spanish adventurers, Almagro, his son and his lieu- 
tenants, who were worsted in their mad search for gold. Cuzco was 
the particular scene of the arch barbarity and fraud perpetrated, upon 
these peaceful inhabitants by the Conquistadores, who have left a stain 
never to be effaced from Spanish arms in the New World. Few ad- 
venturers have equaled in courage, capacity or cruelty the Pizarros, but 
the glitter of the gold on the Cuzco temples proved to be for them and 
for their descendants but the shell of the pearl of great price, and Spain 
to-day is revealing the sign of this distorted strain of humanity, reaping 
her reward as perhaps the most backward and impoverished race in 

No one can journey through this land of the Incas, behold the great 
roads and aqueducts, see the scarred faces of the mountains which were 
in other centuries cultivated to the very summits, and realize that the 
irrigation of the present day is still carried 
through the trenches that old Inca hands pre- 
pared, without feeling a high sense of respect 
for this people who antedated the Spanish con- 
quest and in many respects were superior to 
their victors. In those ancient days such vices 
as now fasten themselves upon the Indian and 
have become their second nature were virtually 
unknown. Lying, stealing and adultery were 
punishable by death in the Inca reign. Instead 
of the present condition of drunkenness and 
sloth too apparent in many of the Indian com- 
munities, the old ancestry showed sobriety and 
an industry that has rarely had its equal any- 
where on the face of the earth. Is it to be won- 
dered at that one finds certain old families or 
tribes directly descendent from the Inca kings 
who hold themselves proudly aloof and bear in 
their faces and general attitude a conscious 
dignity of lineage that disdains association with 
the diluted stock that now for the most part 
has become the servile vassal of the semi-white 

The brown faces of the Indians who follow 
their llamas through the dusty streets of Cuzco 
give food for thought. They are dark, sorrow- 
ful, somber faces, and reflect the unspeakable 
tragedies that the last four centuries have 
wrought upon the natures of a once noble race 
of men. These people, who efface themselves 
in the presence of the white man, turning out to 
give him space, as a pariah might make a wide 
circle around a Brahmin in India; these men 
who work for twenty-five cents a day, or are 
impressed for long periods of labor for the price 
of the coca leaves and alcohol that the land- 
owner or the gangster mav give them : this 

a poncho in the costume 
they carry everything, 
or produce for sale 

FEBRUARY, 19 17 


An Inca model of a head found among the ruins 
of Cuzco 

long-suffering race upon which all Peru 

lives at present, and upon whose ignorance 

and superstition unworthy ministers of the 

Roman Church thrive and grow arrogant; 

these tillers of the soil and keepers of 

sheep and alpacas on the cold, windy 

slopes of the pampas, where white men 

cannot live, dwelling in vermin-infested 

huts that are breeding places of typhus and 

a dozen deadly forms of human destruction. 

seeing ninety per cent of their children die 

before they are two years of age; these are 

the sad descendants of those 200,000 Incas 

who inhabited Cuzco when Pizarro came to 

loot and to kill, and carry away out of the Cuzco temples alone $100,- 

000,000 in gold treasure, giving in return a destiny of labor and slavery, 

which one day will rise to haunt and besmirch the name of Spain. 

In the cathedral, and, in fact, in all of the forty or more churches 
of Cuzco where barely 20,000 inhabitants now remain of the once popu- 
lous city, the traveler will see the pathetic vision of the Indian bowing 
till his head touches the stone floor, his face a study of abject fear and 
ignorant awe. For several mornings we were awakened at an early 
hour in our hotel in Cuzco by the din of explosives about a church 
near at hand. Upon inquiring the cause of such celebrations, we were 
informed by an old resident of the place that this was a feast given by 
a certain Indian who had been selected by the priests to be honored 
by paying the expenses of several days of festivities in which a large 
number of people joined. The cost of this ornate and noisy festival 
was upwards of $250, and the Indian, to whom this amount represents a 
fortune, was obliged to borrow and also use all his life's savings, as 
well as placing himself in slavish bondage for the remainder of his 
days, in order to be thus honored in the name of religion. "But if 
he should refuse to comply with this request from the priest?" we 
asked. "Oh," was the answer, "he would not dare to refuse, and if he 
did his lot could be made unbearable." 

In spite of the fact that the scales of justice seem to have been held 
so unevenly by his rulers in Peru, the strength of the race is revealed 
in many ways. On his small bit of land in the fastnesses of the high 
ranges about the City of the Sun, the Indian lives an independent and 
often happy existence. He raises maize and potatoes on the uplands, 
and in the valleys, watered by mountain streams and warmed by the 
wonderful half-tropic sun„_(for Cuzco is only thirteen degrees south of 
the equator), he harvests his oranges and coca and the many vegetables 
which he brings across the long trails to sell at the Cuzco market. In- 
deed, there were few visions more impressive to me in this region than 
the sight of waving fields of barley and thriving potato patches being 
grown successfully on these Alpine heights 12,000 feet above the sea, 
in plain view of mountains wreathed with eternal snow- Nature at least 
has not abandoned the South American Indian, but has left him his 
herds of llamas, his fawn-colored vicunas, his merinos and alpacas, 
which animals refuse to thrive below the wind-swept, dreary moors 
of the Sierra desolation ; and there about his thatched adobe hut he 
folds his precious animal companions in rude farmyards fenced with 
stones. Scattered on the slopes of the sierras are occasional villages 
composed of these thatched huts, of which the little town of Asquia 
Alta is a typical example. Its name is taken from the irrigation 
trenches through which the water flows on either side of the narrow 

streets, fed from the niching mountain 
snows far back in the sierra range. This 
primitive settlement — High Water — is al- 
most more interesting to me than the cities, 
for here one sees life as it was far back in 
the days of the Incas. It is a page out of 
the Book of the Past, and its writing is 
printed deep on the lineaments of the peo- 
ple, as upon their customs and dwellings. 
The very animals have a prehistoric look ; 
and as we walk through tortuous lanes that 
serve for streets to divide the straw- 
thatched homes, they gaze at us stupidly, 
with the wonder of other centuries in their 

The houses — can we call them homes? — 
consist usually of a single room, mud floors, 
no windows, an aperture serving as a door 
which is often little more than the mouth of 
a cave. One must stoop to enter, and then 
a strange miscellany greets one, a lot of 

A fagot gatherer of Cuzco. The Indian women wear a very 

full skirt of handwoven wool, usually red in color or of 

brilliantly contrasting hues 

primitive pots and kettles 
in the corner around a 
smoking fire built around 
three stones, while at 
cooking times, there being 
no chimneys, the place 
reeks with the mingled 

the serpent on the headband 
represent a medieval nun 



Most of the natives work in the fields for twenty-five cents a day or are impressed 
for long periods of labor for the price 

of a small quantity of coca leaves 

1 6 


and odor of burning flesh. It is 
-ary to walk circumspectly lest one 
step on a sprawling baby, or get tangled 
up with several dogs, chickens, or snoring 
pigs— all of which claim their common 
rights with the numerous members of the 
family to the promiscuous domesticity. 
These cholo huts, which serve as coverts 
from the cold of the South American 
winters, are chiefly bedrooms and kitchens 
and stables — ensemble — for as soon as the 
sun of the tropics, which these people's 
ancestors worship for good and sufficient 

n i , floods the narrow defiles of these 
mountain villages, everyone is out of 
doors, the stronger members of the fami- 
lies, both men and women, are off to the 
fields with their faithful burros carrying 
on their basketed sides the machetes and 
fanning utensils, while the doorways are 
black with children of all ages and degrees 
of filthiness, with here and there an old 
Indian woman mending a poncho, or a 
mother with a nursing infant at her breast. 
A walk through the streets of Asquia Alta 
is like walking in a dream. There is abso- 
lutely nothing to suggest anything with 
which you have been familiar save the 
gurgling rush of the water in the irriga- 
tion trenches and the penetrating warmth 
of the blazing sun upon your head. 

These little Peruvian villages are not 
without their gladness and amusements, 
and almost every other one of the adobe 
huts flies a flag from its roof to signify 
that chicha and piquante are to be en- 
joyed there, the first a drink made out of 
corn, while the second is a kind of stew 
made of vegetables and highly seasoned with 
eating and drinking houses remind one of the 

in North Africa, the primitive surround- 
ings being similar, the people sitting with- 
out lights save perhaps the feeble flame of 
a candle, which casts flickering shadows 
on the dark faces of the men who sit 
around the small, low table upon which 
the large chicha glasses, holding almost a 
quart, stand. 

Sunset hour, or ''cow dust time," marked 
the portion of the day when I enjoyed 
most sauntering through the lanes and 
narrow trails that stood for streets in 
Asquia Alta. Diminutive burros loaded 
with great bundles of maize, the national 
food of the Indian and the cholo of the 
high altitudes cf Peru, patter along in 
single file through the dusty paths that 
lead from the fields ; the farmer whom 
we saw awhile ago plowing the steep hill- 
side with a crooked stick, now appears 
/over the brow of a hill, driving his faith- 
ful oxen home for the night, he himself 
carrying the yoke ; every door is filled 
with children, who, with the women and 
innumerable dogs, stand to greet the toil- 
ers coming home from the mountain 
farms which were tilled in the selfsame 
manner by the ancient Inca ancestors 
centuries before ; the six o'clock bells in 
the distant cathedral at Arequipa are 
sounding the hour of evening prayer, and 
for a moment the tired peasants halt with 
uncovered heads ; the little village is grow- 
ing dark rapidly now, though the wonder- 
ful semi-tropical sun is painting the great 
guarding El Misti at the east of the town 
with one last golden wave of light. In 
another half hour our mountain hamlet 
red peppers. These small will have lost its inspiration to live, for the sun which the old Incas 
coffeehouses of the Arabs worshiped will have changed watch with the cold night winds. 

The curious rock "shoot the shoots" above Cuzco, which dates from 
the period of the Inca Empire four hundred years ago 

(C) Newman Traveltalks and Brown & Dawson, Stamford, Conn. 


A monastery now ^^Kf sI^/T^^' ^ Sun ' n* P3r ' ° f *? °,V ginal Wa " S remain - h Was ca,,ed " The Place ° f W * *«» well merited according 
the accounts of the Spamards, for the interior walls were pracfcally lined with the precious metal, while a frieze of gold encompassed the exterior " 




The giant of the Canadian Rockies is no conventional white-capped cone, but stands out against the sky like some mammoth temple carved from the solid 
rock, its roof-tree more than 13,000 feet above the sea and 11,000 feet above the surrounding valley 



Charles Phelps Cushing 

A POET, just back from a transcontinental journey, pleads that some 
philanthropist endow a new school of geography. The poet con- 
tends that if geography were rightly taught it would be the most fas- 
cinating of studies. The schoolhouse, she suggests, should be a train. 
She would show the prairies and the mountains and the forests, the 
rivers and the oceans, the deserts and the cities, "the industry and splen- 
dor and poetry of this great treasure house, our country," to the physical 
eyes of the students instead of assigning them readings in a lifeless 

The idea ought to have its attractive features for grown-ups as well 
as for school children. The next time you take a long journey, travel 
in a geography train. Don't wait for a rich man to endow you; any 
train will do. The writer has just tried out the plan in a trip across the 
western half of Canada, from Winnipeg to the new Pacific coast port, 
Prince Rupert. Have you never wondered what you might see in the 
region that lies just north of North Dakota, Montana and Washington? 
Fresh from a journey via geography train, I can tell you something 
about it. 

First of all, to make the picture clearer, sketch a map of the western 
half of Canada on a piece of scratch paper or the back of an envelope 
— a straight horizontal line at the bottom will do for the northern bound- 
ary of the United States and a wriggly perpendicular for the Pacific 
Coast. Now three vertical lines for provincial divisions and we are 
ready to lay out the trip. Mid-continent, just a trifle north of the inter- 
national boundary, make a dot for Winnipeg, the Dominion's Chicago. 
Xow sweep your pencil westward with a slight slant toward the north 
to a point on the Pacific Coast just a trifle below the southern tip of 
Alaska. That is what civil engineers did a few years ago when they 
first visioned a new trunk line of railway from mid-continent to the 
Pacific. When the survey was completed, the line measured 1,748 miles. 

For more than half the distance from Winnipeg to the coast the land 
is a vast prairie. Across Manitoba and Saskatchewan and half across 
Alberta — for nearly a thousand miles — the picture in the frame of your 
car window is of pasture land and wheat fields, green and gold, done in 

flat tones. In central Alberta the landscape changes to massive snow- 
capped mountains, as the train speeds for 300 miles through the passes 
of the Canadian Rockies. In British Columbia the line emerges onto a 
plateau. For a width of more than a hundred miles this tableland is 
almost level. At the western rim of the plain the bristling mountains of 
the Coast Range begin — and bristle all the rest of the way to the very 
shores of the ocean. For the last 225 miles of its journey to the sea 
the train through the mountains follows the course of two shining rivers. 
Prince Rupert, the terminus of the line, sits on an island in the Pacific. 

Winnipeg, the starting point of our three-day inland voyage, is as 
metropolitan a place for its size as the traveler can find anywhere on 
the North American continent — and its size is about a quarter of a 
million. If you come upon the city from the east, through the sparsely 
settled, half-burned woods of Ontario, the city springs up out of the 
prairie with a suddenness that stuns you. . . . This is by way of warn- 
ing to the reader not to imagine that the railway station where we 
board our Pacific-bound train is a wooden shack on a lonely prairie. 
The station is as modern and citified as anything in New York ; it is 
simply a smaller Grand Central. 

Our train to Prince Rupert is something even more surprising in the 
way of modernity. Its glistening new Pullman cars of special design 
are wider than any that ply in and out of New York or Chicago. The 
berths are long and high. The smoking compartments have electric 
ventilator pumps in the ceiling; the air is replenished instead of being 
merely stirred up with an electric fan. The observation car, a matter 
of prime importance on any long journey, is also of special design. The 
smokers have a long glass section of it shut off from the non-smokers 
of the "parlor," and the observation platform is as deep as a porch. 
There is nothing flashy about the train, no mural paintings and mani- 
cure girls, but for solid comfort I have never found anything to beat it. 
No train I ever saw had better lights for reading or better ventilation. 
No train I ever saw had better service in its dining-cars, sleepers and 
parlors. I recall that one of our porters, the most intelligent of his 
kind I ever met, turned out to be a college man, studying to become a 

1 H 

physician. Drinking cups, real outs. 
not envelopes, were supplied ad lib.; one 
didn't need to tip the porter to obtain 
them. Little boxes with glass doors 
protected the drinking faucets from the 
traveler who has a penchant for put- 
ting his mouth under the tap. Most re- 
markable of all, there was hot water 
Eor shaving — hot, not lukewarm. In 
the dining-cars one could order half 
portions at half prices and get a variety 
of good food for a dollar, an arrange- 
ment so nearly ideal that I wonder if 
it isn't too good to be true. Certainly, 
it is too good to last ! 

Do these seem trivial matters? On 
a journey of twenty-four hours they 
might be, but not on a cruise of three 
days. You never know how much you 
can miss the little comforts of modern 
train service until you attempt to take 
a long journey without them. On an- 
other occasion in Canada we had to do 
for a day without an observation car. 
When a "tin rattler" was at last coupled 
on, the spirits of our entire company 
improved a hundred per cent. We 
pounced upon those parlor chairs and 
magazines like hungry hoboes upon a 
Christmas turkey. 

Sunset of a golden day of Indian 
summer as the train glides out of the 
train sheds. The dull red ball of the 
sun reflects in a lazy river as we rum- 
ble over a bridge. Suddenly we are out 
on the prairie again, and Winnipeg 
vanishes with a suddenness as miracu- 
lous as that with which it made its 
appearance. The dark shuts down. 
Xow there is no light on the whole 
vast rim of the world but the torch of 
a blazing straw stack. 

When we awake next morning the 
geography train has borne us across a breadth of prairie that is almost 
exactly the width of North Dakota, the American State that lies just 
south of us. We are 
out of Manitoba and 
well into Saskatche- 
wan. All day we are 
to see prairie and 
more prairie, enough 
vastness to make the 
eyes ache. 

I wonder how much 
of our pleasure in 
travel comes from 
our physical comfort 
en route ? I could not 
help but ask this as I 
found myself enjoy- 
ing a ride — and a Sun- 
day ride, at that — 
across the Saskatche- 
wan prairies and into 
Alberta. I had ex- 
pected to get across 
them in a sort of 
coma, or deep in 
magazines, but things 
befell otherwise. In- 
deed, the ride was far 
from a bore. The 
scenery was not, as 
you might expect, 
merely flat spacious- 
ness dotted with oc- 
casional farm build- 
ings and jitney motor 
cars. The ground had 


To the true mountain climber the unexplored peaks of the Canadian 

Rockies hold a zest that the mountains of the Old World have lost from 

long acquaintance 

This is the valley of the 
Ocean. The mountains about 

Prince Rupert harbor from the dock where the track, of a transcontinental railroad terminate, 
protects the harbor from the open waters of the Pacific 


a slight roll to break the monotony, and 
many interesting diversions in the way 
of clumps of brush, little hillocks called 
''bluffs," and a number of shining lakes. 
Now and then a bevy of prairie chick- 
ens or ducks took to flight. 

Several points of interest on the 
route proved to be too far removed 
from our right of way to be well 
viewed. Saskatoon was a dainty vig- 
nette at the edge of the northern hori- 
zon. We could make out the banks 
of the salt lake of Manitou, but not 
its waters. Near Wainwright there is 
the largest herd of American bison in 
the w 7 orld, but the buffalo park was not 
visible from the station. Some of the 
names in our timetable — Saskatoon, 
Medicine Lodge, Yellowhead, Fort 
Fraser, Kitwanga, Sockeye and Usk — 
had led us to fear that train travel in 
this newly opened land might prove far 
from luxurious. To find that the ser- 
vice west of Winnipeg is better than 
that from the east is a surprise that one 
cannot get over in a couple of minutes. 
For a day you revel in the unexpected 

The lights of the thriving city of 
Edmonton are your last memory of the 
plains of central Alberta. When you 
awake next morning the green and gold 
prairies have vanished to give place to 
western Alberta's purple, snow-capped 
mountains. The geography train is 
making its ways through a deep pass 
in the Canadian Rockies. The air is 
crisp and snappy; the whole world 
seems to sparkle in the early morning 
sunlight. If you are wise you will be 
up and dressed by seven and postpone 
your breakfast until the usual luncheon 
Athabaska, which drains into the Arctic 
you are part of a national reserve of 4,400 
square miles — Jasper 
Park. At the town of 
Jasper you have a 
quarter of an hour to 
walk around and drink 
in scenery. The axis 
of the little plain 
which Jasper occupies 
is a gigantic totem 
pole; all about are 
high mountains, some 
of them with an ele- 
vation of more than 
11,000 feet. One of 
the loftiest peaks that 
the traveler can see 
from the station was 
named last March in 
honor of Miss Edith 
Cavell, the nurse who 
was shot by the Ger- 
mans in Belgium. A 
little later in the same 
year some of the Ger- 
man prisoners cap- 
tured by Canadian 
troops were interned 
in the park and put 
to work there, with 
Mt. Cavell to greet 
their eyes every time 
they mopped their 

A chain of islands brOWS and took a look 
up the valley. Grim 


humor! Perhaps not fully appreciated by those responsible for it. 

There is a delightful variety in the shapes of the mountains along 
this line of railway ; and in autumn, at least, nearly all of the peaks are 
capped with snow. I was more than content with life as I snuggled 
down in my over- 
coat in a corner of 
the observation 
platform and 
watched them pass 
in procession. But 
I may as well 
frankly confess, 
before we go any 
further, that my 
taste in scenery 
never has leaned 
particularly toward 
mountains. The 
"stunning" sort of 
ruggedness that 
schoolgirl tourists 
rave about im- 
presses me as less 
memorable than 
some other pictures 
that are less melo- 
dramatic. I prefer 
the Hudson valley 
to the Garden of 
the Gods, an Ozark 
"bald" to Pike's 
Peak, and I fancy 
that to my dying 
day I will main- 
tain that the pur- 
ple foothills of 
Hahatonka, in 
Camden County, 
Missouri, make the 
fairest panorama 
in the world. The 
reason why I liked 

what I saw of the Canadian Rockies was that they did not appear to be 
working overtime to impress the tourist with their formidableness. They 
appeared to be satisfied to be picturesquely rugged, without aspiring to 
become melodramatic about it. 

The boundary line between Alberta and British Columbia is Yellow- 
head Pass, and here is the "Height of Land," where the watersheds of 
the Arctic Ocean and of the Pacific cleave. So easy is the railway 
grade that a single engine 
pulls the long train ; the 
maximum gradient from the 
coast to the prairies is four- 
tenths of one per cent. In 
the mountain division all 
the engines burn oil, and 
you may sit on the observa- 
tion porch all day with no 
fear of getting cinders in 
your eyes. 

There are many "points 
of interest" in this day's 
run through the mountains, 
but they all get lost in mem- 
ory's perspective after the 
Big Sight. I, who profess 
no enthusiasm for moun- 
tains, will "own up" that 
Mt. Robson rocked me from 
my poise. It is no conven- 
tional mountain, no mere 
white-capped cone. Mt. 
Robson is like a mammoth 
rock temple of old Ceylon 
or India; carved by Nature 
in the solid rock, its roof- 
tree more than 13,000 feet 
above the sea and 11,000 
feet above the surrounding 


One of the famous salmon rivers of a region that yields annually hundreds of tons of this fish and makes canning 

one of the important industries of the Province 


Much of western Canada has not yet been touched, and many towns are at the very borders of virgin 
territory. The shack is a typical "first building" in a new town 

valley. New York has a skyscraper of 750 feet. Here looms a sky- 
scraper of 750 stories ! You catch your breath at the beauty of its 
tracery as well as at its height — and it happens, also, to be the highest 
peak in the Canadian Rockies. The snow picks out its lines ; a hang- 
ing glacier on the 
west facade looks 
so small against 
the mass of rock 
that you might im- 
agine it an icicle. 

Twelve miles or 
so below the moun- 
tain the train stops 
at an observation 
platform, where 
the traveler may 
alight and rest his 
elbows on a railing 
while he gazes. 

All the rest of 
the day is anti- 
climax after seeing 
Mt. Robson. Af- 
ter that, as you 
speed down the 
valley of the Fra- 
ser River, you can 
only catch at the 
little bits of human 
interest — the log 
cabins in the wil- 
derness, a wolf 
skin on a pole, two 
fish hanging on a 
string from the 
eaves of a shack, 
an Indian spearing 
salmon from a rock 
in the midst of a 
mountain torrent. 

You are still 
among mountains 
when darkness shuts down, and when you awake next morning your 
eyes are greeted with more mountains. But the peaks that you see this 
morning are not the Rockies ; during the night the geography train 
has sped across a plain, British Columbia's central plateau — a hundred 
miles of it nearly level. 

The Coast Range introduces itself to you in magnificent style at 
breakfast time; Hudson Bay Mountain and its beautiful glacier (only 

four miles away) mir- 
rored in the waters of 
Lake Kathlyn. Along about 
ten, the same hour when 
Mt. Robson was put on 
view the day before, the 
train stops at another ob- 
servation platform. This 
time it is to show off one 
of the strangest natural 
wonders on the continent, 
Bulkley Gate. A strata on 
the vertical,. a natural wall 
of stone 8 feet thick and 
150 in height, once diked 
the river here. Gradually 
it wore away, until now the 
salmon can leap the falls at 
any stage of the water and 
swim many miles farther 

A little west of here the 
Bulkley River flows into the 
Skeena, and near this junc- 
tion are two towns, Hazel- 
ton new and Hazelton old, 
in the shadow of the mas- 
sive bulk of Rocher De- 
boule, a "mountain of min- 
erals." The towns have a 




Bulkley Gale is a stratum of stone 150 feet high and 8 feet thick, which formerly 
walled rp ihe walers of the river like a dike 


On the corner stands the building of the Imperial Bank, typical of the thriving 
aspect of this city on the edge of the great central prairie 

decidedly mining-campish air. Old Hazelton was the head of naviga- 
tion in the days before the railway. It taxed all of man's skill in navi- 
gation and cost as much as a trip to Europe to make the voyage up- 
stream, but the return was an experience something like shooting the 
chutes. An overland telegraph line which was to connect America and 
Europe via Bering Straits was once planned to run through Old Hazel- 
ton, but the completion of Morse's Atlantic cable in 1867 took the wind 
out of the sails of this project and left the Indians of British Columbia 
an inheritance of copper wire with which they built a number of small 
suspension bridges. One other memory of the project remains to-day in 
the form of an overland telegraph through the forests from here to the 
Yukon country. 

The geography train passes several Indian villages on this last day 

of the trip. At one of them, Kitwanga, town of "the people of the rab- 
bits," the westbound traveler usually is allowed time for a sight-seeing 
excursion, with the train conductor for a guide. 

Kitwanga appears rather un-aboriginal at the outset, but after the 
road is followed for a little way toward the river the place improves in 
picturesqueness. . . . From the road we turned into a straggly path 
through the bushes and came abruptly upon an Indian graveyard. Over 
the graves were little houses or porches for shelter, and, after the 
Asiatic fashion, the friends of the departed had furnished food and 
clothing to make the traveler comfortable on his journey into the un- 
known. A little farther and a forest of totem poles appeared on the 
horizon. A village of crude wooden houses clustered near the steep 
(Continued on page 46) 

The public square of the town of the "people of the rabbits" is embellished by a 
wooden dog mounted on a wocden platform 


A slab shanty on a log raft at the northern edge of the town, whose modern 

business section lies just beyond the ridge 

FEBRUARY , 19 17 



Tetuan is a fortified seaport some twenty miles south of Ceuta and a shipping center of importance. The large, sombrero-like hats with which many of the shoppers are 
protecting themselves from the sun, are of Spanish manufacture and remind us that Gibraltar is only a few hours away 



Cyrus French Wicker 

IN Arabic legend, Morocco has been from the earliest times the birth- 
place of sorcerers and magicians. Whenever in the Thousand and 
One Nights a person could command efreets or summon djinns to serve 
him, by incantations or rubbing a ring or lamp, he is sure to have come 
from El Gharb or Al Moghreb, names for Morocco meaning that portion 
of Barbary that lies farthest to the west of all north Africa. Aladdin's 
uncle came from Morocco, and in the story of Jodour and his Brothers, 
excursions even from Syria were taken into the Gharb for the purpose 
of discovering treasure. This tradition still hangs about Morocco in 
spite of recent European influence, and its reputation as a land of the 
supernatural loses nothing by the efforts of storytellers throughout the 
Moslem world. 

Stories from the Arabian Nights are still recited orally in the market 
place of Tangier, where, on any afternoon, the traveler may see a group 
of Moors sitting in a semicircle facing the storyteller, who beats a small 
drum at intervals to emphasize the periods or attract new listeners, as 
he tells over the exploits of the heroes. Sindbad the Sailor is still the 
most popular tale, probably because Tangier is located on that inland 
sea where so many of his voyages were taken. 

There is a wide difference, however, between the enchantments and 
sorceries recognized by the Moors and mere religious beliefs or super- 
stitions These last are widely popular throughout the empire, while 

powers of magic are recognized as belonging only to a chosen few. 
Practically every incident is attributable by the Moor either directly to 
Allah or to some obedient or rebellious spirit. My groom would never 
answer when I called to him at night unless I were standing in an open 
doorway or perfectly visible, or called to him three times, otherwise he 
feared to answer, believing he was being called by a djinn, and the 
groom of the American Minister had an extraordinary aptitude for 
ascertaining the presence of efreets. This power would occur most 
frequently in Ramadan, the month of fasting, and he would throw the 
entire establishment into confusion by announcing that the burro be- 
longing to the Spanish Friars across the way had seen the devil. The 
whole household was paralyzed. Nothing could be done until there 
had been summoned from town the band of djinn dispellers, with hor- 
rible music, by whom, after a half hour of discord, the djinn would be 
effectually expelled. 

The Moors live very close to nature and ascribe to animals with 
which they come in contact a human voice, readily translatable into 
good Arabic. Huntsmen will relate long conversations with wild boars, 
hares or even lions, of which the following, overheard by a servant of 
the late British Minister to Tangier, is an example : "The boar, who at 
first had no knowledge of the presence of the lion, became uneasy and 
I heard him say in a clear voice, for you know that they were formerly 

2 1 


derived. For a time the Eis- 
awa will ward off with his 
djcllab the attacks made 
against his bare legs, but then, 
clasping the reptile by the 
tail, he will allow it to strike 
his arms and forehead and 
cheek, making hideous contor- 
tions from the pain and calling 
incessantly upon the Saint. 
The marks of the fangs may 
be plainly seen, as also the 
drops of poison still clinging 
to them in the snake's mouth, 
held open for inspection, but 
the man apparently has taken 
no harm. A chicken is then 
seized and allowed to be bitten 
by the snake on its neck, when 
it runs around for a few mo- 
ments and drops dead. Need- 
less to say, the spectator feels 
no further inclination to han- 
dle the leffa. 

The Moors explain this im- 
munity from the fact that, 
many centuries ago, Sidna 
Eiser, the founder of the sect, 
was once followed by a great 
company of disciples, and in 
endeavoring to escape from 
them came into a desert place 
where there was no food, but 
only venomous snakes and 
scorpions and other unwhole- 

An open square in Tangier on market day. The man 
in dark garments is a Jew, for these people are forced to 
wear rof-es of black or dark blue to distinguish them 

men: '1 hope there is no treachery.' This he 
repeated once or twice, and hearing nothing 
further began to root. Suddenly I perceived 
the smooth head of the lioness crouching in 
the shadow of a group of aloes. 'What, 
treachery again?' said the boar presently, in 
a low tone. 'God is good,' answered the lion- 
ess. ' What is this? a pig ! an infidel !' And she 
advanced boldly. Seeing, however, the size 
of the boar, who now stood ready grinding 
his tusks with rage, she paused and retreated 
toward the woods. I heard her say : 'Oh, 
Merciful Creator! What an immense boar! 
What an infidel ! What a Christian of a pig!' 
'May God burn your great-great-grandmother,' 
retorted the boar, at which the lioness stopped 
and, lashing her tail, roared with a voice to 
which the whole woods re-echoed, "There is 
no conqueror but God !' " 

A most peculiar example of Moorish belief 
is the immunity of some natives from the bites 
of deadly snakes with which parts of Mo- 
rocco abound. These belong to the sect of 
the Eisawas, whose Saint is Sidna Eiser, the 
patron of snake-charmers, and freely handle 
poisonous reptiles in order that when bitten 
by them they may show the power of their 
Saint by taking no hurt. Members of the sect 
may be seen frequently in the market place of 
Tangier, with baskets of canoework covered 
with goat skin and filled with serpents, beating 
drums and summoning followers of the 
Prophet to witness the immunity given by 
Sidna Eiser to his disciples. Invoking the 
Saint, the Eisawa will plunge his bare arm 
into the basket and bring out a huge cobra 
or the more deadly leffa, and place it on the 
ground before him. This leffa can be at once 
recognized by taking position in the form of 
the Arabic letter fa, from which its name is 


centuries the Moors have been warriors, and though no longer a conquering race, they are still noted for their 
fighting qualities. Many of these soldiers are enlisted in the present war on the side of France 



The Jews suffer many restrictions in Morocco and are segregated for the most part in quarters of their own, called mellahs, which are surrounded by walls and very much 

overcrowded. A Jew is not allowed to ride any animal outside the mellah, and he must walk barefoot 

some creatures. When appealed to by his hungry followers, he 
retorted with the common Arabic expression, "Eat poison," 
which in their faith they took literally and fed unharmed on 
the reptiles, which thereafter they and their descendants handle 
without fear. 

My own experience with magic, other than the common feats 
of juggling and hypnotism seen everywhere in the East, came 
through the American Vice Consul at Tangier, who told me 
one evening that his servant had secured the services of a 
magician notorious throughout Morocco, to discover a thief 
who had taken a revolver from his rooms. He suspected one 
of the hotel servants, but had been unable to prove it and was 
half inclined to give the magician a chance. 

When I arrived at the Consul's rooms that evening they were 
filled with the scared servants of the hotel summoned thither, 
so I learned, by the commands of the magician himself. This 
latter, by name M'Barek, was a tall man, with the leanness of 
the Berbers, and with flashing eyes and a long, thin beard that 
quivered at each motion of his head or bare arms. He began 
by burning incense which sent up a not unpleasant but very 
dense smoke, and presently commenced his incantations, capable 
of compelling the most stubborn djinn. The long body bent 
itself double and then rose to what appeared twice its normal 
size. His arms through the smoke seemed to reach from wall 
to wall, and as he turned, eddies of smoke followed him like 
whirling clouds of darkness. It was quite terrifying, and I 
do not wonder that the Moors were paralyzed with fear, even 
before his spirits began speaking. I had taken the precaution 
of bringing with me the interpreter of the Legation, who said 
that the voices spoke a dialect of the Berber tongue not unlike 
Arabic. I listened intently. Two voices were rather high and 
clear and were, it seems, those of spirits of somewhat low rank 
in the supernatural world; but the third, which came less often. 

The mosques are very sacred places in Morocco, and it is dangerous for a Christian or a Jew 
to even stand near the entrance of one, for the punishment of an "unbeliever" who enters a 

mosque is death 



Loading pack camels with bundles of goat hides from which the famous Moroccan leather is made. Large quanti- 
ties of these hides are exported in a crude state, for the production of the native finished article entails much time 

and labor 

was deeper and belonged to a powerful efreet, 
subject, though only at uncertain times, to 
M'Barek's power. 

The process of finding the thief was very 
simple, for M'Barek, calling the servants one 
by one before him, picked out, with the aid of 
his spirits, the guilty one. As the whole line was 
shaking with fright, when the culprit's turn 
came and he stood face to face with the terri- 
fying magician, the man simply gave himself 
away, slumping down on the floor and confess- 
ing the theft. But the most astonishing thing 
of the evening was the subsequent disappear- 
ance of the magician. We had seen him in the 
center of the room and later had seen his bur- 
nous, or djellab, lying over in the corner in the 
shape and attitude of a Moor stretched out to 
sleep. We were somewhat dazed with the 
smoke, but it certainly was a surprise when, 
looking again, incense bowls and djellab and 
magician had entirely disappeared. 

Curiosity being now thoroughly aroused, we 
determined to see more of M'Barek's powers. 
Ali, the head soldier of the Consulate, was sent 
to request his appearance another night, all ef- 
forts at pecuniary inducement being entirely 
unavailing. After a day or two we were to- 
gether again in the Consul's rooms, this time 
on his promise to "see such powers as never 
Christian had seen before." M'Barek proceeded 
as on the first occasion with incense and incan- 
tations, shedding garment after garment until 

In ancient times Fez was known as "the city of five hundred gates," and there are to-day many old and beautiful gateways leading into the city. Baskets made of palmetto 
and grass are seen everywhere in Morocco and are used for every purpose, from donkey panniers to dishes in which the food is served 

FEBRUARY, 19 17 


and I felt sure 1 would catch him. I had ordered the day before from 
Gibraltar a stock of cartridges for my shotgun, having said no word about 
this order except to mention it in passing to the Scribe of our Legation'. 
It was with that in mind that I asked M'Barek, through the interpreter, 
for three shells of No. 6 shot for a twelve gauge shotgun ! He ques- 
tioned again the exact size, called on his spirit, and held out to me 
without leaving his place in the center of the floor the three cartridges 
which I had demanded, and which I took from him and carried home 
with me in my pocket ! They were quite real and were accounted for 
later on hunting expeditions, but I do not pretend to account for their 
production that night and only know that it is easier to believe in djinns 
than that M'Barek had, in any fashion, discovered through the Scribe 
that I had ordered these particular goods, or, even with such knowledge, 
had known that I was going to ask him for them when I had not 
previously thought of doing so myself. The emeralds and sapphires, I 
must add in the interests of truth, were not given to the Consul, but dis- 
appeared between the time they were offered and the production of the 
cartridges. The latter, however, although not so valuable, were more 
difficult for the Moors to procure. I was conscious of feeling a very 
healthy respect thereafter for M'Barek's third spirit. 

This was increased by feats of juggling which he later performed. 

A wandering minstrel playing on a native gimbri, 
a kind of mandolin with two or three strings. 
The negro who accompanies him is a freed slave 

he stood in a single white sulham of a 
soft and seemingly rich material. He 
then began walking rapidly up and down 
the floor, speaking with his three spirits, 
and particularly to the third. At length, 
turning to the interpreter, he cried that 
he was able to compel the third to fur- 
nish us with anything we wished. 
Promptly taking him at his word, the 
Consul asked to see some Moorish emer- 
alds and sapphires, being himself a col- 
lector of these precious stones, and ac- 
quainted with many men of the interior 
also interested in the subject. The ma- 
gician called upon his spirit, whose name, 
I remember, was Tarshan, and thrusting 
his hand into the sleeve of his sulham, 
brought out to our astonished eyes a 
half handful of the uncut emeralds and 
sapphires common to the country. It may 
have been magic ; it certainly, was start- 
ling from a Moor of his position and ap- 
parent poverty. But it was my turn next 


The main part of the caravan usually stops for rest and food during the heat of the day, while the camels 
go on ahead until sundown, when they pitch camp for the night 

id th 

eir drivers 


Alcazar, an ancient and extremely dirty town on the road to Fez from Tangier, is 

said to have been the site of the Garden of Eden 


The little donkey is the popular mount of Tangier. It is ridden sidewlse, probably 

because of its diminutive size, and instead of a whip, a stick or stiletto IS used 


A camel on strike. If the Arab drivers cannot make it rise by beatings, one 

of them will draw his stiletto and by forceful prickings persuade the animal 

to resume its journey 

1 had seen, on board P. & O. liners at Port Said, the Indian 
trick of the mango tree until I had come thoroughly to dis- 
trust the evidence of my own senses; but this magician of 
Morocco performed a similar trick with an orange seed and 
two small cups which is worthy of supplanting it. 

Starting with two tiny inverted bowls, about the size of 
teacups, he placed under one of them an orange seed. He 
then raised the other cup, and there were the first leaves of 
a growing plant. The air of the room was full of smoke and 
we were feeling not quite ourselves from the disconcerting 


effect of the talking djinn and the inces- 
sant waving of M"Barek's arms and white 
robe, so that we were hardly surprised 
when, on raising the first cup again, the 
little plant had grown; but the cup, too, 
had grown to enclose it ! This continued 
until, before our eyes, both cups had 
reached the size of small waste paper bas- 
kets, and under the last was an orange 
tree of mature age, although of diminutive 
size, bearing a load of tangerine oranges, 
such as are found along the north coast 
of Barbary. 

In one trick alone he failed, or possibly 
altered his intention. Stepping over to 
the Consul's rifle, which was hanging 
against the wall, he asked if it were 
loaded, and being told that it was not, took 
it down and threw open the breach, show- 
ing us that there was no cartridges either 
in the barrel or in the chamber. He then 
snapped the breach to and, going over to 
an open window, pointed the gun out and 
aimed toward the Kasbah. Then he 

Members of a wandering tribe of mixed Arab and Berber extraction. These women lead 
freer life than their sisters in the cities and go about in public with faces unveiled 


One of the isolated towers that dot the interior, frequently the prop- 
erty of robber bands, who, despite their occupation, are devout 


The Moor is seclusive in his pleasures and jealously encloses his garden with high walls, above 
which only the tops of trees and tall bushes are visible from the public road. Here he passes much 

of his leisure 


^* ■• w» =*fc W»t "c» mi 


There is a good deal of negro blood among the Moors, which perhaps contributes to 

their strong superstitions. The leather girdle and bag, as well as the bilghai, or 

heelless slippers of the speaker, are products of native artisans 


Above this gate are hung the heads of enemies who have been slain in battle, a form 
of decoration more frequent than might be supposed, owing to the numerous petty 

tribal wars 

stopped and said "No," and made as if to put it back on the wall. 
The Consul stopped him, asking what he had expected to do, to which 
he answered that he had intended to fire it, but that he had realized it 
was against the law and he would be arrested by the police. This was 
true, and he went back and hung up the gun. He came forward and 
stood upright, then turned a somersault, and then, reaching with both 
hands into the sleeves of his sidham, drew out and presented us with 
two brimming bowls of milk — and with those still in our hands he was 
gone, and no one, so far as we could learn, has ever seen him again. 


The followers of Bu Hamara, a former pretender to Morocco's throne, who fought against two successive sultans and was finally captured and put to death. Except 
the cities where foreign influence is strong, law and order are lightly regarded, and these soldiers of a lost cause stand m little danger of capture and punishment 



The queen city of the Sea Islands is built upon a crescent of land on Port Royal Island, and the water front is lined with stately residences, set in spacious grounds, which 

extend to the water's edge 



Ruth Batchelder 

PERHAPS the longest to retain the romantic atmosphere of ante 
bellum days are the picturesque Sea Islands of the lower Caro- 
lina, which lie midway between Charleston and Savannah. This group 
is composed of over 150 low, sandy islands, in the heart of which lies 
the beautiful old Colonial town of Beaufort. There has always hung 
over these charming islands of the sea a veil of delicate mystery which 
the commercialist of the present age has not been able to penetrate. 

The casual traveler may embark from Savannah in a roomy, old- 
fashioned boat which, after plying down the sluggish, yellow Savannah 
River, passes the home of the Waving Girl, who lost her lover at sea 
twenty years ago and for twenty years has waved at every incoming 
and outgoing vessel with a kerchief by day and a lantern by night. She 
is known to the sailors of nations all over the world, and none fail to 
salute her as they pass. 
She lives on a marshy 
peninsula extending out 
into the river, and her 
brother earns her living 
and his by tending one of 
the Savannah River lights. 

A few miles farther 
down the river the boat 
turns suddenly off into 
Rams' Horn Creek, well 
named, for its waterways 
are so narrow and twist- 
ing that the captain has to 
exert all his strength and 
skill to keep the boat on 
her course between the 
low-lying islands, fringed 
with palmettos and giant, 
century-old water oaks, 
hung with Spanish moss. 

These islands make 
ideal hunting preserves, 
and many wealthy North- 
erners own vast tracts of 

land stocked with fish and game, while there are several clubs for the 
accommodation of the sportsman. The climate is ideal, as the islands 
are warmed by the Gulf Stream in the winter and made comfortable in 
summer by the breeze from the Atlantic. 

As the boat swings in and out among the islands, points of historic 
interest begin to appear. On the right we pass Fort Fremont, an army 
post, while a little farther up the bay on the left is the Port Royal Naval 
Station, well known as having the best natural deep water harbor of 
the southern Atlantic. 

A pause is made at the Naval Station while supplies are being un- 
loaded by the "hands." Powerful negro boys are stationed at intervals 
from the hold of the vessel up the wharf, and boxes and barrels, as the 
case may be, are thrown from one to the other with unerring accuracy 

as their bodies sway in 
rhythm to a song which 
runs something like thisl 

"Marster's nigger is fat and 

Case dey gets enough to 


"Jones' nigger is mighty po', 

Don't know whether dey 
gets enough or no, 

"I love marster and mistis 

Case dey's rich an' kin' an' 


"Po' white trash I does de- 

Case dey's always telling 



Island cotton is a particularly fine grade of long-fibered cotton, which is highly prized and which 
constitutes an important source of revenue 

FEBRUARY , 1917 



St. Helena Island is practically given over to the negroes, who, with the aid of an 
industrial school, are developing into a skilled and intelligent communily 


Industrial unrest and modern efficiency have never troubled the dark-skinned inhab- 
itants of the islands, who follow the methods of ante bellum days 

Soldiers and sailors in the blue of the navy or the khaki of the 
marines are either on duty receiving the supplies or loll around the deck, 
basking in the mellow sunshine and exchanging idle remarks with the 
crew of the boat. 

Again the Pilot Boy pushes her blunt nose out, on past the ruins 
of the old Spanish Fort, which was built early in the Sixteenth Century 
by the Spaniards to protect themselves from the Indians. During the 
Revolutionary War it was occupied by the Continental soldiers, who, on 
hearing that an expedition was being sent out from Savannah against 
them, blew both it and themselves up rather than submit to capture. 
Its ruins still stand guarded by a sentinel oak. 

Another turn in the harbor and in front of 
us in the half moon of her harbor, like a per- 
fect jewel in a perfect setting, lies Beaufort, 
with her rows of galleried houses, relics of an 
old regime. This queen city of the Sea Islands 
is, indeed, ideally located on a peninsula of 
Port Royal Island, which is the only one of the 
islands connected by railroad with the main- 
land. Her whole water front is taken up with 
beautiful, old antebellum residences whose 
rose gardens, masses of luxuriant bloom, min- 
gle their perfume with the sweet odors of the 
orange and the magnolia. 

Many of the beautiful old homes in Beau- 
fort are built of tabby, a mixture of oyster 
shells and cement, a very substantial composi- 
tion on which time has little effect and which 
is in color a beautiful, grayish pink. The old- 
est house in the town was built in 1690 and is 
so constructed, with long piercings in the 
foundations, that muskets can be aimed in 
either direction. It has a ledge running along 
underneath on which munitions may be stored. 
This house was built when the Yemassee and 
Cherokee Indians used to make war on the 
whites. In those days warning was sent from 
island to island of an uprising by the waving 
of a red flag. 

During the war of 1812 the British fired 
upon Beaufort and it was said that one of the 
cannon balls had penetrated a house on the 
water front. The hole had been sealed up and 
the exact location was not known until a fire 
occurred in 1906 which burned the house down, 

The vegetation of the islands 
season is moderated 

and the ball was found in the ruins wedged in among the masonry. 
Though there are records of other transient settlements, Beaufort itself 
was incorporated in 1712 by Prince Henry, Duke of Beaufort, and is 
named for him. 

The Beaufort Volunteer Artillery has the honor of being one of the 
oldest military organizations in the country. It was organized by Colonel 
William Harden, of Marion's staff, and is housed in a picturesque old 
arsenal constructed of tabby with "B. V. A., 1776" inscribed on its gates. 
Time and weather have colored its walls and given it a delightful air of 

On the walls of the old Episcopal Church, which was built by the 
Colonial government in 1712, is placed a great 
tablet of bronze on which is inscribed the 
names of those who went out from Beaufort 
to die for the Lost Cause, and above them is 
written this inscription: 

"The triumphs of might are transient, they pass 
and are forgotten. The memories of right are 
graven deepest in the chronicles of nations." 

And under this tablet, on the tenth of every 
May, the rapidly thinning ranks of gray-haired 
veterans gather with the Stars and Bars float- 
ing sadly over them while they pay their 
tribute to the comrades who have gone before. 

Beaufort is a place of many historic memo- 
ries, one of her proudest being that she had 
the honor of entertaining General Lafayette 
on his visit to this country in the early part of 
the Nineteenth Century. Beaufort extended 
to him an invitation which he accepted, exten- 
sive preparations were made for his reception, 
and on his arrival on the evening of March 2, 
1805, he was conducted through a bower of 
roses and attended by the Beaufort Guards. 
The following is an authentic account taken 
from an old letter kindly loaned by the de- 
scendants of the family who entertained him. 

"We went into Beaufort last Thursday 

evening expecting La Fayette would come 

there on Friday. We had lent our house to 

give the ball in. The ball committee requested 

us to dress the rooms, as he was expected at 

two o'clock. We were obliged to leave the 
is semi-tropical, tor the winter , , - 

by the Gulf Stream rooms half dressed, to go down to the ba\ to 



The Beaufort Volunteer Artillery is one of the oldest organizations in the country. It was founded by Colonel William Harden of 

Marion's staff, and the picturesque arsenal is dated 1776 

see the procession. We had a very 
good position, as we went to Mc- 
Neston's Balcony where the arch 
was erected, but all our trouble 
was in vain, for after waiting there 
about an hour we returned to our 
home. We were afraid that he 
would not come at all. However, 
at about twelve notice was given 
that he had come. We were, of 
course, deserted by the Guards, 
who went to conduct him to the 
house. The procession was then 
so handsome that I scarcely re- 
gretted his not coming in the day. 
All the boys in the town had lights 
in their hands, which had a beau- 
tiful effect, shining on the long, 
white plumes of the Guards. He 
stayed a very short time, just long 
enough to shake hands all around 
and eat supper. As it was the first 
time that La Fayette had entered 
any place by night, at least it had 
the effect of novelty!" 

Before the War, the old planta- 
tion life of the Sea Islands was a 
patriarchal form of government 
with no stringent rules. It was ex- 
ceptional to find a man who was 
cruel to his slaves. In the first 
place, he cared for the happy-go- 
lucky people whom God had placed 
in his care. And then, if for no 
higher consideration, it would be 
bad business to mistreat and de- 
preciate property so valuable. 

< >ne can gather that the life of 
the master and mistress of a large 
plantation was not one of luxu- 
rious idleness, but full of responsi- 
bility. It was the proudest boast of many an oldtime Southern planter 
that he could raise on his plantation everything necessary for the com- 
forts and luxuries of life. In those clays they raised, spun and wove 
cloth, tanned the leather and made their own shoes, while the fields and 
woods and streams supplied fish and game that would tempt the palate 



The Sea Island negroes are in the main a happy, carefree people, averse to hard work 
and inordinately addicted to super-emotional religion 

Some of the smartest of the 
young slaves were sent to the 
neighboring cities to learn 
trades. One family kept a 
boy at one of the best hotels 
in Charleston in order that 
they might have a butler well 
schooled in his profession. 
Young men were sent away to 
become machinists, black- 
smiths, painters and carpen- 
ters, for skilled laborers were 
required in a community of a 
thousand souls. There was 
very little storage in those 
days, as all of the ice had to 
be brought from the north. 
Every year the inhabitants of 
Beaufort would form a com- 
pany to import a quantity of 
ice. The expense was tremen- 
dous and each family was en- 
titled to a small portion of ice 
each day. If they wanted ice 
cream they would save up 
their portion for several days. 
In those old days it was not 
thought genteel for ladies to 
visit shops. They sent their 
servants, generally their per- 
sonal maids, who selected the 
materials with care and 
brought them home for their 
mistress's inspection and 

With the opening of the war 
between the States this beau- 
tiful old plantation life van- 
ished. The masters went to 
war, many never to return, the 
slaves scattered, bewildered by 
their new-found freedom, 
though many remained faith- 
ful to their mistresses. 

In the horror of Reconstruc- 
.ion days the plantations were 
parceled out to the freedmen, 
who were given forty acres 
and a mule. In the beginning 
it had not been thought pos- 
sible that the Yankees really 
intended to fight. However, in 
order to show that the honor 
of the Sea Islands was not to 
be trifled with, on January 20, 
1861, a number of the lead- 
ing citizens formed a company 
under the name of the St. Hel- 
ena Volunteer Riflemen, with 
W. O. P. Fripp acting as cap- 
tain and Dr. T. G. White, who 
still lives in Beaufort, as first 
lieutenant. The ladies of the 
island presented the company 
with a beautiful silken flag em- 
broidered on one side with the 
palmetto, the emblem of the 
State, and the motto "Ubi Lib- 
ertas Ibi Patria," and on the 
other "St. Helena Volunteer 
Riflemen, Organized January 
20, 1861." The company prac- 
ticed drilling and firing faith- 
Then came the blow that awakened 

of an epicure. 

fully during the ensuing summer, 
them to the reality of warfare. 

On November 4, 1861, the residents of St. Helena were gathered to 
worship in the old Episcopal Church on St. Helena, and while they 
were kneeling in prayer the hoof beats of a galloping horse were heard 
in the distance and a soldier clanked up the aisle bearing in his hand a 


message that the white-haired 

rector read amid a deathly si- 
lence. It was the news that 

the Union fleet had left 

Charleston and was on its way 

to Port Royal. After that 

things happened in quick suc- 
cession. The first shot fired 

by the Union fleet was heard 

all over the islands. That 

night, one of the riflemen sent 

his body servant across the 

islands to his family to tell 

them to abandon the plantation 

and retreat at once to Charles- 
ton, and at once the mother 

and month-old babe were 

wrapped in blankets, placed in 

an open rowboat and rowed to 

Charleston by six trusted 

slaves, no small feat when it 

is remembered that Charleston 

was some eighty miles away. 
In Beaufort the houses were 

deserted — furniture, silver, 

priceless paintings and valu- 
ables of all descriptions left to 

the mercy of the victor. In' 

one case a dinner was left 

smoking on the table, and was 

devoured by the incoming 

army. The houses in Beau- 
fort were not burned, but the 

treasures in them were stolen 

by the negroes and soldiers 

and passed into alien hands. 

During the rest of the struggle 

the Union forces occupied 

Beaufort and Port Royal. 

The negroes of the Sea Isl- 
ands are a source of never 

failing surprise and delight to 

the tourist. In the first place, 

many of them speak "gullah," 

a perversion of the English 

language hardly intelligible to 
anyone except a resident of 
that section. Suppose the 
traveler is about to embark in 
a little boat for a pleasant 
row, when he is approached by 
a venerable darky who, re- 
moving his ragged wisp of a 
hat, accosts him with this 
seemingly cryptic remark, 
"Oonah, coonah yoonah?" 
You could hardly blame the 
stranger for not being able to 
translate it into "Whose canoe 
is that?" "Ah shum," inter- 
preted, means "I see.'' 

These negroes live in al- 
most primitive simplicity. 
Their houses are of the sim- 
plest construction, the roofs 
often being thatched with the 
leaves of the palmetto. The 
heart of the home is the fire- 
place, whose chimney is built 
of a mixture of clay and grass, 
not a very substantial article. 
The negroes are extremely 
strong and agile, coming from 

their work in the fields with heavy burdens of corn and cotton balanced 
lightly on their heads and walking with the long, swinging stride of the 
unfettered savage. The)' are a kindly people, and on St. Helena Island 
40 white people and over 8,000 negroes live together without the slight- 
est friction between the races. On St. Helena is established the Penn 
Normal and Industrial School, which is doing a great deal for the negro 

The houses of Beaufort are galleried and set in old gardens among giant shade trees. Many of them are built of tabby, a mixture 

of oyster shells and cement mellowed to a grayish pink 

in teaching him how to earn his liv- 
ing by skilled labor. 

The average dark-skinned inhabit- 
ant of the Sea Islands, however, is a 
happy, carefree individual who be- 
lieves implicitly that verse in the 
Bible which says "sufficient unto the 
day is the evil thereof," for he is con- 
tent to work two days a week to ob- 
tain some "change" and rest the other 
four, spending lazy, delicious hours on 
the bay in a battered old bateau fish- 
ing for the abundant mullet, white fish 
and bass which abound in these 
waters. Vendors of vegetables, 
shrimp, fish and other edibles invade 
the streets in the early morning 
hours with their hardly articulate but 
wholly melodious cries. One- ancient 
"raauma" drives a still more ancient 
ox, and her voice can be heard for 
blocks around as she chants in a sing- 
song tone : "My mistis, my marster, 
come an' get yo' nice fresh vegetable, 
yo' clean little sweet potato ! Come, 
buyers, fo' dey is five cents a measure 
an' ah can't go no highrer nor no 
lowrer." And she passes down the 
street with a rich, oily chuckle of 
pure happiness on account of the day, 
the time and the place. 

The "shout" is the extreme expres- 
sion of the religious nature of the 
negro, as religion holds a most im- 
portant place in his life. Lazy and 
irresponsible as most of them are, 
they never forget their church and 
support it beyond their means. In 
the negro churches all over these isl- 
lands a table is placed directly under 
the pulpit and the congregation come 
and place their contributions on it, making change if 

A typical old mammy 


ind uncle resting after the day's work beside their primitive 
shanty with its flimsy clay chimney 

up one by one 

need be under the watchful eye of the minister and deacons, so that no 
mistake on the wrong side be made. The gayly dressed young girl gets 
five pennies for her nickel; this gives her the opportunity to go up five 
times before the congregation. It is interesting to go to a certain negro 
(Continued on page 47) 




You don't have to have sunlight to take pictures. Big cities are sometimes at their best 

in the rain, and the traveler can better preserve his impressions of the place as he 

saw it with a photograph like this than with one which shows all the detail 


One of the first precepts instilled into the mind of the tyro is, "Always have the sun at 

your back when taking a picture." Here it is shown that the rule may be broken 

to good effect. It must be noted, however, that the lens was shaded 



Johnston Mackenzie 

WHY do you take pictures when you travel? Is it so you may be 
able to show your friends at home what the Milan Cathedral 
looks like, or is it to preserve fleeting memories of places visited and 
people met? If it is the former you might as well leave your camera 
at home, for picture postcards are cheaper and generally better. The 
latter purpose is, as a rule, the sole justification for including a camera 
in your luggage. It is another matter, of course, if you are an explorer 
and have an opportunity of photographing things for the first time. The 
explorer takes a suitable equipment for his work; the tourist goes after 
smaller, but no less interesting, game. One should not try to shoot bear 
with a bird gun. 

To be a successful travel photographer you must be prepared to break 
most of the rules that you learned when you first began to use a kodak. 

This is not so simple as it sounds. It takes a clever lawyer to show 
his client how to evade the law without paying the penalty, and the 
parallel holds good with the photographer. In photography the possi- 
bility of experimentation without very dire results is an advantage. 

One of the first precepts that are instilled into the mind of the tyro is, 
"Always have the sun at your back when taking a picture." Better ad- 
vice would be, "Never allow the sun to shine in the lens while taking a 
picture," but, as we shall presently see, even that does not always hold 
good. Suppose you are walking down lower Fifth Avenue around 
noontime or a little while afterward. The sun is in your face and the 
shadows cast by the other pedestrians slant in your direction. Wash- 
ington Arch is silhouetted against the sky. . . . You would like to pre- 
serve the impression. The Arch is only an incident, so the matter of 
detail is unimportant. Take the picture by all means, rules to the con- 
trary, but do not fail to shade the lens— with your hat if no better object 
is at hand— while making the exposure. What if the resulting picture is 
unorthodox! The camera comes pretty close to telling the truth at all 
times, provided correct exposures are made, and if we are out to record 
impressions we should gauge our success by the faithfulness rather than 
the technical excellence of the result. 

A picture taken in the rain does not show much, if any, detail in the 
shadows, but you must remember that an actual glance at the subject 
would reveal no more. "But," you say, "the detail can be found even 
on a rainy day if one stops to look for it." Even so, but impressions 
come mainly from masses and not from details. 

Light conditions should not worry the traveler with a camera. "I had 
bad luck in Edinburgh," said one of my friends; "it rained every day of 
the four I spent there, and I didn't get a picture." Another friend of 
mine told a different story. "I saw Edinburgh," he said, under splendid 
conditions. It was characteristically wet and rather gloomy, and I got 
some fine pictures." He had not been afraid to use his camera in the 
rain simply because he could not get detail, and as a result his pictures 
form a permanent record of his own personal impressions of the Scot- 
tish city. 

Among the worst abominations ever designed for the use of the trav- 
eler is the panoramic camera, principally because it throttles any attempt 
at pictorial composition. No pair of eyes ever saw at one time all the 
scenery that is included in the scope of the lens that flops in an arc 
of only slightly less than a semicircle, nor is the resulting picture more 
than remotely suggestive of reality, for straight lines become curved 
and curved lines the shortest distance between two points. Now, without 
attempting to add a new definition of art to the 4,782 already adduced 
by critics, it may be safe to state without appearing dogmatic that com- 
position is the basis of art. Impressions have an artistic value because 
they have an emotional interest ; or perhaps they have an emotional in- 
terest because they have an artistic value. At any rate,, this artistic 
value, whatever its origin or result, is closely allied with the people and 
objects which the eye composes. Therefore to preserve a truthful record 
of the impression it is necessary to preserve the composition that pro- 
duced it. It is not everyone who is dexterous enough to secure a well- 
composed picture when the occasion demands quick work, but the use 
of a pair of scissors will work wonders with the finished print. 
(Continued on page 46) 



It is a difficult matter to get human interest into a picture 
without the subjects knowing they are being taken. Carry- 
ing your camera unopened, it attracts no attention; so 
when you have chosen your point of vantage, if you 
turn and look in the opposite direction while adjusting 
the camera, you can then wheel about and make the 
exposure before the subjects are aware of it 



In the foreground is a specimen of the pest who wants to 
be photographed. We hope this one sees his face in 
print. One way of getting rid of such a person is to 
go through the motions of taking the picture, walk away 
from the spot, and return as soon as the unwelcome 
poser has given up hope and left. His ambition should 
never be gratified 


Here is another example of a picture taken when the 
sun is not at the photographer's back. Its charm lies in 
the arrangement of masses, which include the shadows, 
rather than a faithful portrayal of detail. If you want 
all the ornamental carving on the Arch, buy a postal 
card; this is your impression and the Arch is only an 
incidental object 



It was a rather hazy day when this was taken. But the photographer liked the sketchy 
quality of the scene, and, taking a long chance on getting anything, he achieved 

this result 


Heresy pays occasionally. The rules say, "Do not point the camera toward the tun," 
but the above result was obtained by a little free thought on the part of the man behind 

the kodak 


Imagine this picture without the frame of branches. It is just such small incidents in 
travel photographs that make the difference between an impression and a mere guide- 
book record 


A difficult 
of bright sun 

photographic feat is to expose correctly for a scene in shadow with patches 
sunlight distributed as they are here. A "ray filter" is useful in taking 

such a picture 




I HE BAN«UJ^& aini, ^ the bride A ^ ^^ pART ^ the CEREM0NIES _ AN ELEPHANT FIGHT 

Eleanor Maddock 

TO those who have never participated in 
event, they must, in order to picture 
their eyes for the moment on scenes that are 
leaden compared with the coloring 
and warmth of India, and allow the 
imagination to revel in the page- 
antry and splendor of flashing 
jewels, feastings and entertainments 
attendant upon the marriage of 
Prince Jayasinrao, the second son 
of the Maharaja or Gaekwar of Ba- 
roda, which took place two years 
ago, immediately following the com- 
pletion of the young man's college 
course at Harvard University. 

The invitations were 
written on large silver- 
embossed cards, with the 
Maharaja's monogram in 
red, surmounted by his 
crest — a tulwar and crown 
— in gold. Among the 
guests were a few Euro- 
peans, mostly Government 
officials and their wives, 
and they were asked to re- 
main at the court of Ba- 
roda during the three 
weeks over which the fes- 
tivities extended. 

The occasion was made 
a state holiday, and on the 
day of the wedding every 
nook and corner of bal- 
conies and housetops was 
thronged with people 
garbed in their best, the 
women in their brightest 
saris of crimson, blue, 
pink and saffron. The 
whole city was festooned 
with garlands, banners 
and strings of tiny lamps 
filled with cocoanut oil. 

Starting from Laxmi 
Vilas Palace, the wedding cortege was pre- 
ceded by regiments of native soldiers and 
a band of musicians, the bugler of which 
blew a strange brass instrument shaped 
like a gigantic wishbone, which gave forth 
a terrific sound. Catching the sun's rays in 
the distance were the golden howdahs, the 
rhythmic tinkling of bells, proclaiming the 
majestic, swaying motion of the approach- 
ing elephants. The two in advance were 
gorgeously bedecked with cloth-of-gold 
hung with crimson silk tassels and fringe: 
gold bands were on their tusks, ornaments 
in their ears, bangles about their huge ankles 
and barbaric designs painted in the center 
of their foreheads and around their eyes. 

In the howdah of the first was seated the 
little Prince Pertab, a child of eight— the 
real heir to the throne of Baroda, with an 
enigmatical future— to whom everybody 
salaamed, he gravely touching his forehead 
in acknowledgment. The Maharaja's ele- 
phant, his massive body painted a rich saf- 
fron—the marriage color— bore the state 
howdah in which was. seated, cross-legged. 

such an 
it, close 
dull and 

(C) Stereo-Travel Co. 

A Hindu bride and groom of a lower caste. No matter how 
poor the family may be, large sums are expended on nuptial 
festivities, and frequently debts are incurred which take a life- 
time to pay off 

the bridegroom, Prince Jayasinrao, and by his side his only sister, the 
beautiful Princess Indra, since wedded to the Maharaja of Cooch Behar. 
The Prince looked bored and seemed annoyed by the two enormous dia- 
mond and pearl tassels which hung from his small turban and kept 

swinging against his ears. 
His tunic of gold-spangled 
gauze over yellow satin was 
topped at the neck by a neck- 
lace of Baroda's famed 
cream-luster pearls, and 
across his knees lay a sword 
in a jeweled scabbard. 

There were more elephants 
and soldiers, maharajas and 
princes on spirited, hand- 
somely caparisoned Arabs, 
the passing of the whole pro- 
cession taking more than 
three hours, so that it was 
dark by the time all had 
passed through the 
arched gates of the 
Nazarbag Palace, 
where the bride 
and her attendants 
were waiting. 

Here European 
customs are re- 
versed in that 
nothing whatever 
was said about the 
bride. It was not 
her wedding, and 
curiosity in that di- 
rection would have 
been discourteous, 
for Hindu women 
are never discussed 
in public by their 
male relatives. By 
this it must not be 
taken for granted 
that they have no 
influence — in fact, 
Tod, the greatest 
of Indian writers, says: "The very seclu- 
sion of women increases their influence." 
And in the same breath he quotes the Hindu 
proverb, "God created her, but Himself re- 
pents it." While the Gaekwar of Baroda 
and his family are Western educated, pro- 
gressive and extravagant, they are what is 
known in India as "low caste," a fact that 
debars his sons from intermarriage with 
the blue-blooded, aristocratic Rajputs, so 
the bride of Jayasinrao was selected from a 
good family of the same caste as himself. 

Truly only imagination can picture the 
splendor of the scene in the durbar hall. 
The great Nizam of Hyderabad was daz- 
zling in sheen of silk and glittering jewels. 
His Highness, the Maharaja of Dhurbanga 
wore a marvelously wound turban of pale 
rose silk caught on the left side by a glit- 
tering mass of diamonds, rubies, pearls and 
emeralds confining the royal egret. The 
Maharaja of Indore, in addition to his ropes 
of pearls and a turban surmounted in front 
by a peacock of diamonds and emeralds, 
was wearing a jeweled belt confining his 

A Hindu prince and his 
twelve-year-old bride 

FEBRUARY, 19 17 


tunic of pale blue silk. There were rajas and nawabs of lesser note, 
but little less gorgeously appareled. Conspicuous among the jeweled 
orders were the prized and coveted Star of India and Order of the 
Indian Empire. 

Prince Jayasinrao seated himself on the marriage "Guddi" in the 
center of the hall, just as the bride was led in by her women ; a 
pathetic little figure, scarcely able to move, so enveloped was she by 
a heavy cloth-of-gold garment which covered her completely, leaving 
only slits for the eyes and nose, and, as though this were not enough, 
when she seated herself opposite the bridegroom, a marriage veil 
made of strands of yellow jasmin buds was thrown over her head, 
and there she sat, huddled motionless throughout the long ceremony 
of priests chanting, the exchange of gifts and sprinkling of rose- 
water. As the guests left 
the durbar hall they, too, 
were sprinkled with rose- 
water, a bouquet given to 
each and flower garlands 
hung about their necks. 

The grounds presented an 
alluring picture with the 
white Nazarbag Palace 
towering above the mass of 
tropical foliage silhouetted 
against its walls. In the 
gleaming moonlight the col- 
ored lights looked like mil- 
lions of fireflies, bright fig- 
ures moved among the 
flower-bordered paths 
speaking in the soft, strange 
tongue, and the atmosphere 
was heavy with the scent of 
roses and jasmin. 

The next day the games 
and sports began. At day- 
break the guests were taken 
in motors to the edge of 
the jungle for a cheetah 
hunt. These animals re- 
semble a leopard, and are 
kept from food for two 
days before the hunt, then 
hooded and placed in bul- 
lock carts; black buck are 
usually the quarry — or, 
rather, victims, as they have 
but small chance for their 
lives, for once the herd is 
sighted, and the cheetah un- 
hooded and loosed from the 
cart, a few long leaps are 
sufficient for it to pull down 
a frightened buck. Great 
sport was expected of the 
cheetah belonging to the 
Maharaja of Bhavnagar, which had been brought to Baroda for the 
occasion, led by a silver chain and guarded by two attendants. But 
when unhooded he refused to leave the cart, and sat lazily blinking 
at the stampeding herd — to the secret joy of some humane Europeans 
in the party. 

The military sports took place on the maidan, or plain, witnessed by 
a distinguished company in the shamiana, or royal marquee. Splendid 
horsemen whirled by at full speed, impaling a wooden tent peg with 
their lances, or rode bareback, stooping to pick up handkerchiefs 
from the ground. Then came a spectacular storming of a Ghazi fort 
amid noise of cannon and a fine cavalry charge across the maidan, 
with trappings and accoutrements glinting in the sun. 

Scheduled on the program was a "fight between two elephants," 
trained and kept for the purpose. One, Mongul Gunge, was a mad 
elephant, and must at that, who only the day before had killed his 
mahout; his opponent, too, had a notoriously bad temper, and blood 
red paint had been smeared over their bodies to enhance — in appear- 
ance at least — the evil reputation of both. They were led into the 
walled arena through high archways at either end, fitted with massive 
bulks; their hind legs securely clamped with iron rings spiked on 
the inside so that any sudden movement would cause the teeth to 
bite into the flesh. The mahouts were armed with long spears and tubes 
containing flashlight powder which they could instantly ignite in front 

A village water carrier of Baroda. Slung 

over her right shoulder is the rope by which 

she lowers her jar into the well 


Prince Jayasinrao and his sister, the Princess Indra, starting forth to meet the bride. The 

procession to the palace, where the bride was awaiting them with her attendants, was an 

affair of much pomp and magnificence which lasted for three hours 

of the elephant to blind him, in case he became unmanageable. After 
the hateful bracelets had been cautiously removed the two elephants 


stood eying one another indiffer- 
ently while the spectators waited 
breathlessly for a furious charge. 
Suddenly Mongul Gunge wheeled 
and bolted for the archway, feel- 
ing the bulks with his trunk as 
though lie hoped to climb over, 
or, failing that, to crawl under; 
then with foolish, lumbering gait 
be ran back to the other arch, 
where he stood rocking from side 
to side, his thick ears flopping 
nervously with the effort of 
thinking what to do next. His 
opponent, meanwhile, was mak- 
ing sudden lunges to escape the 
prodding spears of the attendants, 
but all to no purpose. The two 
wickedest elephants in India 
would not apparently fight to or- 

Prince Jayasinrao, the second son of the 

Gaekwar of Baroda. The prince is a 

graduate of Harvard University 

der, and Mongul Gunge further 
disgraced himself by sitting down, 
and with plaintive trumpetings, 
lifting first one foot and then the 
other for the iron clamps to be 
put on, so that he could be led 
back to his shady corner in the 
compound. Two vicious buffalo 
bulls were next led into the arena 
from opposite directions, with 
white cloths held before them, so 
that they could not see each other. 
When about thirty yards apart the 
cloths were whisked away, the 
great brutes raised their heads, and 
one made a lunge at one of the 

attendants, who fled for his life. This momentary side 
dash cost the animal its own life, for the other made 
straight for it, charging in a cloud of dust, and it scarcely 
had time to lower its head when the two met with a crash 
that shook the spectator's stand and brought the poor 
brute to the ground with a broken neck. The other 
rushed at the prostrate body, goring it savagely, while 
an Englishman from the stand shouted, "Stop it, you bar- 
barians, stop it I" And stop it they did. The attendants 
rushed in and with ropes dragged the infuriated animal 
away. The whole tragedy, including the removal of the 
body and the resanding of the arena, occupied less than 
fifteen minutes, and, although it was not intended that 
any of the contests between the animals should be a fight 
to the death, yet by that time the European guests had 
seen enough of arena sports. 

The concluding events of the wedding festivities were 
two banquets at the Laxmi Vilas Palace. The first in- 
cluded all the guests and took place in the splendid Indo- 
Saracenic reception hall; the other, given by Her High- 
ness, Maharani Jumnabai, was exclusively for the Euro- 
pean ladies and the visiting maharanis and princesses. 

Concealed among thick trees and shrubbery in the pal- 
ace grounds is the strange old Naulakha well, never before 
photographed, as it supplies the palace and is guarded 
day and night. It is best described as a square inverted 
pagoda, consisting of five pillared platforms of solid stone 
with flights of steps leading downward to a great depth 
where in excessive draught two platforms are always 
under water. It is one of those pure, inexhaustible 
springs such as are found at a depth of two, and often 
three hundred, feet in the most arid parts of India, said to 

A village barber of Baroda whose shop is wherever he may happen 

to be. Baroda is one of the most progressive of all the provinces 

of India 


be fed from the "lost underground river" so often alluded to. The 
once elaborate carvings on the Naulakha well are worn away by time, 
and its early history is lost in antiquity, for it was there when Baroda 
was a jungle, and like a similar one at Ahmedabad, it has a ghost. 

Baroda has been the scene of many intrigues. In the time of the late 
Maharaja an attempt was made at a banquet in the old Makapura Palace 
to poison the British resident, Colonel Phayre; subsequently, for his 
disloyalty, the Maharaja was deposed but was allowed by the Govern- 
ment to choose one of his three sons to succeed him; to the surprise 
of all concerned, he chose the second, the present Gaekwar, who appears 
to partake strongly of his father's characteristics. 

The Makapura Palace is rarely used now except for the accommo- 
dation of guests, although it is handsomely furnished, mostly in the 
English style of the last century. The picture gallery contains some 
very good examples of European art. In a far, dim corner, two velvet 
curtains hang suspended from the ceiling, that, to a casual glance, appear 
as ordinary window- draperies, but when drawn reveal two magnificent 
life-size portraits, one of the late Maharaja standing in full court dress 
staring out of the canvas with haughty, insolent eyes, the other is of the 
Maharani Chimnabai, the present Gaekwar's first wife, beloved and 
regretted by the people as the "beautiful Rani 
possessed of all the virtues, whose equal will 
never again kneel on the marriage guddi of 
Baroda." Unlike so many of the portraits by 
Indian artists that are merely types, this one 
is a true likeness of an extraordinarily lovely 
Hindu woman in her teens, and of a most un- 
usual type of beauty. When Maharani Chim- 
nabai died she left a son; ten years ago he 
died as a result of dissipation, leaving in turn a 
son and heir, to the keen disappointment of the 
present Maharani, who has ambitions for her 
own son, Jayasinrao. 

The question has often been asked as to 
what the title "Gaekwar" really means. It 
may be explained that it is not a title at all, but 
simply the family name, and the Maharaja be- 
comes through his position the Gaekwar of 
the family and of the State of Baroda. The 
present Gaekwar is the most progressive ruler 
in India, and an admirer and imitator of 
many Western institutions, chief among which 
are our system of compulsory education and 
our leveling of class distinctions. He realizes 
that caste is the great hindrance to progress in 
India and is doing his utmost, by laws and ex- 
ample, to break down this pernicious system. 

The strange old well that supplies the palace at Baroda and is guarded day and night. It is a square 
inverted pagoda of five pillared platforms of stone, with flights of steps leading down to a great 
depth. Even in times of excessive drought this well is inexhaustible 

FEBRUARY , 19 17 



Mostar, the ancient capital of Herzegovina, is a city of some 20,000 inhabitants built on the lower slopes of the Hum and Podvelez. The swiftly flowing Narenta River divides 
the town, and the sections are connected by two bridges, one of which is the modern iron structure in the picture 




THE Balkan States have better press-agent service than Los An- 
geles, Cal. Even before the European War they were known as 
"the powder box of Europe," and the name was richly merited in the 
so-called days of peace. But although hardly a day passed that the 
press did not record some item of interest about one of these countries, 
the ignorance of the world at large regarding them has been conspicu- 
ous. There has been a fair number of books written to portray their 
characteristics and history, but none that I have seen comes nearer to 
a satisfactory presentation of an intimate picture of the group than "A 
Woman in the Balkans," by Winifred Gordon. 

As may be seen from the first chapter on Serbia, the style of the 
author is piquant yet incisive, and above all pictorial. For instance : 

"There are no very good cafes or 
restaurants in Belgrade, and the best 
was at the Grand Hotel, where we 
stayed. We always used the smaller 
restaurant beyond the big bare hall, 
which with its iron tables and big buffet 
resembled a big station waiting-room. 
In the evening a band always played 
there, and people used to come in for 
coffee or wine and sit and smoke and 
discuss politics or gossip. Any number 
of men dined and lunched daily in the 
little restaurant we used, but we rarely 
saw any ladies with them. The food 
was not very good, and however early 
we sat down to table, the chicken was 
almost invariably all eaten up, and the 
meat being often tough, we had as 
invariably to fall back on omelette aux 
fines herbes and gemischtes salad, and 
no one could accuse us on these occa- 
sions of not leading the simple life. 

"We used to watch, with amusement, 
the men toasting each other at the little 
tables. There were so many toasts 
that they seemed to take up the best 
part of the meal. They would clink 
glasses and wish each other 'uzdravege,' 
or good health, take a nip of the slivo- 
vitza or wine, and then clink and wish 

again — this went on three times before it was considered that the health 
had been properly drunk. . . .' 

"Our hotel stood on the principal street, the Rue Terazia, a fine, broad 
boulevard with quite fair shops, which leads up to the historic old 
fortress with the Kalmegdan, or public gardens, around it. The grounds 
are passably laid out; an open-air restaurant and band-stand promised 
entertainment for one class, while for another we saw the familiar 
merry-go-rounds and shooting galleries of our own bank-holiday bean- 
feasters. The fortress, with its lichen-covered bastions, crowns the hill 
and commands a magnificent view over miles of country stretched at 
one's feet; the Danube, which was in flood, looked like a great fjord 
studded with islands of every size and shape. It is a famous place from 



In the square before the mosque of Suleiman the Great. Like many European churches, the mosques of Constantinople 
haunted by flocks of pigeons and devout Mussulmans eke out a living by selling grain to feed them 


whence to watch the sun sinking over the 
great Hungarian plains, for the view is very 
extensive, and the atmospheric effects are 
sometimes very fine. It was on this very 
ground, when the standard of the Crescent 
floated over the city, that the Turks exe- 
cuted their prisoners and impaled them on 
the walls, as a warning to the conquered 
Serb. . . . 

"The town has been almost rebuilt in re- 
cent years, and much of the picturesque 
Turkish or distinctly Serbian type of house 
has given way to the style of Vienna or 
Pesth. The streets are laid out in straight 
angles crossing each other, many leading 
out into the country, and the roadways are 
neatly paved with stone. Electric tram- 


A water vendor of Sarajevo wearing an apron of 

the bright colors in which both the men and women 

of Bosnia delight 

'Made in Germany' or 'Made in Austria' on 
them. The Germans are nearly as much 
hated as the Austrians, and are always 
called 'Swobs.' The same word is used in 
Austria, where it is a term of opprobrium 
and contempt." 

Speaking of the family life of the Serbs, 
Mrs. Gordon says: 

"Brothers and sisters have for each other 
a very deep and real affection, and a Ger- 
man writer says that few countries in the 
world can show a more beautiful relation 
between its members, and the death of one 
of the circle means an irreparable loss. A 
most curious development of this feeling is 
the swearing of brotherly and sisterly af- 
fection between two individuals of differ- 
ent families who feel an affinity for each 
other. This platonic bond is called Pobra- 
timstro-Posestrimstro, and draws out the 


Water in the East is not so much a matter of course as with us, but a marketable commodity which is distributed 
from a central fountain. The carved fountain face was once a Byzantine gravestone 

cars dash past the 
creaking country 
carts, with their 
slow-moving oxen ; 
trees are planted in 
most of the streets, 
which must give 
welcome shade in 
the hot summers. 

"Most of the shops 
are held by Ger- 
mans, for the Serb 
is an agriculturist 
and rather despises 
shopkeeping. The 
wares they sell are 
hideous modern 
gauds — cheap and 
nasty — all having 

best and finest in their natures. Marriage occasionally results, but the 
betrayal of such a faith brings with it a terrible curse in the eyes of the 
people. Friendship and love are no empty words for them, and are 
pregnant with real meaning. Like the Irish, again, they are lively, sen- 
sitive and emotional. Their enthusiasm is easily awakened, and they 
are somewhat jealous. 

"In his endurance of pain or suffering the Serb is a Stoic. An Ameri- 
can Red Cross doctor working among them during the war of 1912 
voiced the general opinion of his confreres when he said: 'You've not 
seen bravery till you've seen a Serbian die, or seen these people suffer. 
I'll take off a hand, an arm, a leg — without an anaesthetic, mind you — 
and will the fellow budge? Not an eyelid. He may say, "Rerku lete" 
(Oh! dear), but that's all, and very seldom that much. And die! 
They'll die without a sound — unless it is to thank you before you go. 
Where this race of soldiers sprang from I don't know, but make no mis- 
take, they're God's own men.' " 

"A City of Intrigue" is what the author calls the capital of Bulgaria, 
but her most interesting observations are on the people. 

"Our first day in Sofia was a bright spring one, with a sharp tang in 


Mostar means City of the Bridge and takes its name from this stone span seventy feet above the river and so steep 

that only pedestrians and surefooted pack mules can cross it 

FEBRUARY, 19 17 

3 9 

the air from the sur- 
rounding snow- 
capped mountains. 
It was market-day — 
always an interest- 
ing sight in these 
foreign lands, and 
we sallied forth with 
a lot of small coin 
in our pockets, and, 
camera in hand, I 
-nas soon snapping 
right and left. 

"It was the gayest 
sight imaginable ! 
Crowds of peasants 
in delightful cos- 
tumes; the men, fine 
handsome fellows, in 
cream fustian 
strapped with 
stitched designs of 
brown and black and 
a red sash, their 
short sheepskin 
coats worn fur inside and with good 
stitchery in red and black as ornament. 
On their heads the 'kalpak' — a pot- 
shaped cap of black sheepskin or astra- 
khan — is worn, and their cloth leggings 
are bound with leather thongs. 

"The women wear an underskirt of 
linen and lace, a short overskirt of 
many colors, and prettily embroidered 
bodice with elaborate sleeves. They do 
their hair in multitudinous long plaits 
intertwined with necklaces of coins and 
beads, often of much value, while 
others are strung round their necks. 
The married women wear a kerchief 
on their heads. 

"I saw more pretty girls here than 
at Belgrade, and they seemed anything 
but dull; in fact, they were having a 
mighty fine time coquetting and flirt- 
ing with the town and country men al- 
ternately. . . . 


This town, thirty-six miles north of Bucharest, formerly carried on a flourishing trade in wool 
and petroleum, but is now menaced by the German forces 

live goose up by the legs. She 
must have had muscles of iron, for 
during the best part of an hour she 
held it in this position — poor 
goose !" 

Commenting on an institution in 
Sofia maintained by one Mahoney, 
an Irish gentleman, for the relief 
of destitute Macedonian boys, the 
author says: 

"Some ghastly stories were told 
us by Mr. Mahoney of the terrible 
sufferings and crimes these boys 
had witnessed, and how in many 
cases they had themselves been the 
victims. One little lad was caught 
by some soldiers while guarding 
his sheep, and being unable to give 
them the information they wanted, 
had his skull smashed and his 
throat cut from ear to ear. They 
roughly buried him to hide the 
traces of their brutal crime. Short- 
ly afterwards a shepherd and his 



Mostar belongs at present to Austria, but in appearance and characteristics shows strongly the traces of her former Turkish 
masters, while the people are of Serbian extraction and are at this time naturally eager for union with Serbia 

"The big market square was crammed 

with people and animals. Such an amusing, lively scene ! Such chaffing dog were attracted to the spot by some moans and dug him out, to 
and laughing that I longed to know what the jokes were. All kinds find him still alive. Careful nursing saved his life, and he is now an 
of vegetables, dried fruits, ponies, oxen, pigs and poultry were being inmate of the Home. Another boy saw his parents crucified to the walls 
sold and bought. One picturesque old lady was holding an enormous of their cottage and the place then set on fire and burnt to the ground. 

That such ghastly crimes can be ac- 
complished and go unpunished seems 
impossible, but it is, unhappily, too true, 
and poor Macedonia still remains the 
bull-ring of Southeastern Europe." 

Most timely of all the divisions of 
the book is that which deals with Rou- 
mania. It begins by contrasting the 
slow, laconic Bulgar with the vivacious, 
alert Roumanian. "Arriving at Bu- 
charest, the station was packed with a 
gay throng of curious loiterers watch- 
ing the arrivals or speeding the depar- 
tures. Many rendezvous seemed to 
have been arranged here for this hour, 
for it was late afternoon, when all 
Bucharest turns out, and the Rouman- 
ian has a keen flair for romantic ad- 
venture, and much flirtatious interest 
seemed to be directed at the women 
passengers and passers-by. 

"At the barrier a lively group of 

peasants had collected, many of them 

graceful and with dark laughing eyes. 

A STREET SCENE IN SARAJEVO They greeted one clamorously, offering 

The streets of the Bosnian city In which the European struggle was begun are full of life and color, particularly on Wednes- their Aowers, fruit, cake or embroidery 

days, when the peasants from the country come in to market for Sale. 


the number of shrubs, trees and 
gardens that are planted round the 
houses and palaces is one of the 
pleasantest features of the city. 

"In building", women are greatly 
employed, and though I've seen 
women in various countries do 
heavy field, farm or mine work, 
and also coal 9hips, it was the first 
time I had seen them employed as 
builders. They are all gypsies, and 
it is curious to see the sturdy types, 
with their short, rough skirts well 
tucked up, showing their muscular 
brown legs, clambering up the lad- 
ders or scaffolding with pails of 
cement or loads of brick or stone 
on their backs. 

"We were standing watching 
them one morning when a jolly- 
faced, rotund girl about twenty 
started climbing a ladder, luckily 
with only a trowel and some rope 
in her hand, for she slipped half- 
way up and fell to the ground a 
tumbled mass. We ran forward, 
but she laughingly picked herself 
up, disclaiming any injury, and, 
shaking herself like a dog after a 
bath, began twisting her garments 
into shape again, for they seemed 
to have been far more dislocated 
than she was." 

"Bucharest is pre-eminently a 
modern city, and possesses few 
buildings of any antiquity or his- 
torical interest. Here and there 
one catches a glimpse of some old 
gateway, house or church that lias 
successfully withstood the on- 
slaught of the up-to-date architect 
and builder, but the general im- 
pression is that of a bright, amus- 
ing-, noisy modern city." 

occupants from theater or opera, to ball and reception, while a steady Of rural Roumania the book speaks in no less interesting fashion, 

stream wends its way to supper at Capsa's or Enescu's. In fact, in its "The Roumanian people, on the other hand, are of Latin origin, with 
midnight vivacity this city is no mean rival to Paris or London. ... a well-defined aristocracy, and class distinctions prevail in that country 

"The town is laid out for the most part in fine boulevards, after the to an extent unknown in the others; the great bulk of the nation, how- 
French style, the principal one being the Calea Victoriei, which runs the ever, is composed of peasantry, who are shepherds and agriculturists 
whole length of the town, from the Dimbovitza Quay to the Chaussee or like those in the neighboring States. Their lives are simple, hard, a 
park. All the best shops, restaurants, the Government buildings, Palace daily toil that gives but scant return. Inured to fatigue and a diet that 
and theater, are in this thoroughfare, and its moving throng of car- is Spartan in its meagerness, they are, notwithstanding this, a hardy 
nages and streams of • -i j « 

virile race, endowed 

with fine qualities of 
resistance and persist- 

"Their distractions 
are few, and unremit- 
ting toil is the usual 
sum of their days. In 
the evenings the men 
meet round the inn door 
to discuss their simple 
interests — the women, 
spinning, gather their 
children round the 
hearth and gossip or 
relate some of the won- 
derful stories or leg- 
ends which so abound 
in Roumania. On fete 
days they join hands in 
an enormous circle and 
in their vivid white 
garments and embroid- 
eries dance the 'hora': 
but after their brief 
day of fete and idleness 
(Continued on page 3) 


•The 'nuts,' or youths of the city, 
were here too in great evidence: 
boj s of eighteen, slender and eager- 
looking, swishing their canes, a 
cigarette at their lips and with rov- 
ing eyes seeking the faces hither 
and thither. . . . 

"Bucuresci, as it is called among 
its inhabitants, means 'City of Joy,' 
and, indeed, it amply justifies its 
title, for it is one of the gayest 
and brightest capitals to be found 
anywhere. The principal streets 
are broad, well-paved and lined 
with gay shops, displaying all the 
latest Paris fashions. Brilliantly 
decorated cafes, purveyors of 
every kind of table delicacy, tempt- 
ing confectionery, and fine book 
and picture shops lure the passer- 
by to spend, spend, spend ! And, 
indeed, one needs to have a good 
fat purse here, for it is one of the 
most expensive of cities, and 
money trickles through one's fin- 
gers like water. Everything, ex- 
cept, perhaps, cabs, is exorbitantly 
dear, and the people, gay and 
cheerful, seem to pass their days 
and half their nights in enjoying 
life to the utmost. It was a great 
contrast to the other cities we had 
just been visiting — Vienna, Bel- 
grade, Sofia and Constantinople — 
where little out-of-door night rev- 
elry is held; the streets are quiet 
and deserted by ten, and all seems 

"In Bucharest the streets are 
nearly as lively at night as in the 
daytime. The cafes, ablaze with 
gleaming lights, are crowded; cabs 
and carriages rattle through the 
streets, carrying brilliantly dressed 


In the center foreground is a fountain, while behind stands a typical Mohammedan 
mosque. Sarajevo is a well-favored city, with a general air of sunlight and 


well-dressed people pre- 
sent at all hours a lively 
scene. The Varol L, 
Calea Elizabeth and 
Strada Lipsicani are also 
fine streets, and it is in 
these that the wealthy 
Roumanian princes and 
aristocrats have built un- 
to themselves magnificent 
palaces and town abodes 
of every style and de- 
scription. They look 
very ornate, made of 
white or gray stone, their 
stately faqades orna- 
mented with good chisel 
work, and with broad 
carriage drives and elab- 
orate black and gold rail- 
ings in front. 

'The interiors are fur- 
nished with luxury, while 
many of them have 
charming gardens sur- 
rounding them. In fact. 


A group of country boys who have commandeered the farm wagon to drive into town to attend the races. 

t-xcept for the fez, they are not unlike the sturdy peasant boys of western Europe 


4 1 
















GEN. A. W. GREELY, U. S. A. 



Contributions forjThis Department 

ANY member of the Travel Club of 
America who has a real message for 
other members of the Club may deliver it 
through this page. In past issues we have 
printed an occasional letter describing an 
especially interesting itinerary, but members 
have not seemed to feel that their opinions are 
welcome on matters of general interest to trav- 
elers. We hope to receive more letters that we 
can publish. 

It would be of interest, for example, to know 
where members are planning to go when the 
cessation of the war lifts the embargo on 
European travel ; whether travel will be chiefly 
a matter of curiosity to see the destruction that 
has been wrought, or the desire to revisit the 
well-loved places that have not resounded to 
the roar of guns and the tramp of armed men. 

We should like to hear the experiences of 
members who believe they have something- 
unique to relate — information that will add to 
the sum total of travel knowledge and enjoy- 
ment. Comparisons of foreign travel customs 
with those which obtain in our own country are 
always interesting if based on a first-hand 
knowledge of both. Co-operation on the part 
of members will make this page more helpful 
than formerly. Won't you do your part ? 

After- War Travel 

According to a consular report, France is 
preparing actively to receive an unprecedented 
number of tourists at the close of the present 
war. Various new organizations are devoting 
themselves to the task of improving hotels and 
railway facilities, of advertising French health 
resorts, of bettering the innumerable agencies 
designed to attract, foreign visitors and to 
satisfy their demands in such a manner that 
they may acquire the habit of visiting France 
in large numbers. 

Perhaps the most interesting of the new 
offices is the Office National du Tourisme, en- 
larged and reorganized, which recently held its 
first meeting at the Ministry of Public Works. 
At this meeting were represented, under the di- 
rection of the Minister of Public Works, the 
Etats Generaux du Tourisme, the Touring 
Club of France, the Alpine Club, the Auto- 
mobile Club, the General Automobile Society, 
local promoting organizations, and organiza- 
tions of hotel owners and managers. A former 
minister of public works and of agriculture 
has been made president of the adminisrative 
council of the new organization, which pro- 
poses to set to work immediately upon the 
tasks confronting it. It is not unlikely that 
the government of France will exercise super- 
vision over the whole subject and may sanc- 
tion the imposition of "cure" taxes and "so- 
journ" or visitors' taxes. 

We have also heard that one or more com- 
panies have been organized in Germany for 
the purpose of taking personally conducted 
parties of tourists along the battle lines and 
over the scenes of the great battles that have 
been fought. It is said that they will employ 
the services of veterans of the war as guides. 

Good Roads and Their Effect 

That the construction and maintenance of 
roads is of the greatest economic value to the 
country as well as a benefit to travelers by 
motor is very well shown by the following 
editorial comment by the New York Times: 

"In the results of inquiries made by Federal 
officers who are supervising the use of $80,- 
000,000 appropriated for the improvement of 
roads there is nothing more instructive and 
interesting than the proof that road better- 
ment has greatly increased the market value of 
farm land. A careful investigation was made 
in eight representative counties, covering a 
period of five years. The record of many 
actual transactions shows that the selling 
price of farm lands within one mile of the im- 
proved roads has been largely increased, in 
one county by 194 per cent, the additions to 
value being from two to three times the cost of 
the road work. 

"The law, which appropriates $80,000,000 
to be expended in five years, with the condi- 
tion that States spend an equal sum in carry- 
ing out an improvement program, has been in 
effect for six months. While only one State 
has met all the requirements of it, others have 
made a beginning, and all will eventually 
undertake to do their share. In several States 
delay is due to the need of new legislation. 
Careful preparation has been made by the De- 
partment of Agriculture at Washington for 
expert supervision and inspection of the im- 
provements for which $160,000,000 will be 
paid. It should be noted that the statute re- 
quires local governments to maintain the new 
roads in good condition. 

"Much excellent work on roads, as every- 
body knows, has been done by the States 
themselves. The sum expended on the nation's 
highways rose from $79,000,000 in 1904 to 
$225,000,000 in 1914, and has been about $300,- 
000,000 in the present year. Part of the cost 
has been paid with money received from auto- 
mobile licenses. But there are States where 
the expenditures have been very small and 
clearly inadequate. They will be stimulated 
by the Federal aid." 

All good Americans, and members of the 
Travel Club of America in particular, should 
give their support to the furthering of good 
roads all over the United States. It is an 
activity which goes hand in hand with the 
conservation of our forests and other natural 






American Pioneer Spirit 

In his recent annual report, Secretary of 
the Interior Franklin K. Lane directs atten- 
tion to the fact that the pioneer spirit has not 
died out in the people of this country. While 
the volume of public land has decreased until 
it is almost down to 250,000,000 acres in the 
United States, much of which is in the arid 
region, the entries of public land are increas- 
ing. (This is approximately the combined 
area of Germany and Spain.) This year nearly 
20,000,000 acres of Uncle Sam's domain were 
taken up, as against 17,000,000 each for the 
preceding two years, 16,000,000 for 1913 and 
15,000,000 for 1912. Probably in less than ten 
years there will be no public land of conse- 
quence that will be available for the home- 
steader. There will still remain, however, 
many million acres of land which can lie 
brought into rich production by the applica- 
tion of water, and no inconsiderable volume 
that can be put to the public service by being 
drained. The problem is no longer one of get- 
ting the people onto the land, but of getting 
land for people who wish it, and ways must be 
found by which land can be irrigated, either 
from the waters that flow underneath it or 
from the waters that now go to waste flowing 
to the sea. The Reclamation Service has 
already done good work in adding cultivatable 
land, and it is constantly carrying great 
projects similar to the Roosevelt Dam and the 
Elephant Butte Dam, which have opened up 
millions of acres to cultivation. 

New Discounts 

By giving prior notice of their arrival and 
stating that they are members of the Travel 
Club of America, those holding membership 
cards may secure discounts at the following 
hotels: Pine Forest Inn, Summerville, S. C, 
American plan, 10 per cent discount on total 
bill; Hotel Plaza, Havana, Cuba, European 
plan, 10 per cent discount on room rates. 

Carnival at St- Paul 

The second great Outdoor Sports Carnival 
to be held at St. Paul, Minn., will open on 
January 27 and continue until February 3. 
Besides a huge parade in which there will be 
nearly 50,000 revelers, there will be many 
pageants and snow sports of every description. 
The National Ski Tournament is to be held 
during the carnival, and for this is being built 
the largest slide ever constructed. 

Several pageants will be staged, and these 
will culminate in one monster pageant on the 
final night of the carnival. One thousand per- 
ssons will participate in this, the most brilliant 
known in the history of such events in this 





The accessories illustrated and described on this page ma)} be purchased either direct 
from the shops mentioned or through this department To travel comfortably ,s to 
travel efficiently. It is our aim to help, and B>e shall be glad to advise regarding both 
rearing apparel and accessories for your next trip, without charge. 

B ^ r The Efficient Traveler, 

31 East Mth St., New York- 

A handsome traveling set for 
men consists of collar pouch 
with stiff base and sides and 
outside pocket for buttons, a 
roomy tie case 14 x 5 inches, 
and a case for handkerchiefs. 
The set is made in gray, tan or 
black-grained India sheepskin, 
with moire silk lining and sells 
for $9 

This practical suitcase 
"men" is one of the 
American Thermos Bottle 
Company's designs, which 
provide for the carrying 
of hot or cold foods as 
well as drinks. A motor 
restaurant like this, 
equipped for six, costs 
$45; for four, $35 

With fur binding, white- 
quilted lining and leather 
sole, this carriage boot is 
sold for $5. With rubber 
sole, $6 

This type of semi-season travel or sport hat is made of 
velour, with telescope crown and soft satin bow. The 
flexible brim is bound with grosgrain ribbon of self shade. 
Price $18 

The "Boston" bag can now be pur- 
chased in fine black and russet 
leathers in several sizes. The fifteen- 
inch one pictured is of the best 
black cowhide for $7.50. The 
pipe case is pigskin, with rubber- 
lined tobacco section, and costs $6, 
including an excellent pipe. The 
jewelry case of black grain leather, 
8[/2 x 6 x 2% inches, with tray for 
small pieces, is priced at $1 1 

Women's felt shoes are practical 
as well as comfortable for house 
and motor wear. The one shown 
sells at $2. Made on straight last, 
with all-felt sole and heel, felt- 
lined, by Daniel Green Felt Shoe 




THE King of Silverado relates how in a "dry and songless land." 
in a "nook of the mountain, sacred only to the Indian and the 
bear," he found himself reciting French poetry and thinking of the "red- 
breasts and the brooks of Europe . . . brave old names and wars, strong 
cities, cymbals, and bright armor." And forthwith he was moved to 
observe : "This is still the strangest thing in all man's traveling, that he 
should carry about with him incongruous memories. There is no foreign 
land; it is the traveler that is foreign, and now and again, by a flash 
of recollection, lights up the contrasts of the earth." 

In this instance the source of the stimulation to memory appears to 
have been half a tumblerful of American cocktail. It pains The Ram- 
bler to relate this, particularly of R. L. S., the Well Beloved. Not that 
we care to take sides to-night upon the prohibition question, but because 
it would have been more appropriate to the theme of our paper if the 
stimulation to the author's mind had come from fragrance of the Cali- 
fornia woods 
that in a "flash 
of recollection" 
brought back the 
days of his belle 
jeunesse when he 
idled in the For- 
est of Fontaine- 

For what is so 
potent as a scent 
to conjure up, at 
a flash, incongru- 
ous memories of 
travel? The 
Rambler was 
picking his way 
one rainy after- 
noon through a 
crowded tene- 
ment street of 
New York's East 
Side. Suddenly 
the pungent odor 
of a wood fire 
flung back a cur- 
tain of his mem- 
ory. In a flash, 
even before he 
caught sight of 
the street bonfire 
just around the 
corner or the 
huddle of ragged 

children about it, he was a boy again, camping beside Indian Creek — 
2,000 miles and twenty years remote ! The crayfish which he and the 
Best of Pals had caught in the early morning with homemade dip nets 
and a dime's worth of dog meat for bait, were cooking over a camp 
fire in a tin pail. They were now attaining the epicurean crimson of 
boiled lobsters. The Best of Pals was sawing at a loaf of bread with 
a rusty jackknife. The Rambler was roasting two apples on a forked 
stick. A spring rain dripped from the budding trees — yes, it was just 
such a day as this. In the tenement street The Rambler even caught the 
odor of his roast apples. They were being vended from a pushcart ! 

No traveler will be surprised at this experience, sudden, vivid, incon- 
gruous, for odors play such tricks upon us often. In a skylight studio 
in Bohemia, amid the chatter of an "artist's tea," you settle yourself 
upon a divan. Suddenly the aroma of a pillow of pine needles whisks 
you away on a magic carpet to the solemn forests of Maine. In Alaska 
the fetid air in the bottom of a mine turns you suddenly homesick for 
the subway — and the bright lights of New York. In Paris you saunter 
past a perfume shop. At the doorway a fragrance like apple blossoms. 
Presto! — the orchards are in bloom in Michigan; your life is at the 
morning, and as you trudge down a country lane you guiltily scribble 
some verses in a pocket notebook. 

Our friend the Scientist declares that from the physiological or from 
the chemical point of view fragrance rarely is of much importance. 
The chief benefit we get from country air, the Scientist says, comes from 
psychological factors — stimulating conditions under which the country 
air is breathed. "Viz. : The earth and the sea and the sky, the foliage, 
the sweet scented breeze, the living things, and the wealth of influences 

(C) E. Muller 

"The flavor of the forests, of the sage brush deserts, of the heather-clad hills 

seas lies in their fragrance" 

that find a response in nerve centers that, perhaps, have inherited memo- 
ries of days in the open in long-past ages when man was an outdoor 

Very well, then, since we know no way to dispute the evidence of the 
laboratories, we will set down the influence of odors to the account of 
"nerve cell memories" and "psychic factors." When the girl who used 
to live in Texas pours water over some dried sage leaves in the process 
of getting up a turkey dinner, and the acrid scent of the sage whisks 
her back to the Rio Grande from a little flat in Harlem, it's all a matter 
of nerve cell memories. But, none the less, in its swiftness and vivid- 
ness and incongruity it is one of life's eternal mysteries ! 

In the northern Rockies The Rambler raised the window beside his 
Pullman berth. (This was a new car and it can be done when they are 
new enough !) In rushed a flood of sparkling cool air, and by a flash of 
recollection transported him across the continent and the width of the 

Atlantic to Chris- 
tiania and the 
From Alberta to 
a fjord in Nor- 
way at one 
breath. There is 
a touch of mys- 
tery for you ! 

How flat and 
tasteless the pine 
woods would be 
without an aro- 
ma ! How much 
of the romantic 
interest of China- 
town would van- 
ish if the smoke 
of punk sticks 
and incense were 
lacking ! The 
flavor of the for- 
ests, of the sage- 
brush deserts, of 
the heather -clad 
hills, of the smil- 
ing meadows and 
of the seven seas 
lies in their fra- 

It follows that 
the traveler who 
has no appetite 
for fragrances 
loses as much enjoyment from "the contrasts of the earth" as does the 
unfortunate who is color-blind. Medieval castles will seem less roman- 
tically venerable to the man who cannot detect their flavor of mustiness, 
just as Coney Island would lose half of its New World garishness were 
it robbed of its stimulating potpourri of odors — the tang of sea air mixed 
with buttered popcorn, "hot dogs," cigarette smoke and sauerkraut. 

The artists who can describe foreign places with the greatest zest are 
never apathetic to fragrances. They have a lust of the nostril as well 
as of the eye. Pater was one of these. He seemed to be able to see 
fragrance : "The perfume of the little flowers of the lime tree fell 
through the air upon them like rain." He was the author, too, of this, 
one of the most exquisite passages in English literature : "It was pleasant 
to sleep as if in the sea's arms, amid the low murmurs, the salt odor 
mingled with the wild garden scents of a little inn or farm, forlorn in 
the wide enclosure of an ancient manor, deserted as the sea encroached 
— long ago, for the fig trees in the riven walls were tough and old." 
How much that passage would lose in vividness and charm if the writer 
had been stolid to the stimulus of odors ! 

Science has not gone half far enough in its attempt to fathom the 
psychic mysteries of fragrance. We can learn more about these matters 
from the poets than from chemists and physiologists. In the twilight 
of an October day we are strolling down an avenue where autumn leaves 
are burning. Something deep in our hearts will stir at the fragrance of 
that bonfire— dear memories of golden days, reviving in a flash, will 
kindle hopes and longings. Why? What does the smoke of autumn 
leaves have to do with success in life ? 

Charles Phelps Cushing. 

of the smiling meadows and of the seven 

T R A V E L 


George Mathewson 

Descendants of the people who first laid out the Trail 


auto stop* to pose 

its picture 

7m writing to advertisers. 

THE land that once echoed to the blood-curdling war cries of the 
most belligerent of all the Indian tribes has been tamed. Tour- 
ists in motors are now following the road that was built where the 
Apache Trail wound its way through the mountainous country between 
Globe and Phoenix, Ariz. They are reveling in 120 miles of mountain 
and desert vibrant with color, peopled with the ghosts of past civiliza- 
tions, and filled with the tingling romance of the great Southwest. The 
pageantry of the past is one with the wonders of the present, and no- 
where else in the United States is a region where the imagination is so 
stimulated and the sense of sight more fully gratified. 

Only a few miles out of Globe, a great center for the huge smelters 
of the copper industry, the road leads into the mountains. Then follows 
a thrilling ride through a country of marvelous contrasts, with the purr- 
ing motor all the while climbing to the great divide that separates the 
Tonto and Salt River basins. As its crest is reached, the grandeur of 
the scene grips one with a thrill of awe. From its lofty height Roose- 
velt Lake is seen in the distance shimmering like a bowl of brilliants 
scooped out of the frowning rocks. The blue hills beyond are shot with. 
shafts of crimson and azure and gold. The great vista of mountain 
canon and ravine stretches far into the distance. It is such a setting 
as might be laid for a gorgeous Byzantine pageant. 

Six miles from the Lake the Trail begins a rapid descent. Soon the 
crannied rocks, high above the road, disclose the ancient homes of the 
cliff dwellers, whose ruins are as distinctive of early American civili- 
zation as the Pyramids are of Egypt. 

Judging from the amount of material scattered about and the char- 
acter of the structures still standing, the village where the cliff dwellers 
lived their community life was originally made of about sixty rooms. 
Of this number there are twenty still preserved wholly or in part. The 
ceiling of one of the inner rooms is perfectly preserved. The central 
girder, a cottonwood log nine inches in diameter and ten feet long, is 
supported by a stout post planted in the middle of the room. Three-inch 
poles bridge the six-foot gaps between the girder and the walls at either 
end of the room, and the poles are in turn crossed by small sticks closely 
fitted together. Upon these sticks rests a course of rock, and the ceiling, 
which is at the same time the floor of the room above, is finished with a 
layer of earth. But there is nothing gruesome in these reminders of a 
far past, for they all suggest a humanity that is ever young and ever 
interesting; and so brilliant is the sunshine and so buoyant the air in 
this land of prehistoric ruins that you would have been glad to come 
for these if for nothing else. 

No longer can the libel that America offers no age-old lure for trav- 
elers be perpetrated. Here are archeological remains that antedate the 
Roman ruins in Europe and are perhaps contemporaneous with the early 
civilization of Egypt. The inhabitants of these ruins were a highly civi- 
lized people, too, for their writings are found on the rocks just as the 
hieroglyphics of the Egyptians are found. And traces of ancient irri- 
gation canals were still to be seen along the Salt River before the great 
Roosevelt Dam was built and the resulting Salt River reservoir obliter- 
ated them. 

After dwelling in the remote past among the cliff dwellings, the tre- 
mendous contrast offered by the great Roosevelt Dam is felt with pecul- 
iar force. Within a few miles are spanned centuries of civilization. 
Within a few years the desert for 360 square miles around, thirsty since 
the days when Adam and Eve walked the earth, has been watered and 
cultivated through the beneficent agency of this colossal work of engi- 
neering. The big retaining wall that has been built across the steep 
pass is 1,125 f eet in length and 380 feet high, and it holds back an arti- 
ficial lake 25 square miles in area. This great pile of masonry is no less 
wonderful in its way than the archeological remains we passed a short 
distance back. It holds almost as much significance as the annual in- 
undation of the Nile Valley in far-away Egypt, for it means that man's 
genius and foresight are providing for the sustenance of future genera- 
tions. And it is no less interesting for its picturesque features, including 
the two magnificent spillways at either side of the Dam— cataracts that 
compare favorably with the American Falls at Niagara. 

We Americans are prone to extol only the "high spots" in our coun- 
try, but if you who are going to motor over the Apache Trail think that 
all the charm of the trip is in its "sights" — well, you are very much mis- 
taken. For you will have the magic of the big, free West coursing 
through your veins, the music of the desert breeze in your ears, and the 
wine of the Arizona atmosphere in your nostrils. I can't translate these 
into words. They are too subtle— like the coloring of the desert— to 
speak of other than in suggestion. You must read them in the original. 

Lunch comes at Roosevelt Dam, and then you get back into the motor 

please mention Travel 

FEBRUARY , 1917 

4 5 

Every scene in this marvelous and beautiful country is the production of a Master Artist's all-skillful hand 

car for the ride to Phoenix. Through Fish Creek Canon the ride is a 
thrilling one, for the road has been chiseled out of the face of a steep 
cliff, and there are some awesome moments as you look down into 
what seems the very interior of the earth. This locality is full of un- 
written history: at the mouth of Fish Creek a cave full of bones, all 
that is left of a band of Apaches who would not surrender to pursuing 
soldiers; and away to the south some cliff dwellings that have not yet 
been entered by white men. The very names hereabout give a fillip 
to the imagination : Canon Diablo, or Devil's Canon, is twice as inter- 
esting with its Spanish appellation, even though this hair-raising abyss 
is a wonder in itself, and such names as Tortilla Flats, Arrowhead, 
Superstition Mountain, and the like, are most appropriately coupled with 
fascinating Indian legends. 

Presently, after what has seemed to you too short a time, the car 
begins to pass irrigated farms — ranches, they call them here — and you 
realize that you are nearing the end of the trip. You have covered in 
an easy day one of the most notable and interesting roads in the world ; 
you have seen the oldest and the newest structures in the Western Hemi- 
sphere ; you have breathed the inspiring atmosphere of the West. Now 
you can realize that all this wonder cannot be photographed, and that 
it cannot be put into words. You have read the tale in its original form. 

The only convenient means of reaching the Apache Trail is offered 
by the Southern Pacific Lines, and through tickets over these lines in 
either direction will be honored for the trip upon payment of $15 addi- 
tional. This includes all railroad transportation and the motor-car trip 
between Globe and Phoenix. 

Through Pullman sleeping cars in connection with the "Sunset Lim- 
ited" are operated from El Paso, Tex., and Globe, Ariz., every Sunday, 
Tuesday and Friday. Globe is the eastern terminus of the Trail. The 
tourist from the East may now arrive at Globe in a through Pullman 
sleeper in time for breakfast, and immediately afterward step into a 
waiting automobile for the Apache Trail trip to Phoenix. Through daily 
Pullman service is maintained between Phoenix and Los Angeles. Simi- 
larly the traveler from the West arriving from Phoenix may enter the 
Pullman sleeper at Globe in the evening. The trip is not only wonder- 
ful, but comfortable. 

In this gash in the hillside once lived the primitive cave men 

In writing to advertisers, please mention Travel 



yin Advertisement by 
The Pullman company 

and children form a 
J/1671 large proportion of 
the passengers of the Pullman Company. The 
safety of the cars, due to their unusually sturdy 
construction; the sanitary condition in which 
they are maintained; the numerous conveniences 
which their equipment affords, and the courtesy 
of the Pullman employes are all factors contrib- 
uting to the increased comfort and enjoyment of 
railroad travel. 

In the Pullman car only a limited number of 
passengers are accommodated; there is no crowd- 
ing. Operating over practically every railroad in 
the country, it is rarely necessary for the passen- 
gers to change cars from departure to destination. 
Both of these conditions contribute to the safety 
and comfort of unescorted women and children. 

For fifty years the Pullman Company has 
directed its efforts to the determination of the 
needs of the traveling public, and the develop- 
ment of a service to meet these requirements. 
That twenty-nine per cent of Pullman conductors 
and twenty-five per cent of Pullman porters have 
been in the continuous service of the Company 
for over ten years indicates the high personnel of 
the employes by whom the service is rendered. 

The land of soft air, bright sunshine, 
tropical scenery and romantic association 
Everything to please health-seeker and tourist 

Tours at Special Rates 


^Stop-over privileges as desired) 

for tour of 
9 days 


UP Tor tour of 
23 days 

Including meals and stateroom on steamer 
Ask for Tour Literature 

The Royal Mail Steam Packet Co. 

SANDERSON & SON, General Agents 
26 Broadway, New York 230 South La Salle Street, Chicago 

Or Any Steamship Ticket Agent 


(Continued from page 20) 

gravel banks of a river, and at the 
foot of the slope two log canoes 
were moored. A heavy black bear 
skin was sunning on a rail; then 
we came upon a shed full of 
smoked salmon. The Indians of 
British Columbia have faces as 
Asiatic in type as those of the 
Japanese, and are supposed to have 
come to Canada by way of Bering 
Straits. In this part of the coun- 
try they depend largely upon fish- 
ing and hunting for a living; near 
Prince Rupert many of them work 
in the salmon canneries. 

The mercantile class in Kit- 
wanga is represented by a patri- 
arch named Charlie, who runs a 
store. This establishment is al- 
most humorously described as the 
"Kitwanga Hotel." The sleeping 
accommodations were some blan- 
kets piled in disorder in the middle 
of the floor. Three or four chests 
and trunks full of Indian goods 
and some powwows, sleds, snow- 
shoes and the like exposed to view 
were Charlie's stock in trade. A 
barbaric painting on the inside of 
a skin appeared to be his pride and 
joy, and he pointed at it repeatedly, 
making guttural noises. 

In the public square of this 
shanty town sat a large carved 
wooden dog, on a pedestal some- 
thing like a dry goods box. Two 
little Indian kiddies lounged against 
it, sucking their thumbs. I took a 
snapshot of them. Their elders 
kept prudently out of range, for it 
is well known in Kitwanga that a 
camera may steal one's shadow and 
thereby cause no end of annoyance. 

The last five hours of the jour- 
ney are spent gliding down the val- 
ley of the Skeena River to Prince 
Rupert. Another glacier; moun- 
tains and more mountains — and the 
writer can only regret that, charm- 
ing as the pictures were, he cannot 
hope to describe them. In the pres- 
ence of mountains he is singularly 
inarticulate. » 

And now comes the canon of 
Kitselas, near Usk, where many a 
steamboat has gone to wreck in the 
swift torrent. The town of Ter- 
race is appropriately named, and 
introduces a note of modernity into 
the wilds with its green gardens 
and neat new bungalows. Then a 
long panorama of mountains, with 
an ever-widening river in the fore- 
ground. Boats and salmon can- 
neries become numerous. The 
Skeena River appears to be Can- 
ada's Columbia. The air grows 
milder and damper. For the last 
sixty miles of the line the river has 
a tide and feels directly the influ- 
ence of the warm Japan current, 
the Pacific's Gulf Stream. Here 
and there a rainbow glitters against 
the mountain skyline ; one brilliant 
arc dips down to leave its pot of 
gold across the river in a village 
of white little cottages. At last we 
rumble over a heavy bridge onto 
Kaien Island, and khaki-clad sen- 
tries, bayonets set, wave us a wel- 
come to the Pacific Coast. The 
porter is busy with his whisk 
broom and his most engaging 
smile. In a few more minutes the 
geography train slows down and 
we alight at Prince Rupert. 


(Continued from page 32) 

Now to take up the matter of 
pointing the camera directly at the 
sun. The chief difficulty is that it 
seldom results in a truthful picture. 
Of course you don't attempt it ex- 
cept at sunset when the light is yel- 
low and has comparatively little 
actinic value, and even then you 
stop down your lens and give a 
very short exposure. The picture 
is therefore scarcely more than a 
portrayal of outlines and high- 
lights, and is generally taken for 
that photographic impossibility, a 
"moonlight scene." 

"One of the most difficult prob- 
lems that the tourist kodaker has to 
solve is that of getting human in- 
terest into his pictures without the 
subject's knowing that they are be- 
ing taken. Worse than the person 
who wishes to avoid it is he who, 
for some unimaginable reason, 
plants himself conspicuously in 
range of the camera. One way of 
getting rid of this pest is to go 
through the motions of taking the 
picture, walk away from the spot, 
and return as soon as the poser has 

gone. The other variety deserves 
more consideration. Carrying your 
camera unopened, it attracts no at- 
tention ; so when you have selected 
the position from which you wish 
to take the picture, if you turn and 
look in the opposite direction while 
you adjust the camera you will then 
be able to wheel about and make 
the exposure before the person be- 
ing taken is aware of it. Mr. 
Dwight Elmendorf, the travel lec- 
turer, often employs a camera with 
a dummy lens, which enables him 
to take pictures while appearing to 
photograph in the opposite direc- 
tion. The best and simplest sub- 
terfuge, however, is an uncon- 
cerned look on the countenance of 
the man with the camera. 

After having used a camera for 
twenty years, I am still in the ex- 
perimental stage, for therein lies 
the fascination of photography. I 
take a chance — sometimes a long 
one — every time it is offered, and, 
as a glance over my book of travel 
pictures will show, my course has 
been justified in the long run. 

In writing to advertisers, please mention Travel 



(Continued from page 31) 
church on the outskirts of Beau- 
fort on New Year's Eve and see 
them watch the old year out. A 
deacon is placed outside the door 
and every half hour the preacher 
consults a massive silver watch and 
calls out sonorously, '"Watchman, 
what ob de night?" and the 
watcher responds solemnly, "All is 
well, my brudder, all is well." 

This New Year's service begins 
at about half-past eight o'clock and 
is conducted by the preacher, a 
man chosen not so much for his 
education as for a certain magnetic 
quality possessed by him which 
works on the feelings of his people, 
raising them to the extreme pitch 
of religious ecstasy. 

He starts to exhort, the prom- 
ises and response of "Yes, Lord," 
"Yes, my Marster," "Praise God," 
accompanied by clasps of the hand, 
grows louder and louder until one 
swarthy black man, unable to stand 
his salvation any longer, leaps 
upon the floor and begins to move 
slowly with an undulating shuffle 
which gradually grows faster and 
faster, crooning to himself a "spir- 

"As I went down in the valley to 

I met ole Satan by the way, 
And wot yo' tink ole Satan say, 
Youse too young to die — an' too 

young to pray. 

"Ole Satan like a snake in de grass, 
Ef yo' don' min' out, he'll git yo' at 

We'll build a tent on his' camp 

An' help to pull ole Satan down." 

Louder and louder grows the 
spiritual, faster and faster come 
the shouts, as with cries of exalta- 
tion, one by one', the congregation 
spring upon the floor, until it is 
covered with writhing, twisting 
bodies. The excitement becomes 
more and more tense and the at- 
mosphere is electric as the revelers 
dance faster and faster, swaying 
their bodies in perfect unison to 
the rhythm of the sound. The first 
faint fingers of dawn show, and 
one by one they drop exhausted to 
the floor, sinking into a sleep of 
utter exhaustion. 

One of the quaint superstitions 

of these Sea Island negroes is a 

fear of being married while the 

linute hand of the clock is going 

lown or the tide is going out. 

ley thing it bodes bad luck and, 
strange as it may seem, it is re- 
corded that every death that occurs 
imong them takes place when the 
tide is at its ebb. 

The trip back to Savannah shows 
the islands as night draws on and 
the moon rises and bathes them in 

silvery light, which transforms 
the old plantation houses into sem- 
blance of their former grandeur. 
On the further shore lies Beaufort 
like a city of dreams, and one is 
reminded of the ancient lesrend still 
whispered among the natives that 
these were originally the Isles of 
the Blest, since Christ's crucifixion 
the abode of human beings. 


A Road in the 

Berkshire Hills, Massachusetts 

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By its performance in everyday service it 
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the quality tire of America. Which quality 
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Goodyear Cord Tires come in No-Hook and 
Q.D. Clincher types, in both All-Weather and 
Ribbed treads, for gasoline and electric cars 

The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Akron, Ohio 


Are you a cog in the wheel of circumstance ? Then here is 
an opportunity to show the real stuff that is in you. 

Edward Earie Purinton's two remarkable books on personal efficiency "EFFICIENT 
LIVING" and "THE TRIUMPH OF THE MAN WHO ACTS" have put many a man 
oh the high road to success and why not you ? 

A prominent business man has said: "If I were rich I would distribute one million 
copies of 'Efficient Living' among the million Americans who, I think, need the sound 
advice and wisdom it contains." 

Buy a copy of these books today. $1.35 each, in cloth, or the two in leather, boxed, for 
$3.50 net. 


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In writing to advertisers, please mention Travel, 


-to health and happiness from 
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games. Efficient Service. Write for literature to: 



: ' .-••., >GR* 

: <C* 







We Discover the Old Dominion. 
By Louise Closser Hale. 8vo. 
Pp. 374. With frequent illus- 
trations and an entertaining 
map by Walter Hale. New 
York: Dodd, Mead & Co. 
$2.50 net. 

YXT ALTER had the toothache at 
W Easton and a Virginia 
hotel — its name and location must 
remain forever a hideous secret — 
refused to "take in" their dog. 
Otherwise they had a lovely time 
in their little car — was it really one 
of those Detroit creations that is 
born two to the minute? They 
drove from New York down 
through Bethlehem and Reading 
and Lancaster to Gettysburg, 
where they saw the great battle- 
field. From Gettysburg they went 
to the Old Dominion, entering its 
picturesque Harpers Ferry gate- 
way and following down the Val- 
ley of Virginia with side-stops at 
those two ancient and delightful 
watering places, the Hot Springs 
and the White Sulphur. They 
touched the sea at Norfolk and the 
expedition was almost ended by 
that unspeakable bog at Occuquan. 
All of which is related by Mrs. 
Hale in easy narrative fashion, 
with plenty of local color for side 

Mr. Hale's drawings are delight- 
ful. We wonder, nevertheless, 
however lie could have passed by 
that lovely little Mennonite maid 
who "keeps the toll-gate" out of 
Lancaster without bringing her 
into the pages of his book. Mrs. 
Hale bespeaks her regret at not 
seeing the University of Virginia. 
But we also wonder why they gave 
no attention to the exquisite Wash- 
ington and Lee University at Lex- 
ington. It is vastly more interest- 
ing than the rear of Dr. White's 
house. — E. H. 

In writing to (dvertisers, please mention Travi 

Winter Journeys in the South. 
By John Martin Hammond. 
Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott 
Illustrated. Pp. 260. $3.50 

Hp HE title page further describes 
-*■ this volume as "pen and 
camera impressions of men, man- 
ners, and women and things all the 
way from the blue Gulf and New 
Orleans through fashionable Flor- 
ida palms to the pines of Vir- 
ginia." Although the author de- 
nies that his work is a guide-book, 
one cannot help feeling that it is 
essentially just that on a rather 
pretentious scale. There is a vast 
fund of information in these pages 
and the reader is cognizant of the 
diligence and industry of the au- 
thor in collecting and compiling it. 
But there are also many lighter 
touches of wit and colloquialism 
which combine to make a highly 
readable book. It is not, we feel, 
a book for the prospective visitor, 
but one for the traveler who likes 
to recall the zest and flavor of the 
South and at the same time inform 
himself somewhat as to its con- 



The World's Greatest 

Ice Skating Stars 
Ice Ballet Extravaganza 
and Midnight Parade 


Elsie, Paulsen, Naess, Bapti, Gladys 
Lamb, Freda Trilling, Jolson, Mile. Santi 
Rita Salnoni, Ricardo, Francis, Petro- 
grad Opera Company and Chorus of 50. 


"I keenly enjoy travel- 
ing—especially on the 
'Golden State Limited. 999 

"Whoever was responsible for the 
building of this beautiful train under- 
stood not only the needs of the trav- 
eler, but better still, he understood 
human nature. 

"This is evidenced by the unusual 
service provided and the many un- 
looked for comforts arid conveniences." 

The above is just one expression of 
many commending our superior 
service to California. When you go 
west avail yourself of the splendid daily 
service provided on the superb trains— 

The Military 
at El Paso 
and West 
provide a 
every loyal 
should see. 

permit ten day 
stopover at 
El Paso. 

" Golden State Limited 




11 Calif ornian" 

Rock Island— El Paso-Southwestern— Southern Pacific 

via the Golden State Route — direct line of low- 
est altitudes and most comfortable and interest- 
ing route to Southern California. 

Less than three days from Chicago — 
St. Louis to Los Angeles—no extra fare. 

Tickets, reservations and California literature 
on request at any Rock Island Travel Bureau, 
or address 

L. M. ALLEN, Passenger Traffic Manager 


Room 721, La Salle Station 

Chicago, III. 



Sufferers with Tuberculosis will find 
Relief and Cure in this High Alti- 
tude and Low Humidity, provided 
they have the means to secure the 
proper accommodations. 


Boarding Houses 
Ranch Homes 

Albuquerque, N. Mex. 

New Mexico is a Wonder-Land of 
Beautiful Scenery, Hunting and 
Fishing Grounds that have scarcely 
been touched! There are New 
Delights for the Tourist in Ex- 
ploring Our Old Cave Dwellings 
and Ruined Pueblos. Summer 
Climate Ideal. Write 

Albuquerque, New Mexico 
Chamber of Commerce 




White Sulphur Springs 









Sulphur Water, Nauheim and all prin- 
cipal baths of European Health Resorts 
are given in the Bath House by 
sftilled attendants. 


1 It ^ 

r ~WU&M 




s * 




REMEMBER— Turkish tobacco is the world's nmst 
famous tobacco for cigarette s. 

Judge for yourself —compare MuracT 
with any 25 Cent Cigarette 


} * Makers of the Highest Grade Turkish 
and Egyptian Cigarettes in the wc-ld 

A CuT&urotion 

Remarkable Photographic Studies of 

Wild Life in the Yellowstone 

Buenos Aires, the City De Luxe ^ 

and Other— Noteworthy Features 

■ " : '. ~ ":■,_ 


3 r, tit xi m n — ,txx — jt — m — n — xxx__xx. 

~r r7"XZ J— :.xx...:.:xn nr tit t:tx~ " m it — lh. 


ttt " ' i r r t t t i itt rrTTr-— rr — rrr rr 

i * i ill" 

Tf— Ttr 



. ) 

ssl .roty^^* 

Memories of an Old Musician 

^HE memories that music brings — all the poignant 

■*- beauty, majestic grandeur and soul-thrilling 

splendor of the immortal music that, once heard, 

haunts memory's chambers forever, is echoed in the 

tone of Columbia Records. 

The voice of Barrientos, Lazaro, Sembach, Nielsen or other world-famed 
artist; the playing of Ysaye, Casals, Hofmann, Parlow; the triumphs of the 
Chicago Symphony Orchestra — all glow with life on Columbia Records. 

You will be thrilled again by the glorious symphonies, immortal arias 
and supreme conceptions of the world's eternal Masters of Music if your 
home is enriched by the precious possession of the records that wake 
memories to life. "Hearing is believing." 

New Columbia Records on sale 
the 20th of every month 

Columbia Grafonolas $1$ to $350 
Prices in Canada plus duty 


M ARCH, 1917 


Automobile Service 
Supplants Coaches In 


National Park 

THE new motor touring service of Yellow- 
stone National Park will give added de- 
light to your trip through this wonderland. 

These splendid cars will convey you quickly and safely to the petrified 
forests, the boiling springs, the spouting geysers, and all the matchless 
works of nature. Deer, elk and bear are all about, and there is trout 
in every lake and stream. Park season, June 20th to Sept. 15th. 

Estes- Rocky Mountain National Park 

THE joy of your vacation journey can be greatly increased without 
additional fare by visiting Estes-Rocky Mountain National Park en 
route. Splendid automobile roads and enchanting mountain trails 
lead to limitless resources of amusement. Unrivaled fishing — the fascina- 
tion of mountain climbing — the inspiring forests and charming lakes will 
captivate you. These two great National Parks can be easily visited 
en route to California or the Great Pacific Northwest via the Union 
Pacific. Salt Lake City, too, is on the way. 

Beautifully illustrated booklets on Where to Go, What to See and What it Costs, are free on 
request, together with full information relative to a western trip. Just write, phone or call on 

In writing to advertisers, please mention Travel 





Two new and delightful tours leav- 
ing the East April 4 and 18, and tra- 
veling exclusively by automobile- 
from Riverside to San Francisco 
via San Diego, Pasadena, Santa 
Barbara, Paso Robles and Del 
Monte. Including also Yosemite 
National Park and Colorado, with 
extensions to Honolulu — at its best 
during the Spring months. 

The confidence that no disturbing in- 
cident will mar the pleasure of your trip 
makes travel on a Raymond- Whitcomb 
Tour an ideal vacation and rest. 
Alto Tours to Alaska, South America, 
Japan and South Sea Islands and 

Send for booklet desired 


Depl. II 17 Temple PI.. Boston 

1st Tork Philadelphia Chicago Los Angeles 



Beit location and equipment on the Islands. Modem 

ffipointments throughout Including grill room and 
td swimming pool. Accommodates 400 guests 

Climate mild but Invigorating. Driving, saddle 
riding, tennis, golf, yachting and sea bathing. 


s»< TY De Luxe Tours 



Mar. 20 S.S. Korea Mara, 18,000 tons 

April 3. S.S. Siberia Mara, 18,000 tons 

and weekly 



J gast 

A quiet, luxurious 
Residential Hotel, 
affording the Ex- 
clusireness and 
Elegance of a pri- 
vate Residence. 
JV. y. Opposite the Met- 

J •QPoUtan Club and toe 5th Ave. Entrance 
to Central Park. Apartments, single of 
en suite, for long or short periods. 


■ ■• Sura, New Zealand Australia 
Regular Sailings by the 


For further particulars apply Can. Pacifio Ry., 
1231 Broadway, N. Y., or to Can. Aust. Royal Mail 
Line, 440 Seymour St , Vancouver, B. C. 


I M Go there nowl Voyage is delightful via 
Honolulu and Samoa, Splendid 10,000 ton, 
twin screw American steamers every 21 days 
from San Francisco (Mar. 13, Apr. 3, Apr. 34, 
May IS). Return first class, $337.50; 2nd class, 
S225; including China and Japan, 1st class, $575( 
to Honolulu, $65. Folders free. 

H. E. BURNETT, 17 Battery Place, New 
^■a York, or 669 Market Street, San 





ifiifrl £H. Ottjarfca 

8 M 


Along ocean front, with a superb view 
of strand and famous Boardwalk, the 
St. Charles occupies an unique 
position among resort hotels. It has 
an enviable reputation for cuisine and 
unobtrusive service. 12 stories of 
solid comfort (fireproof) ; ocean porch 
and sun parlors; sea waters in all 
baths; orchestra of soloists. Week- 
end dances. Golf privileges. 

Booklet mailed 



Special Cruise 

Under the American Flag 

A Few Good Rooms 

ere still to be had on our second and 
last 24 day cruise of the season. 

Sailing March 10 

Visiting Cuba, Jamaica, 
Panama, Costa Rica 

Luxurious S. S. "Tenadores" 



Sail* a week after Inauguration Day 

Is gone during Lent 

Returns a week before Easter 

Act NOW as man; who tried to obtain reser- 
vations for our first cruise were disappointed 

Write, Telephone or Wire. 


66 Broadway, New York 

Philadelphia Boston Albany 

Cleveland Detroit St. Louis 

Chicago San Francisco 

Hotel Palmer 


A Modern Hotel Noted for Its Cuisine 

Newly furnished and decorated; Capacity 150: 
Elevator; Running Water; Private Bathe; All 
outdoor sports. Booklet "T." Telephone 365. 
T. T. Dolbey, Manager, formerly Hotel Glad- 
stone, Narragansett Pier. 



Sufferers with Tuberculosis will find 
Relief and Cure in this High Alti- 
tude and Low Humidity, provided 
they have the means to secure the 
proper accommodations. 


Boarding Houses 
Ranch Homes 

Albuquerque, N. Mex. 

New Mexico is a Wonder-Land of 
Beautiful Scenery, Hunting and 
Fishing Grounds that have scarcely 
been touched. There are New 
Deights for the Tourist in Ex- 
ploring Our Old Cave Dwellings 
and Ruined Pueblos. Summer 
Climate Ideal. Write Box 459, 

Albuquerque, New Mexico 
Chamber of Commerce 


White Sulphur Springs 









Sulphur Water, Nauheim and all prin- 
cipal baths of European Health Resorts 
are given in the Bath House by 
sKilled attendants. 


In writing to advertisers, please mention Travel 

MARCH , 19 17 

Hotels Selected 




The Travel Club 
of America 

$or information and BooKlet 

address Secretary 
31 East 17tK Street, New YorK 


TRAYMORE <,'„<£, 

World's Greatest Hotel Success. American and 
European Plan. 

HOTEL DENNIS A ir & y u^ e ar d $5 A p p r 

Directly on ocean front with unobstructed view 
over our own lawn. Large Solarium and terraces 
adjoining Boardwalk. Walter J. Buzby. 


ANDCOTTAQES On the Beach. Near all piers 
and amusements. American plan. Orchestra, cafe, 
capacity 600. Rates on request. S. Hanstern. Prop. 


Every convenience; best moderate price hotel in 
Atlantic City. Central to all amusements; minute 
to boardwalk. Samuel A. Ellis. 


Brick hotel; American & European plan; elevator 

to street level; rooms with bath; open all year. 

H. A. Brogan, Ownership management. 


Virginia Avenue 100 rooms with hotand cold 
water; rooms en suite with bath; moderate prices; 
booklet. Monroe Hutchina. 

US South 
Pennsylvania Ave. 

Best of the smaller houses. Booklet. 


Second house from beach. Elevator to street; rooms 
with running water and private bath. Open 
throughout theyear. Booklet. Nathan L. Jones. 


300 feet from boardwalk. Modern family hotel; 
private baths; running water in rooms. Moderate 
rates; booklet. J. & K. Bothwell. 


Ownership management; first class service; Ameri- 
can plan 53 to $4. Garage on premises. 

Wm. R. Hood. 

NEW CLARION |« m nd Bo H a°r u d s w e a .k 

Kentucky Ave.; rooms with or without bath; 
elevator to street level; moderate prices; garage. 
S. K. Boniface 


Always open: private baths; excellent table; Ameri- 
can plan. $2.50 up; S14 weekly up. Booklet. 
Garage. M. Walsh Duncan. 


Second hotel from Beach 

Every appointment of the ideal hotel; fine cuisine . 
American plan S3, up G. L. Kahn 


A quiet location facing Washington Square, the 
most interesting and fascinating part of New York. 
A section rich in historic surroundings. 
Write for booklet 


Central Park at its West 72nd St. Qatewaj 
Highest class residential and tourist hotel in the 
world. Copeland Townsend, Lessee-Director 


ADcLPHIA Chestnut & 13th Sts. 

In the center of things. 406 Rooms, 400 Baths 

Moderate Tariff. 

David B. Provan, Managing Director. 


In the heart of the city, one block from Penn. R.R. 
Terminal. We feature individual attention. 
$1.50 up; with bath $2.00 up. 


Rates from $2.00 

S00 Rooms 
500 Baths 

theQuality of Foods, 
Sanitary Conditions, or 
Service in the Hotels or 
Restaurants will be ap- 
preciated by the 


31 EAST 17th STREET, N.T. 

TF you have been "Taking 'The Cure'" 
A each year at Vichy, Karlsbad or Aix, 
don't neglect it — take it at Hotel Chamber- 
lin, Old Point Comfort — the Sea-shore Spa 
of America. 

Every Bath and Treatment, just as given at 
European Spas, a magnificent Hotel, gay with pleasure 
loving people— sports and social diversions made bril- 
liant by Army and Navy participants. 

The rarest of sea-foods and the perfection of 
Southern Cooking make your visit a long remembered 
pleasure. Accessible and charming environment, yet 
far enough away from the hum of every-day life. 

For illustrated booklets, apply to Tourist Bureaus or 
Transportation Offices, or address 

GEO. F. ADAMS, MGR., Fortress Monroe, Va. 

New York Office: Bertha Ruffner Hotel Bureau, McAlpin Hotel 

An Eighteen Hole Golf Course is very convenient, with Grass Greens and an attractive Club House. 

This is owned and operated by Hotel Chamberlin. 

In writing to advertisers, please mention Travel 


Virginia Hot Springs 

WelfaAt/uI/u Choi in Summer- 

Situated 2500 feet above sea lev"el, the average summer temperature is about 74° F. Seldom is there a Hot da£. No mosquitoes, humidity or 
dampness, so customary in mountain resorts. Here is a more ideal summer climate than is to be found at Bar Harbor, Newport or the White 
Mountains. Open all the y*ear. Excellent train accommodations. Easily accessible. 

The New Homestead 

World famous for its trulv wonderful, natural healing waters (104° ) outrival- 
ing as a cu re t he celebrated spas of Europe. The most modern and complete bath 
equipment. Swedish gymnastics. Massage and Hot Air Treatments — the famous 
Spout Bain for Rheumatism, Gout and Nervous Diseases— the experienced and 
careful attendants — the physicians of international reputation unite in making the 
Homestead, unquestionably, the ideal place for rest and recuperation. 

Two beautiful sporty golf courses, always in the pink of condition, located in 
nature's own magnificent mountain setting — seven of the finest clay* Tennis 
Courts in the country — fascinating drioes — interesting trails and bridle paths — 200 
saddle and driving horses— 500 rooms — excellent cuisine — incomparable drinking 
water — attractive ballroom — perfect equipment and service, 

It would be difficult to find a more delightful spot to take a vacation than at the 
Homestead. No other resort offers so many advantages at such a reasonable price. 

The Homestead Book 

A lifelike photographic description of the Homestead and its surroundings — in 
colors. it should be read by 1 everyone looking for en ideal summer 
\ resort. Send for it now. 

~~ - _ H. ALBERT, Resident Msnager, Hot Springs, Va. 

Booking Offices: Ritz-Carlton Hotels ^~~-~ r ~-~ 

New York — Philadelphia -""Tv 

Bath House. 




For Milady's Boudoir 

QOOD taste and refinement are often expressed by details and 
accessories even more than in the general atmosphere of 
the home. 

Toilet articles oi the exquisite Ivory Py-ra-lin have become th« 
voeue through an exceptionally happy combination of utility and 

Our distinctive Du Barry design, here illustrated exemplifies style and craftsmanship in this ail-American product. 
You may see it at the better shops or in our Ivory Py-ra-lin folder 
sent on request. ' 


725 Broadway, New York. 




Wm .E. LeffingwelJ . Prea 

When Body and Brain 
Crave Rejuvenation 

you will find just what you 
seek at The American 
Nauheim — 

The Only Place in America Where 
the Nauheim Baths, So Beneficial 
to Heart Weakness, Are Given with 
a Natural Calcium Chloride Brine 

Here rest and recuperation are scientifically promoted— 
private parks with miles of accurately graded walks for 
Oertel hill climbing are available — recreations of every va' 
riety are in evidence, amid incomparable surroundings. 

Particular attention has been devoted 
to perfecting ideal conditions for taking 
"The Cure" during the Winter months 

are connected with the 
hotel. Treatments are 
particularly adapted to HEART DISEASE, Circulatory, Kid' 
ney, Nutritional and Nervous Disorders, Rheumatism, Gout 
and Obesity. 


On request, we will be pleased to send you illustrated Booklets, 
giving full information regarding rates, reservations, treatments, etc. 

In writing to advertisers, please mention Travel 



March, 1917 

Volume XXVIII Number 5 







BUENOS AIRES, THE CITY DE LUXE. Clayton Sedgwick Cooper 24 

TEXAS TWISTERS. J. K. Lamoree 31 

LIFE IN THE CANAL ZONE. Charles Francis Saunders 32 





Published monthly by Robert M. McBride & Company, Inc., Union Square North, New York City; 
Rolls House, Breams Bldgs., London, E. C, 25 cents per copy; $3.00 per year. For foreign postage, add $1.00; 
Canadian, 50 cents. Entered as second-class matter at the Post-Office at New York, under act of March 3, 1879, 
and copyrighted 1917 by Robert M. McBride & Company, Inc. 

Edward Frank Allen, Editor. 

Travel assumes no responsibility for the damage or loss of manuscripts or photographs submitted for publi- 
cation, although due care will be taken to insure their safety. Full postage should always be sent for the return 
of unavailable material. 




MARCH, 1917 





Not only was there a ski tournament at the St. Paul Carnival, but young men and women in carnival costumes and high spirits indulged in the 

sport just for the fun of it 




Edward Frank Allen 

MIX up a gymkhana at St. Moritz, Mardi Gras week in New Orleans, 
a slice of Buffalo Bill's Wild West, season with boundless enthu- 
siasm and unfailing good nature, stir vigorously, and spread on thick. 

Now for a seemingly irrelevant paragraph. 

Forty-one years ago James J. Hill, prophet and builder of the North- 
west, drove a dog-sled over the Pembina Trail from Winnipeg, Manitoba, 
to St. Paul, Minn., a distance of 522 miles. That same year a son was 
born in the Hill family, and they named him Louis. These two facts 
have a direct bearing on the St. Paul Outdoor Sports Carnival. 

Picture a city of a quarter of a million inhabitants. St. Paul has the 
usual assortment of dwellings, office buildings, shops, factories, and the 
like; for the big, prosperous cities of America are, after all, much the 
same physically. It is the end of January, and dry snow covers the 
streets and roofs and countryside. Down to the ice-bound Mississippi 
and beyond it is sparkling white. 

Think of a city that has won the reputation of being conservative, 
for that is what St. Paul has been considered. The idea of a carnival 
whose interest and significance shall be nation-wide — even international 
—is preposterous. It can't be done. The city is too big for the carnival 
spirit to become general, too conservative to respond. No one man or 
group of men could get 250,000 people started carnival-bent on a large 
enough scale to make it worth while. 

Count back three paragraphs now and read the irrelevant statements. 
Then mark this fact: it was done. And Louis W. Hill, railroad presi- 
dent and popular idol of the Northwest, was the moving spirit of the 

It is a difficult matter to picture the carnival, for it begins and has 
its being and ending in a series of climaxes that, as a circus press agent 
would say, give pause to the imagination. On detraining, the visitor 
from staid Manhattan or bucolic San Francisco stops to gape at a 
bevy of damsels in fur-trimmed and vari-colored blanket dresses who 
have come to meet friends from out of town. Around their ankles 
are sleighbells that tinkle musically as they walk, and on their feet are 
moccasins that pad silently across the station platform. Men in macki- 
naw coats of every possible color scheme, with breeches and hose to 
match, make the place look as though a theatrical troupe were about to 
leave town without changing their costumes for ordinary clothes. 

Four out of five people on the street — men, women, and children — are 
in carnival array. Everybody is happy, and everybody is respectable. 
Horseplay and hoodlumism are conspicuous by their absence; ebullient 
spirits by their presence. 

They are getting ready for the afternoon parade, the official opening 
of the big jamboree. Detachments of men and girls from the various 
marching clubs are out practicing their evolutions. The air throbs with 



most spectacul 


ar dive 


rsions was that of blanket tossing. The victims in nearly every case seemed to enjoy it as much as the 
bouncing blanket was a feature of the big parade as well as of the park gatherings 

Boreas II rides ahead in his 
man-drawn sleigh, howing to the 
plaudits of the multitude. He is a 
snow king out of an old fairy tale, 
a fit ruler for the carnival. 

Here come the cowboys from 
Pendleton, Ore., clad in the color- 
ful regalia of the Western bucka- 
roo — shaggy "chaps," velvet shirts, 
sombreros, and all — discharging 
their six-shooters above their 
heads and generally living up to 
our choicest concepts of the wild 
and woolly men from beyond the 
Rockies. Awestruck small boys 
and romantic maidens gaze on 
these men in wonder. There are 
delighted shrieks as one of their 
number is roped by a skilfully 
thrown lariat and the willing vic- 
tim is drawn into the parade. 

Next the members of the local 
Skiing Club slither along the snow- 
covered street on skis, followed by 
that august body of men, the legis- 
lators of the State of Minnesota; 
all, you will remember, in costume. 
Then come the marching clubs 
from the business and social or- 
ganizations of St. Paul and other 
cities — each with its pretty queen 
drawn on a gaily decorated tobog- 
gan or sleigh by her vassals. 
Queens there are enthroned in such 
carriages of state as baked pota- 
toes, hat boxes, rosebuds, and other 
conceits — queens of the north- 
ern prairie to whom winter has 

the beat of drums and vibrates 
with the music of bells. Can this 
be a big city? Or is it a little vil- 
lage making ready to welcome 
home a popular hero? St. Paul is 
anything but a village, and its hero 
needs no welcoming home, for he 
is already there in a carnival cos- 
tume of his own. 

Finally the hour arrives. It is a 
tense moment, for, according to 
precedent, the parade will begin 
on time. Crowds have assembled 
along the line of march, the mo- 
tion-picture men have secured their 
locations, and, heralded by the 
throaty blare of a brass band, the 
biggest "joy walk" of the century 
is on. 

Pause a moment and try to think 
where in the world there has ever 
been a parade of 35,000 people, 
every single one in carnival cos- 
tunic. I imagine that this occasion 
was unique in history ; and a won- 
derful sight it was. 

The parade passes — company af- 
ter company clad in plaids and 
stripes and motley of every hue. 
To the tune of horns and drums 
it passes, yet not with the thrill of 
martial note ; the thrill is in the joy 
of renewed youth, the delight that 
youngsters get out of Christmas 
morning while they yet believe in 
Santa Claus. 

Color everywhere. There are 


Two streets were closed to traffic, so that they might be flooded and given over to skating. This rink was on one side of the 

square in the center of the city, and was named Hip-Hip-Hooray Street for the occasion 

atlln^L^h'c^T^trmovtandtl^ 2 -"' "T ^V ?* ""T brOUght tHe beaU ^ ° f health and the keenest ** «f ** of living. 
enou^is 1st melodiouT " """^ " * ^ ^ ^^ T , N ° W ™™ the Glacier Park * *» «*" of horizontal colored stripes. 

1 hey carry a bouncing blanket, and at intervals along the line an intrepid 

MARCH, 19 17 

damsel from among them is wafted skyward by the efforts 
of those who manipulate the blanket from the edge. 

After two hours the pageant is still moving, but the en- 
thusiasm of both paraders and spectators is unabated. And 
this is the manner in which the St. Paul Outdoor Sports 
Carnival began. 

Meanwhile there were other events to be anticipated, a 
whole week of them. One of these features has begun 
already — a dog-sled race over the old Pembina Trail that 
James J. Hill covered forty-odd years ago. Eleven lean- 
faced, clear-eyed men from the north have left Winnipeg, 
struck south over the frozen prairie that is Red River 
Valley, and are running the greatest endurance race ever 



Among the many novelties that combined to make the procession continually interesting was this 
sinuous dragon, with thirty human vertebrae 

A typical carnival 
costume; and the girl 
is not a paid per- 
former, but a partici- 
pant who is just hav- 
ing a good time 

begun anywhere. 
Refer again to 
the third para- 
graph of this 
story. It was 
Louis W. Hill's 
idea to stage the 
Red River Derby. 
As a sporting 
event of the first 

order it ranks in importance and interest with any of our international 
events, and surpasses them in achievement. It is a longer race than 
the celebrated Alaska Sweepstakes — from Nome to Candle and return, 
a distance of 412 miles — and a more grinding test than the Hudson Bay 
Sweepstakes, which is a non-stop race of 150 miles. 

Only one of the contestants is of the United States, and he is Fred 
Hartman, a civil engineer from Boston. The rest of the men are Ice- 
landic fishermen or Cree Indian trappers, and they all have this in 
common — they don't say much. The more a man does — and this holds 
good not only in the North — the less he is likely to say. 


Pause a moment and try to think where in the world there has ever been a parade of 35,000 people, every single one in carnival costume. The occasion was probably 

unique in history, and a wonderful sight it was 



One of the events in the carnival was a 
game of push-ball on horseback, played by 
the members of the Hookem Cows, an or- 
ganization noted for its fine horsemanship 

drivers and dogs was discussed at 
length. Interest was kept at white 
heat while the carnival progressed, 
but the merrymaking went on while 
the men and dogs struggled south- 
ward through the snow. 

Preparing for this gala week had 
meant hard work for the citizens of 
St. Paul, but such was their enthu- 
siasm that they went to any lengths 
to make it successful. They built a 
big ice palace in the public square and 
hung its interior with winking colored 
lights that made its walls look from 
without like animated spectrums ; they 
closed two streets to traffic and turned 
them into public skating rinks; they 
built half a dozen toboggan slides at 
hilly points about the city. The car- 

The season for skating in Minnesota is long enough to develop in its devotees both skill 
and speed. The young lady on the right end won this race 

Gunnar Thomasson, one of the Vikings, has a name and a face 
out of a saga. He took ninth place when lots were drawn for position 
at the start, but when the word was given to go, his team of huskies 
wouldn't be held back, and they broke trail for seventeen miles before 
their spirit dropped back to normal. Gunnar had an excellent chance 
until he was delayed by fever. He was to uphold the traditions of the 
white race against the Indians. Al Campbell was his Cree rival. 

At the end of the first day out, the drivers, after feeding the dogs the 
ration of frozen whitefish they had earned, lay down to rest. Fred 
Hartman's dogs had seemed dissatisfied with their leader; there was 
jealousy in the team. The wolfish strain in the husky knows only the 
law of tooth and fang, and so that night while Hartman slept the leader 
was killed by the other dogs. The Boston man had started with the 
regulation team of five dogs, but they were undersized as huskies go, 
and he had not availed himself of the opportunity to ride on the sled. 
Xow, having lost his leader, he must run all the way. 

The prairies of the Middle West are flat. In the month of January 
they are cold. The wind sweeps down from the north and west like a 
blast from some infernal ice-house, and the mercury drops with a thud 
to the bottom of any ordinary thermometer. Zero Fahrenheit is con- 
sidered quite a moderate temperature. Faces freeze if they are not 
rubbed frequently, and the extremities of the average person lose all 
semblance of natural feeling. 

Take these things into consideration when you think of Fred Hart- 
man running the 522 miles to St. Paul— when you learn that on the sixth 
day out he started off seventeen miles behind the rest, and when he 
stopped that night he was nineteen miles in the lead. 

As a feature of the St. Paul Carnival the Red River Derby was a 
stroke of genius. Each day's record was eagerly awaited by the crowds 
who surrounded the bulletin boards, and every item of news about the 


One of the drivers in the great dog-sled race is removing caked snow that has lodged 

between the toes of the leader. When continued traveling over rough snow has made 

the dogs' feet sore, they are fitted with moccasins 

nival was spontaneous, but by no means an impromptu affair. 

The great pageant at the Town and Country Club, in which 23,000 

MARCH, 1917 

1 1 


This pageant, in which 23,000 costumed people came sweeping down over seven snow-covered hills and passed before the court of King Boreas, required study on the 
part of its producers and co-operation and loyalty on the part of those who marched. A week before the pageant was produced, 9,000 of the participants went out in a thick 

blizzard to rehearse for it 

costumed people came sweeping down over 
seven snow-covered hills and passed before 
the court of King Boreas, required study 
on the part of its producers and co-opera- 
tion and loyalty on the part of those who 
marched. There was a big personality be- 
hind it all— "L. W. Hill," says W. R. Mills; 
"Bob Mills," says L. W. Hill— but nobody 
seemed to be looking for any credit. At 
any rate, a week before the pageant was 
produced 9,000 of the participants went out 
in a thick blizzard to rehearse for it. This 
will indicate to some extent the sentiment 
of St. Paul, the conservative, toward the 

Out on the lake in Como Park, where the 
ice is three feet thick and many acres of its 
surface have been cleared of snow, there 



The hills about St. Paul make tobogganing possible whenever there is snow, but during the carnival some half a dozen artificial slides 

are built at as many different points in the city 

One of the most exciting sports seen 
at the carnival was ski-joring — im- 
ported from Switzerland 

are skating races, trotting 
races on the ice, and motor- 
sledding. Girls and boys give 
exhibitions of figure skating 
that would do credit to profes- 
sionals. But all through the 
carnival sports the profes- 
sional element is lacking. 
These things are done for the 
fun of it. Try to visualize 
several thousand people in 
bright-colored array, a scintil- 
lant throng against a back- 
ground of pure white; it is a 
titanic opera chorus on a mam- 
moth stage, and you expect 
them to burst into song at any 

{Continued on page 46) 

1 2 



The rather formal villas of Biarritz are perched high above the waters of the Bay, for this town of the Cote des Basques is one of those rare com- 
binations of mountain and seashore, with only room for a splendid beach between 




Francis Miltotjn 

A FEW miles north of the Spanish 
the stress of present events as 
France to be, is Biarritz, an all-the- 
year round City by the Sea on the 
edge of the Basque country — one of 
those rare combinations of seashore 
and mountains. 

Since the French seaside was a sine 
qua non with our party of four, it was 
a case of either the Coast of Emerald, 
as the Norman battery of resorts is 
known, the Coast of Blue along the 
Riviera, or the Silver Shore of Bis- 
cay's Bay, where the breakers roll in 
from the Atlantic in a manner remin- 
iscent only of the combers of the 
North Shore of Massachusetts Bay. 
For the rest, there is little reminiscent 
of anything elsewhere, for Biarritz, 
as a Ville de Bains de Mer, owes its 
inception and the promulgation of its 
popularity to royalty — in the first in- 
stance to an empress of the French, 
and in the second to a king of Eng- 
land. To be free of Paris was the 
chief thing, and for a time to forget 
the struggle that was devastating Eu- 
rope — consequently we turned south. 

It was over the same road which 
was traveled by the Spanish Ambas- 
sadors and Charles Quint on their 
visit to Francois Premier at Paris in 
the Sixteenth Century that we entered 
the old walled Bayonne, the capital of 
the French Basque country, and the 
commercial metropolis of Biarritz, the 

border and as far removed from 
it is possible for any corner of 


The lady's smile is part of the glow of well-being attendant upon a morning 
dip at Biarritz, where bathing is popular most of the year round 

City of Pleasure of the Silver Shore, which invites the year round. 
We had lingered along the way, although modernists to the extent 

that we came by motor. One night 
we passed at five-domed Perigueux, 
where stands the church of all Chris- 
tendom which best marks the transi- 
tion between the Byzantine and the 
Gothic ; and we lunched magnificently 
the next day at Bergerac, where there 
was no vestige of Cyrano, but a very 
tangible souvenir of Kipling, who 
penned some verses in eulogy of mine 
host and his inn in the "livre d'or" of 
the hotel. The Hotel de Londres, so 
inappropriately named, is worth mak- 
ing a note of by any passing that 
way; what was less gracious on the 
part of the town was that we were 
held up at its edge and forced to pay 
a tax on the gasoline which we burned 
going through the town. It is one of 
the few villes voleurs in all France, 
and the automobilist is rising in his 
wrath against it, and for the most 
part passing around it, as it is easy 
to do when one knows the lay of the 

It was a full afternoon from Ber- 
gerac to Bayonne over some of the 
best roads still left by the Romans 
as a legacy to Gaul, straight, tree- 
lined levels where one may let all out 
and no one to say him nay. 

Bayonne, the business faubourg of 
Biarritz, is one of the most self-suf- 
ficient, prosperous little sous-prefec- 

MARCH, 19 17 




Before the war Austrian pitched tent beside Briton, and German beside Frenchman, for Biarritz, to quote the guidebook, was "frequented by the upper classes of all 

nations," and the mild climate brought visitors every month of the year 

tures of France, but withal possessed of a certain militant, well ordered 
charm. We doubly realized it when threading its busy streets amid a 
market-day crowd which took all the talents and most of the virtues 
of the perfect automobile conductor to find the direct way through and 
not bowl over Basque 
peasants, donkeys or fish- 
ermen. These shoals once 
passed, there still looms 
up ahead the gateways 
through Vauban's grim 
fortification walls which 
still surround this little 
provincial capital and be- 
speak for it a strategic im- 
portance of old. 

If Bayonne's old castle 
ever comes into the real 
estate market it will be a 
safe purchase for anyone 
looking for a pied a terre, 
not far from the madding 
crowd, but well shut in 
from it, nevertheless. Its 
angles are flanked with 
coiffed round towers, and 
every room breathes a 
memory of Anne de Neu- 
bourg, who lived here in 
the first years of her long 
exile, and still others of 
the gay balls of Queen 
Caroline, the famous in- 
terview between Napoleon and Charles X, and the abdication of Ferdi- 
nand, which was the prologue of the bloody war with Spain. 

Bayonne wouldn't be a bad place to live in ordinary times of peace : 


St. Jean de Luz is just across the border from Spain, and pelota is the national Spanish game, the ancesloi 
of the cuban jai alai ; and, like it, usually a gambling match 

the writer says it as one who knows, and he has tried many parts of 
the old French Provinces and still looks forward to a home some day 
in the Basque country, perhaps at Bayonne, though it is only on the rim 
of that delightful little land, so distinct in language and customs. 

From Bayonne to Biar- 
ritz is scarce half a dozen 
miles of broad, rolling 
highway. At La Negresse 
the railway cuts in to-day 
and makes Biarritz much 
more worldly than it was 
but a few years since, 
when everyone came by 
road, but it has for the 
most part hardly changed 
the general aspect of this 
southern bathing beach 
and all-the-year-round re- 
sort, which had at the be- 
ginning of the war not yet 
become outre in any sense, 
nor defiled by cheap trip- 
pers, nor boomed to the 
verge of bad taste as were 
many of the avowed ple- 
beian, all-comer resorts of 

Just after passing the 

Cinq Cantons and skirting 

the greenswarded falaise, 

already peopled with the 

villas of Greater Biarritz, 

for all the world like the Downs back of Eastbourne on the South 

Coast of England, one gets the first glimpse of the Basque City by 

the Sea, the coast line sweeping grandly up in the admirable beach of 



The Basque country is a land of strong arms, lithe figures and smiling faces, and the dances would put 
our fox-trots and one-steps to shame in point of sheer grace 


The keynote of Biarritz is smartness, and all of the sports and amusements of smart society are to be had here, not excepting 

the great British pastime of fox hunting 

Maison Louis XIV at St Jean de Lu 2 , where the French king rested the nigh, 
before his marriage to the Infanta of Spain 


the Chambre d'Amour, a close rival of "La Concha" at 
the kingly Spanish watering place of San Sebastian, 
just across the border. 

To the north lies Cap Breton — an echo of the days 
when the Basques used to go whale fishing across the 
Atlantic — running far out into the Bay of Biscay, and to 
the south, in the silvery haze, the farthermost horizon 
of Spain; for a background the majestic, ever snow- 
capped Pic du Midi de Bigorre and its flanking line of 
purple Pyrenees. 

Out of this scintillating framework Biarritz comes 
into focus, the Hotel du Palais, whose ancestor was an 
imperial Country House of the reign of the last Na- 
poleon, being the first of the outpost caravanserai to 
meet the eye. 

The lay of the land at Biarritz is complicated. It is a 
far cry from Atalaye to the Plage des Basques, beyond 
the silver sands skirting the casino terrace, the rocks 
and grottoes, the tiny ports and anses, but in between 
and all along is a combination of sea and shore which 
for its approach to uniqueness is not to be found in all 

Biarritz, born of a whim of an Empress of the French 
who, for one reason or another, wanted to be as 
near as possible to the Spanish frontier 
and yet not cross it, was at the outbreak 
of hostilities in the full blaze of the sun 
\ of popularity among European resort 
habitues who are entitled to be classed as 
amateurs, using the word in its French 
sense. The dull memories of Eugenie's 
early life, when she was a designing 
sehorita, would not admit of any more 
intimate affiliation with Spain, but she 
would at least show the Dons and Gran- 
dees across the border that she, too, like 
Lord Brougham, England's Chancellor, 
at Cannes a third of a century before, 
could, by a mere wave of her wand and 
will, make a seashore capital which 
would draw the ambassadors of all the 
world to her summer court. By this pro- 
cedure the Spanish in a later day, pos- 
sibly taking a leaf from the book of this 
same countrywoman of theirs, have made 
of Madrid's regal and ambassadorial 
splendor of the Twentieth Century a 
movable pageant and transported it bod- 
ily to San Sebastian on the shores of this 
same Bay of Biscay or Gulf of Gascony, 
call it which you will, accordingly as 
your sympathies are with the Spanish or 
the French. 

Though the palace of the Empress 
Eugenie is now turned into a joint-stock 
hotel, there is to-day a royal garage 
with lock boxes for that modern beast of 
burden, the automobile, as luxurious as a padded cell and a good deal 
more commodious. It must take rank as the very top-notch garage of 
Europe, royal in all ways, patronized by royalty, as it announces in gilt 
letters before its porte-cochere ; it could not be finer if it were a private 
possession of royalty itself. 

Biarritz hotels are of all ranks, from the super luxe of the Hotel du 
Palais, with dinner at nine francs a head, vin non compris, to the old- 
fashioned Beau Rivage at half the prices, always with the mystic v. n. c, 
which is a way with the resort hotels of Europe that try to skate as 
near to business probity as they can and yet not quite deserve to be 
classed as wholly virtuous. 

Not as yet has the Swiss-German-Austrian hotel director broken in 
on Biarritz as he has on the Riviera, where fully seventy per cent of 
the hotel industry is in foreign hands, and it will now probably be many 
years before he does. Chemically made soups and artificially aged hams 
are not on the table d'hotes or the a la carte menus of the restaurants 
of the Cote d' Argent. 

Biarritz hotels follow the best traditions of the old school of French 
cookery whatever may be their latter-day antiseptic importations other- 
wise— jardins d'hiver, lounges, halls, tea rooms, escaliers of marble and 
terraces of alabaster. If their argenterie is falsely alloyed, at all events 
it is plainly simple and elegant of form, leaving the art nouveau chisel- 

MARCH, 1917 


ings which are creeping all over everything to the com- 
peting resorts that cater for the passing crowd eager for 
innovations everywhere, even though it may be but the 
faux chic which all the French art world is so busy 
crying down. 

Biarritz is not one of the resorts which cater to those 
who merely come and go; it claims its clients as hardy 
annuals, with a new influx each year large enough to 
account for its progress of the last decade. This has 
been more marked than all that had gone before since 
Eugenie set her cachet upon the little Basque fishing 
port in the late sixties of the last century. The Hotel 
du Palais is about the only tangible reminder of this 
passing phase of royalty, and is a shrine which counts 
its ancestry as a good business asset. 

It was difficult to diagnose the personnel of ante- 
bellum visitors to Biarritz. They came from the Iberian 
peninsula to get a stimulating touch of the wave of real 
French life; from Berlin and Munich, that they might 
visit France and yet be near enough to the Spanish fron- 
tier to salve their consciences when writing home to 
their Franco-phobe friends; from Italy, singularly be- 
reft of bathing beaches of its own; from Paris and the 
north; from Belgium, and even from Holland, came 
those who dreaded the chilly waters 
of the channel and the North Sea; 
and from England, of course, to side- 
step the fogs of the waning season. 
"And it is so easy for us," once vol- 
unteered a retired major, home from 
India, in a conversation we were hav- 
ing over tea at the Golf Club. "We 
just take the boat at London Bridge, 
you know, in two days are at Bor- 
deaux and in four hours more at Biar- 
ritz." The process doesn't look a very 
easy one to the lover of a swift auto- 
mobile and the open road, but chacun 
d, son gout. And Biarritz and the 
Basque country has a plenty and for 
all tastes. 

Biarritz has its opera, spring and 
summer, its golf all the year round 
and bathing pretty much the same ; 
its casino never closes its doors, and 
about the only difference between it 
and the Cercle des Etrangers at 
Monte Carlo is that roulette is sup- 
planted by a silly little rubber ball 
which bounces fortune up or down in 
an equally capricious manner. The 
game was invented in a virtuous 
spasm to make a showing of the con- 
trast between the stiff game of the 
little principality and the milder in- 
nocuous form distinctly and morally 
French. The game at Biarritz is 

cheaper than at Monte Carlo, where it is a piece ronde for every turn of 
the fickle wheel with which you would tempt fortune, while here it is 
only a franc a time. For baccarat or bridge it matters little geograph- 
ically whether you are at Biarritz on the Cote dArgent or Monte Carlo 
on the Coast of Blue. 

There were no royalties at Biarritz on this particular occasion, a new 
and sad condition of affairs. One missed the sight which met our eyes 
on a tourist trip thither many years ago; that of the rubicund and jovial 
Edward VII of England taking tea on the terrace, plebeian fashion, for 
all the world like one of the mob, as was his habit when he chose. There 
is a tale to tell here as to why he gave his preference to Biarritz instead 
of to the resorts of the Cote dAzur, which were such favorites with 
his mother, Queen Victoria. 

That Biarritz has prospered with the influx of English visitors as 
much as it has in recent years is undoubtedly due largely to the frequent 
sojourns here of England's late king. Tired of speculating as to 
when the Teuton invasion of the Riviera might stop, and tired, too, 
scandal has said, of the division of the adulation of the passing throng 
between him and his mother's cousin, Leopold, King of the Belgians, 
who lived in courtly, though morganatic, style in his big estate at Cap 
Martin nearby, he left the shores of the Mediterranean forever half a 
dozen years before his death. 


Since Eugenie first set the stamp of imperial approval upon the hamlet, Biarritz has claimed annual 
from men whose names figure prominently in the making of modern Europe 



To-day St. Jean is a sleepy, little village, whose inhabitants are still mindful, however, of 

Maria Teresa was made Queen of France within its borders 


the days when 

the Infanta 


This rival of Biarritz has come to its majority only recently— a thoroughly up-to-date 
resort which includes golf among its attractions 


Cannes built a monumental jetty running seaward and named it after 
him; Biarritz named a broad new avenue for him; Cannes riposted and 
erected a statue to him on the sea front, a hideous white marble imi- 
tation of a sailor's suit of serge and a yachting cap; but ever after, while 
he lived, England's King was wedded to the Basque watering-place. 

For a shrine at which the sentimental may worship, Biarritz has a 
rival to the Maison de l'ln- 
fante at Saint Jean de Luz. 
If it so happened in gallant 
Renaissance days that a 
French king journeyed 
down from Paris to meet 
his affianced bride of Spain 
at Saint Jean de Luz, close 
to the frontier, it was but a 
repetition of history when 
Alphonse XIII of Spain — 
the most brilliant figure of 
monarchial Europe to-day 
— should have come up to 
the villa overlooking the 
Lac Moriscot in suburban 
Biarritz to woo his English 

In the middle of the last 
century, practically at the 
time of its discovery by Na- 
poleon Ill's Spanish Em- 
press, Biarritz was hardly 
on the map. To-day, under 
normal conditions, it has a 
population of 20,000 souls 
living off triple that number 
of visitors, whose season 
begins in January and ends 
in December, and reaches 
its apogee in the early au- 
tumn. The relation of these 
two sets of figures to each 
other accounts for the 
prices at Biarritz, for it is 
not cheap, though lacking 
the indubitable extrava- 
gance of many a more mon- 
daine resort better adver- 
tised by a stirrer game than can be played at either of Biarritz's brace 
of casinos. 

Like its Spanish sister across the border, Biarritz, so far as its native 
element goes, is a land of strong arms, lithe figures, smiling faces, dances 
which would put the fox-trots and one-steps to shame for sheer grace, 
and folk-songs which almost inspire one to learn the Euskarian tongue 
used in this warm little corner of southwestern France. 

Hiarritz has not the architectural splendor of San Sebastian, its 
Spanish rival, nor yet the coquet, Exposition-White City-Luna Park air 
of the string of Riviera coast towns from Saint Raphael to the Italian 
frontier. It is more sedate, more scraggly and old-fashioned, as if 
echoing the plush and horse-hair proclivities of the last Napoleonic era 
which gave it birth. That it has been modernized in spots, even to 
an ultra chic degree, only makes the contrast the more to be remarked. 
At all events, it is still French in its most ample aspect in all that per- 
tains to catering to the stranger within its gates; and while there are 
plenty of tea rooms, American bars and English chemists, there is not 
a Deutsch Apothek to be remarked and French automobile tires are 
more in evidence than English. The ever efficient and pushful Teuton 
has never obtained a foothold here. 

The Basque country has a geography of its own, but Biarritz is as 
cosmopolitan as Cairo, as exclusive as a London Club. The Basque 
knows no borders to his beloved land such as politicians and map-makers 
have laid down for him, but is equally at home in old, walled Bayonne 
as he is in Pamplona, high above the Col de Roncevaux overlooking the 
plain of Aragon, or across the Bidassoa at Bilboa in the Vazcongadas. 

Down the coast a dozen miles lies Saint Jean de Luz, which in many 
ways is more than a rival of Biarritz, one way being that it has two 
golf dubs and is more Basque than French in all things, for at Biarritz 
a highly glazed French polish is over everything, notably building 
facades and roof-tops, while at Saint Jean de Luz the Basque villa type. 
a sort of a cross between a Swiss chalet and the Queen Anne species, 
is at its very best, and in many ways is an improvement on either or 


The Casino is open all the year round, and the game is as popular here as at Monte Carlo, with the 
advantage that one need not play for such high stakes 


For a dozen miles below Biarritz the broad highway becomes as bil- 
lowy as cumulus clouds and a delight to roll over in a smooth-running 

Saint Jean de Luz, except for its utter old world cachet, sprightly, 
clean and inspiring withal, is what the French themselves would call a 
coquette petite ville. It is that and more, with a certain air of modern- 
ity in its range of new 
hotels skirting the upper 
shore and its manifestly 
new villas, for the most 
part, however, built in simu- 
lation of old Basque archi- 
tecture, and again the scene 
shifts back into medieval- 
ism with the Maison de 
ITnfante and the church 
where the daughter of the 
King of Spain married 
Louis XIV, the beau gendre 
proclaimed by Philippe IV 
as an excuse for giving 
away the hand of his 
daughter. The door, by the 
way, through which the 
royal cortege left the 
church on that brilliant 
June day in 1660 was im- 
mediately walled up to pre- 
serve its sanctity. 

Three great dikes follow 
for miles along the rim of 
the rolling Biscay billows, 
and they are needful, else 
Saint Jean would have been 
washed seaward, or left a 
mere skeleton like the ser- 
pentine peninsula of Socoa 
on the opposite side of the 

On the Hill of Sainte 
Barbe are golf links which 
struggle hard for popular- 
ity with those of the valley 
of the Nivelle at the other 
end of the town. Without 
golf Saint Jean de Luz would never have achieved its latter-day distinc- 
tion. By contrast, the worldly element of teas and bridge and baccarat 
pales considerably here. 

Ciboure, the only suburb dependency of Saint Jean de Luz, contains 
some of the best indigenous Basque architecture extant, its church being 
celebrated in picture, song and story, a specious variety of stone and 
masonry which is unique, imposing and altogether wonderful even for 
the layman. If Saint Jean has its golf, Ciboure and its Basque popula- 
tion have their pelota fronton, which in every way serves them quite as 
well. They may or may not have a contempt for golf, but no one who 
has ever seen a lithe young Basque serve a ball at pelota but would put 
golf and tennis in the kindergarten class. 

Within the last few years a new seashore rival to Biarritz and Saint 
Jean de Luz has come to its majority — Hendaye Plage. A great sweep 
of roadway leads from Ciboure to Hendaye and the Spanish frontier. 
Behobie and Hendaye are known as the Franco-Spanish customhouse 
stations and places to change cars. The new-born Plage off to the west 
has for the most part never been suspected of existence by the traveler 
by train. 

"Vulnerat omnes ultima necat," is the bloodthirsty inscription which 
you read on Urrugne's church tower as you rush the high road, and 
with a shiver pass on without even stopping to inquire what it means. 
In a brief interval of switchback down and up and down again one comes 
to Handaye — the town, and a mile further on, the Plage. 

In the former is the excellent hotel, which is Basque even as to name, 
not touristy in the least and thoroughly indigenous as to food; at the 
Plage is another, the most architecturally imposing and splendidly in- 
stalled of all the Cote d'Argent hotel, its gerent a rubicund Parisian 
with a red ribbon in his buttonhole and the whole thing financed (for 
the future, it would appear, as the crowd has hardly yet come in suf- 
ficient numbers to pav) by a society of commanditaires of the City of 

Hendaye, too, has the most recherche golf club in the region, as it 
{Continued on page 45) 

MARCH, 1917 


7f/T/d Li/e in f/ie ^e//o>rsfone 

Photographs by courtesy of the Northern Pacific Railway 

The bighorn, the mountain sheep of the Rockies, at home on a range 
in the Yellowstone. This reservation is the second oldest, the 
largest, and probably the best known of our National Parks, chiefly 
by reason of the number and variety of its geysers; but aside from 
all of this, it lays claim to being the most successful wild animal 
preserve in the world 

1 8 

T R A V E L 


Mountain sheep in Gardiner Canon, 
near the northern entrance to the 
park. So far as possible the 3,300 
square miles of the Yellowstone pre- 
serve have been left untouched, and 
most of the tourists keep to the 
beaten roads of travel, so that the 
mountain haunts of these animals re- 
main in nearly as primitive a state 
as before the coining of the white 


(O w. b; 

One of the bulls of a large and in- 
creasing herd of zvild bison which 
grazes in the park. In former times 
the bison used to roam the prairies 
in columns of thousands, so solidly 
massed that those in front could 
scarcely turn or stop; but at the pres- 
ent time there are only about 3,500 
full-blooded bison in North America, 
of which a large number are centered 
in the Yellowstone, and stringent 
laws have been passed to prevent 
further extermination 

M ARCH , 19 17 


A herd of elk stopping to face the 
camera. The Yellowstone is a mar- 
velous Held for those who would 
study animal life in its natural habitat, 
for it is strictly forbidden to hunt or 
molest the wild creatures in any way. 
and in consequence the animals have 
become quite fearless of man and will 
even permit his approach, an inter- 
esting point in support of the theory 
that animals are dangerous only when 
first attacked by man 

A two-year-old black bear in one of 
the road builders' camps. The big 
grizzly holds aloof from man, though 
even he is not hostile unless first 
molested, but the brown, cinnamon 
and black bears — who all belong to 
the same family — are very friendly, 
and frequently go down to the camps 
and hotel clearings and make ac- 
quaintance. In some instances mother 
bears zvill even stand peacefully by 
and watch their cubs being fed by 
some adventurous human 


It is amuny the duties of the park authorities to see that the animals 
do not lack food, and in winter, when it is difficult for them to find 
enough fodder for themselves, the park rangers scatter alfalfa in con- 
venient spots, which the wild creatures soon learn to expect and partake 
of plentifully as these antelope are doing here. Antelope, by the way, 
though they are very scarce elsewhere, abound in the Yellowstone 

(O W. 5. Berry 

7',i *V 

1 ■& 


The Yellowstone is a sanctuary for bird as well as beast, and more than 
150 species can be found on the reserve, living natural and undisturbed 
lives. These species range from the eagle, which makes its home among 
the crags, to wild geese and duck, and the large white pelican of Yel- 
lowstone Lake. This is a family of homed owls, somewhat startled by 
the ceremony of having their pictures taken and rather dazed by the 

bright light 

MARCH, 1917 


A couple of black tail deer disturbed — but not alarmed — at their noon- 
day siesta. When the tourist season is over and the crowds of visitors 
have left the park, these deer come down to the hotel clearings to crop 
the grass and eat the handful s of -Rowers which the children of the 
rangers and officers delight in feeding them 

^mm^^^i^ *mfz 

(C) W. B. 

Elk feeding on the alfalfa flat, Yellowstone Park. The elk are the most 
numerous of the animals on the reserve; there are about 30,000 of 
them. It is difficult tor those who have not actually visited the Yel- 
lowstone to appreciate the sensation of traveling through a land whic'n 
is a sort of animal kingdom, where bird and~$east move unconcernedly 
across the scene 


The snows are deep and footing is somewhat precarious on _ the 
slopes of the Yellowstone Rockies, but the bighorns are especially 
equipped by Nature for such exigencies and prefer these rocky alti- 
tudes to the easier levels of the valleys. It is believed that these 
sheep came to America by way of Bering Strait 

Three graceful antelope caught unawares against the skyline. 
The visitor to the Yellowstone who is content to follow the pre- 
scribed tourist routes will miss some of the finest sights of the park; 
such pictures as this are reserved for those who seek out their own 
trails and are willing to spend more time then the usual five days 
allotted to the trip 

MARCH, 1917 


. < . 1 1 

On a mountain slope of the Yel- 
lowstone in winter — an excellent 
example of protective coloring for 
the naturalist, and a study in 
grouping for the ai'tist. As can 
he seen, the black tail deer comes 
by his name quite honestly 


The alert young bruin at the left 
is a brown bear who realizes the 
advantage of cultivating amicable 
relations with man. Indeed, so 
very friendly did some of his 
species become that it was found 
necessary to equip the supply 
wagons in the park with iron 
coverings that could not be ripped 
off en route and permit of the 
supplies being sampled 

The elk is one of the largest 
members of the deer family and 
is also distinguished by the wide 
spread of its antlers. It is, curi- 
ously enough, a forest creature, 
and crashes its way through the 
heavy underbrush, dexterously 
avoiding collision with the low- 
hanging branches 



(Mr. Cooper, who is already well known to 
Travel readers and who is the author of 
"The Modernising of the Orient," and other 
books, is now in South America making a 
study of social and industrial conditions on 

UT T looks gold, it smells of gold, . . . 

1 Yea, the very waves as they rip- 
ple past us, sing of gold, gold, gold." 

These words of Charles Kingsley were 
not intended to be used in connection with 
Buenos Aires, but they came to our mind 
as we alighted from the Trans-Andine 
train one recent autumn evening and were 
whirled to the hotel through the brilliant 
streets of the Argentine capital. For sev- 
eral months we had been wandering 
through the ancient medieval-like towns 
and cities of the western coast of South 
America. To a traveler thus inured to 
scenes where modernity struggles pain- 
fully with dilapidation and decay, the new 
and dazzling Buenos Aires, with its 
stretches of shining macadam along Pari- 
sian-like boulevards, its regal mansions 
and its general air of Twentieth Century 
de luxe, is like a gorgeous electric-lighted 
room after semi-darkness. 

Buenos Aires is, indeed, a startling city; 
it might be called "The City of Amaze- 
ment." This unanalyzed wonder of the 
traveler is likely to continue for several 
days, as he is pi- 


Extending through the most fashionable quarter of the city to 

Palermo Park, this is the broadest and best-built street of Buenos 

Aires, and is lined on either side by palatial residences 

loted, perhaps, 
through the rich and 
gorgeous rooms of 
the aristocratic 
Jockey Club, the in- 
come of which or- 
ganization amounts 
to millions of dollars 
a year by reason of 
its connection with 
one of the finest 
race tracks of the 
world, or, should he 
drawing-room of an 




Clayton Sedgwick Cooper 

Photographs by the Author and Others 

be fortunate enough, as he sits as guest in the 
"estancia" prince. One's first days in this city 
of the River Plate are a kind of orgy of resplendent vision as he passes 
through a phantasmagoria of varied riches. There is the Colon Theater, 
said to be more expensive and beautiful than any of its European rivals, 
with its onyx and rose and gold, and even the ornate marble and granite 
cemetery where Buenos Aires buries above ground its dead — all speak 
of a land flowing in wealth. 

As one gets away from his early sight-seeing trip, he is almost in- 
clined to believe that this magnificence, which momentarily warps one's 
judgment, was a preconceived plan on the part of these progressive and 
vigorous folk whose first ideal seems to be Progress — Progress beneath 
the aegis of the gods of gold. It is also extremely different from the 
West Coast cities — so extravagantly costly — so supergorgeous — so Baby- 
lonian-like. One is not surprised that a certain English author chose 
as the title of his book, "The Amazing Argentina." 

This element of marvel seems to highly please the inhabitant. They 
like to see the traveler amazed. Furthermore, they outdo the wonder 
of their buildings in the narration of statistics concerning their city, 
which figures are hurled from all sides on one's unsuspecting head. The 
visitor will be told almost in one sweep of breath that Buenos Aires, 
the Queen of the South Atlantic, has a population of 1,700,000, and is 
not only the largest city in South America, but the second largest Latin 
city in the world. One will hear how the area of the Argentine me- 
tropolis is eighty-two square miles, and thus larger than Paris, Berlin, 
Hamburg or Vienna: that it is one of the most, if not the most cosmo- 

that continent. This is the second of a se- 
ries of articles on the South American coun- 
tries, the first of which, on "Cuzco and the 
Incas of To-day," appeared in the February 
issue. — Editor) 

politan city on the face of the globe; and 
that its subway, the most luxurious and 
best in existence, carries 400,000,000 pas- 
sengers each year. But this is only a be- 
ginning of the history of this new town 
whose story reads like a tale of the "One 
Thousand and One Nights." It possesses, 
as you learn, 500 periodicals, 4,000 private 
motor cars, one of the biggest banks in the 
world, the most luxurious clubhouse, 97 of 
the most modern and beautiful parks, 34 
public markets, 435 miles of car tracks, 
and withal more millionaires according to 
population than New York City or any 
other metropolis that one might happen 
to suggest. It is small wonder that after 
the first few days in the capital city of the 
great cattle republic, the traveler feels 
that some one has been handling Alad- 
din's lamp, and his first inclination is to 
get away from all the splendor to some 
quiet nook in order to get his perspective 
and reason out this mighty piece of mod- 

When the enthusiastic and loyal Portefio 
has got these facts and a hundred others 
out of his system, he 
will turn, as a rule, 
towards you and say, 
"Now, what do you 
think of our city?" 
He likes to see you 
gasp for adjectives 
with which to en- 
deavor vainly to ex- 
press your wonder 
at all this material 
immensity. Then he 
leads you off to see some great public building with marble steps and 
mosaic floors, with statues, bronzes and paintings of which he tells 
you the price but does not give you time to admire their beauty; for 
there are other things even more remarkable to see, like the richly 
appointed shops on the Calle Florida, and the more richly gowned people 
along this promenade where all the world goes to stare at each other 
in the afternoon; not to speak of the newspaper magnate's palace on 
the Plaza San Martin, which you will be told cost more than the Ameri- 
can White House. 

After a week or so of this paralyzing business, if the traveler has 
successfully dodged the motor cars and vehicles driven at breakneck 
speed by the Argentine Jehu, and escaped with life and limb from being 
run down by street cars on the narrow business streets, where the trams 
come perilously near taking the sidewalk, the visitor gets a bit hard- 
ened to architectural magnificence and stunning statistics and begins 
to try a bit of visualization and analyzing on his own account. 

The reaction from all this blaze of impression becomes so sudden and 
intense with some that they go to the extreme of saying that Buenos 
Aires is, indeed, in a class by itself, but in this statement they do not 
intend to be especially complimentary. Some will utter the conviction 
that this new city, being without aristocracy of birth, has proceeded to 
form an aristocracy of extravagant display of wealth, that it is, in fact, 
a city of frenzied finance. Others have called it a city of sham — stucco 
houses made to look like marble, ostentation to cover a poverty of ideas, 
a neurotic Orientalism wearing the garb of culture and medieval chivalry 
to womenkind, or — speaking of the Portenos as children — playing house 


MARCH, 1917 

L 3 


Perhaps the Jockey Club, more than any other one thing, expresses the character of 

Argentina's capital in the magnificence of its building, its colossal revenue, and the 

prestige and influence of its members 

at being Paris, but 
affecting only a "plas- 
ter imitation," lacking 
the spontaneous gay- 
ety and ability of the 

But such extreme 
and harsh detractors 
would secure a very 
small audience of 
sympathizers from 
those who have stayed 
long enough in Bue- 
nos Aires to outlive 
their reactions. The 
foreigner who makes 
a temporary visit, 
specially if he does 
not understand Span- 
ish, and is obliged to 
receive his informa- 
tion in a roundabout 
way through inter- 
preters, or sit through 
theaters or public 
gatherings whose sig- 
nificance he can only 
guess, is quite sure to 
come away with a 
feeling that all this 
playing up of exter- 
nals is a kind of 
ingenuous method of 
showing off. He must 
remain longer and get below and beyond these confessedly specious 
introductions, to the heart and soul of a city which has sprung up almost 
in a night on the muddy flats of the River Plate, literally in a single 
generation. To such a student of Buenos Aires there will come indubit- 
ably a consciousness of vast values both in the way of progress and of 

In th« 

entrance hall marble 
A fencing-hall, a 


Looking toward the Avenida de Mayo from the plaza of the same name. Leading 

from the plaza to the new Congress buildings, and flanked by the principal government 

buildings, this avenue is the most notable thoroughfare of the city 

individual personality. 
The people, or the 
Portefios, as the in- 
habitants of Buenos 
Aires are known lo- 
cally, are of primal 
interest to the student 
of modern civiliza- 
tions. Who are the 
people of Buenos 
Aires ? Where did 
they come from? 
Why are they what 
they are? 

Unless we begin in 
some such fashion the 
South American is an 
impregnable puzzle to 
the Anglo-Saxon, and 
anything like mutual 
understanding will be 
quite impossible. 

He who visits Bue- 
nos Aires may have 
already learned that 
Argentina was discov- 
ered in 15 16 by the 
Spanish navigator, 
Juan de Solis, who, in 
search of a passage to 
the Pacific Ocean, 
was the first Euro- 
pean to sail up the 
Rio de la Plata. He 
has doubtlessly learned already that in 1536 de Mendoza founded the 
city "Santa Maria de Buenos Aires," and that the Viceroyalty of La 
Plata, including Argentine, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uraguay of to-day, 
was broken in 1810 by the people of Buenos Aires who declared their 
independence under the leadership of the famous names of General San 


and onyx predominate, and the rest of the clubhouse is correspondingly elaborate, 
gymnasium, Turkish baths and roof gardens are included in the building 

2 6 


The cathedral, like many of the public buildings, is set off to advantage by the open square which faces it. The church dates 
from the middle of the Eighteenth Century and holds a congregation of 9.000 people 


are foreign born, and that while 
according to very recent calcula- 
tion it is reported that Chile has 
one per cent of foreign population, 
the Republic of which Buenos 
Aires is the capital possesses 85 
per cent of inhabitants who either 
came themselves from alien lands, 
or whose immediate ancestry was 
foreign. It will also be found that 
some of the largest enterprises of 
the capital city are in the hands 
of British, Germans and Ameri- 
cans. Great Britain alone has in- 
vested $1,250,000,000 in Argentina 
and has put $700,000,000 of these 
dollars in railroads which she con- 
trols largely by her representatives 
linked with their offices in London. 
It is also an illuminating discov- 
ery that the people who dwell in 
these wonderfully rich homes on 
the Avenida General Alvear (and 
there are few cities anywhere in 
the world where the motive of 
beauty is more prominent in pala- 
tial and luxurious houses) are the 
old Argentine families who own 
estancias. These people have made 
their money, not through industrial 
enterprises, as is the case so often 
in the United States, but by reason 
of the fact that a generation ago 
they were enabled by what would 
seem to be a short-sighted govern- 
ment to buy land at three cents an 
acre, and have since seen their rich farms increase in value a thou- 
sandfold and more. 

Argentina has not been favored with the "homestead" system. Pedro 
Luro, a Basque immigrant, will be pointed out as an example of what 

Martin, General Belgrano, and Admiral Brown; and that in i860 the 
country adopted the name by which it is now known, "La Nacion 

It would be natural, therefore, to suppose that Buenos Aires, being of 
Spanish origin, would be identical in character and customs with other has happened. He received a hundred square leagues, or 625,000 acres 
large South American cities, like Santiago or Lima. This supposition. of good soil, when the government was glad to dispose of it at three and 
however, is soon frustrated as one learns that at least one-fifth of the one-half cents an acre. He secured fifty Basque families to assist him 
inhabitants of Buenos Aires are Italian and at least half the population with his grant, and several millionaires resulted, for the land is valued 

to-day at five hundred times 
what Luro paid for it This 
immigrant, who landed at seven- 
teen years of age in the year 
1837 at Buenos Aires, having 
only a few shillings in his 
pocket, died a short time ago 
owning a million acres of land 
in addition to half a million 
sheep and one hundred and fifty 
thousand cattle. 

With this advantage in land. 
it was comparatively easy for 
these Argentine pioneers to sit 
in their homes and see railroads 
and harbor improvements arrive 
under the impulse of foreign 
capital, watch the floods of im- 
migration, adding to the coun- 
try's importance in agriculture 
as well as in cattle, exchanging 
meanwhile their primitive tools 
for modern steam-driven farm 
machinery, assuring the mate- 
rial prosperity of themselves 
and their posterity for genera- 
tions to come. In a country 
where political influence and 
military record were so closely 
allied to the obtaining of land 
at trifling cost, one can readily 
see how the pernicious "lati- 
fundia" system fastened itself 
upon the Republic. Although 
the mistakes of these early years 

This avenue, which takes its name from the liberator of the republic, is, like San Martin himself, quiet and unassuming, but the Stock 

Exchange and many of the banks are located here 

M ARCH , 19 17 



The fashionable private enclosure reserved for the members of the Jockey Club, which organization controls the race course, said to be the finest in the world. Nothing 
has been spared to uphold this reputation, even the center of the track is beautified with flowers and trees, while behind the club stand are a spacious promenade and hand- 
some club rooms. The riders are for the most part native, and the racing itself is of the first order 

have since been recognized and partially rectified, the results are still 
manifest in the abnormalities of this Buenos Aires de luxe, which has 
been significantly styled "a pretentious capital in a pastoral republic." 

One is still amazed to find that these great rural and almost feudal 
aristocrats of land who spend their wealth in the capitals of Europe 
when they are not living in their expensive Buenos Aires homes, still 
hold their lands comparatively free from taxes, while the poor Italian 
pushcart man, and the later immigrant who owns but fifty acres, must 
pay his taxes to the uttermost farthing. To be sure, there are laws 
recently made which make for equal division of property among the 
children when the head of the house dies, and some of the large estates 
are thus broken up.. Until more favorable terms of owning property 
can be arranged for the present-day immigrant, this richly resourceful 
country will lag behind its possible progress. At present the sons of 
these men of wealth of the capital city do not evince a taste for indus- 
try or hard work. It better suits their taste or temperament to choose 
law or politics as a profession, rather than commerce, leaving the brunt 
of the burden bearing, and emoluments as well, of industrial and eco- 
nomic development to foreigners. They have been brought up in a 
school where men are seldom referred to as possessing so much a year. 
Income is not a subject of interest with the Buenos Aires plutocratic 
scion, but property and social standing are judged by capital. 

These men of wealth have rather turned their attention of late to 
the breeding of blooded cattle, sheep and hogs, which they have im- 
ported from Europe at fabulous prices. The stock show and breeding 
business has become a kind of mania with the estancia aristocrat. Prices 
are paid for breeding animals quite out of proportion to their value. 
One cannot but feel that in spite of certain real advantages secured, 
the tendency at present is to make this business a fad for the rich and 
fashionable. The man who fails to get himself before the public as a 
politician or in any other way can accomplish the feat and have this 
whole cattle country ring with his name before night by paying $50,000 
for a prize bull. 

Besides this hobby, horse racing is by way of being a national insti- 
tution, and however one regard racing the course at Palermo is a notable 



.. Portefio spends as magnificently as he accumulates wealth, and though, until the 
present war, the upper classes passed much of their time in Europe, they contribute 
lavishly though not always wisely to the embellishment of their own city 




The Tigre, which has been called "the Thames of Buenos Aires," includes under its name a network of streams which flow between flowering, tree-shaded banks — an 
ideal spot for boating. Regattas have become extremely fashionable, while on Sundays the river is crowded with pleasure craft of every description 


Many of the small farmers bring their produce to market by way of the Tigre and its numerous branches. A great many of these farmers are Italians, who, after a few seasons of good crops, manage to save up enough money to enable them to return to Italy and live in modest comfort for the rest of their lives 

MARCH, 1917 

2 9 

sight. All Buenos Aires turns out to attend these races, and the 
Avenida Alvear, which leads out to the track, on the day of a fashion- 
able meeting is a vivid motion picture, in which hired cabs and vic- 
torias jostle smart private carriages and speeding motor cars. Of the 
imposing array of great white stands and stables, the private stand and 
enclosure of the Jockey Club deserve particular mention. White marble 
has been generously used in its construction, while the terrace before 
it is made beautiful with flowers and small trees, as is also the great 
field in the center of the track. The racing itself is said to equal its 
setting, and the Jockey Club which controls the Palermo course receives 
from it its chief revenues. 

The Matadores is another sight which makes a journey to the suburbs 
worth one's while. Here is brought most of the live stock that is such 
an important source of the city's prosperity — for sale and for slaughter. 
Three or four thousand head of cattle are disposed of daily at the Mata- 
dores, and the place forms a well-sized settlement in itself of cattle yards, 



One of the public gardens whose number is being constantly added to by a vigorous and enlightened municipal government; 

all, nearly one hundred parks in Buenos Aires 

auction rooms, office buildings and laboratories. In these last a careful 
watch is continually kept to guard against possible disease among the 
animals, which, if not checked at the very outset, is liable to mean an 
enormous loss; and this loss would be felt not alone in Argentina, but 
in the United States and Europe, both of which have come to depend 
more and more upon this source of supplies. 

No article on this city would be complete without mention of the 
Argentine women ; and it must be said, furthermore, that the women of 
Buenos Aires, both by their beauty and feminine charm, live up to the 
artistic standard of the capital's homes and general magnificence. No 
longer do you see the "manta" of Peru and Chile. These women dress 
in the height of Parisian fashion, and they wear their clothes with a 
style that one sees only on the Rue de la Paix. She is perfectly coiffed, 
perfectly gowned, perfectly shod, and as she passes before you she is 
the acme of well-groomed womanhood, but — she lacks animation, she 
seems more like a beautiful doll. Yet she lives up to what is required 

of her by her men. The 
Portenos want their women 
feminine in the extreme ; 
they want them demure and 
restrained, as if still be- 
neath the spell of old Spain. 
They want them to be good 
housekeepers, devoted 
mothers, and they are both 
of these in a superlative de- 
gree. They also hold the 
key of religion in their 
hands, especially those of 
the upper classes. In ac- 
tivity they are inferior to 
the women of the United 
States so far as expression 
of their mental abilities is 
related to anything outside 
of the home, in the realm 
of social or public endeavor. 
Their intelligence, however, 
is undoubted, and many 
would contend that the Ar- 
gentine woman is more than 
an equal for her husband in 
this regard. Slowly the 
women of Buenos Aires are 
breaking away from the 
Spanish exclusiveness, 

lere are, in 


Many of the most famous artists of the world have played under the roof of this huge and costly edifice, with its spacious setting of gardens, for the Portenos appreciate 

genius and are quite willing and able to pay for it 




The statue, which is a reproduction of the one standing before the New York Treasury, was 
presented to Argentina by the American residents in the republic at the time of the South 

American nation s centenary 

which has kept them Ori- 
entally shut away from 
the world. It is doubtful 
whether this beautiful 
type of femininity will 
join the ranks of the suf- 
fragists in this or the next 
generation even, but 
tli rough travel and in- 
creasing contact with 
other nationalities (she 
speaks, as a rule, several 
languages fluently) she 
will doubtless be the first 
woman in South America 
to join the standard of 
feminism which is now 
advancing so rapidly 
around the world. 

What kind of future- 
awaits this city de luxe. 
with its intelligent and 
modern men and women. 
rodigal expenditure of 
\v< ilth upon municipal im- 
provements, its educa- 
tional system that will 
bear comparison with any 
other land, and its ever 
enlarging scientific hold 
upon its landed industry? 

Racially there is a pur- 
ity of Caucasian blood 
e hardly to be met with 
elsewhere in South Ameri- 
can cities. There is, in- 
deed, less than five per 
cent of non-Caucasian 
blood in Argentina, ac- 
cording to recent statis- 
tics, while the United 
States has eleven per cent. 
With the exception of the 
Canadians, possibly no 
people in the Western 
Hemisphere are so trulv 


Argentina is «°-day a magnet for labor from all parts of the world, and Buenos Aires is the por 
through which this immigration flows, while every year sees an increase of trade with foreion countrie 


Letters are posted in mail boxes similar to those provided in London. 

In modern efficiency the municipal administration of Buenos Aires is 

second to none 

European as these inhabit- 
ants of Buenos Aires. 
Northern Italy has been 
contributing in large num- 
bers her firmer stock to 
the commercial life of the 
city and country, and in 
the expanding economic 
progress the Latin race 
seems here to be taking 
fresh hold upon life and 
opportunity. Activity and 
growth are the words be- 
longing to the new Buenos 
Aires. "One day," said a 
Porteflo, "our city will be 
the capital of 100,000,000 
people, whom our wide 
plains can easily support." 

With a government 
growing more and more 
stable, a trade with out- 
side nations becoming in- 
creasingly extensive, and 
with the possession of a 
boundless faith in itself, 
Argentina, like the United 
States, is a land of to- 
morrow. Like her north- 
ern neighbor, also, she has 
her foes lying in wait for 
her in the form of plu- 
tocracy and the dead level 
resulting from irreligion. 
It is not in material mag- 
nificence that this fair city 
- of the La Plata will fail, 
but more likely by reason 
of her failure to cultivate 
the unseen but no less real 
life of the spirit. Like 
many another New World 
city filled with utilitarian 
gods, Buenos Aires, espe- 
cially in her ruling classes, 

{Continued on page 45) 

MARCH, i ( ) 

3 I 



r± ^f^g ka^ifli zM^^i 

A Texas twister, in the 
first stage of its exist- 
ence, as it is gathering 
sufficient force to leave 
its birthplace at the foot 
of the mountain and be- 
gin its journey to the 
open prairie 

J. K. Lamoree 

WHERE the rolling prairies of Texas meet 
the high, rock-ribbed mountain ranges, 
one may naturally expect the wind to cut up 
queer capers, and this expectation is adequately 
fulfilled. The soldiers of the National Guard 
who have been stationed on the Mexican border 
can bear witness to these phenomena, for in 
some instances the camps have been situated on 
the level plain only a few miles from the moun- 
tains, where the wind is never quiet. 

Of the various aerial antics resulting from 
this conjunction of the horizontal and perpen- 
dicular, the most curious and interesting are the 
miniature cyclones of wind and dust, termed 
"twisters." A twister may be tall and thin, or 
short and fat, and its chief characteristic is to 
grow as it progresses across the plain until, in 
some cases, it assumes really terrifying propor- 
tions. It is generally harmless, however, picks 
up nothing but paper, small pieces of clothing 
and similar impedimenta, and does little damage 
other than to shower everything it meets with 

Twisters start from nothing and grow, and 
they always travel. Some grow in height, main- 
taining a constant diameter, say, of twenty or 
thirty feet, but rising higher and higher into the 
air until they resemble gigantic tubes of smoke 
traveling across the otherwise perfectly clear 
prairie. Others grow in girth as they pick up 
speed until they cover considerable area. 

These small whirlwinds do not seem to be 
affected by obstacles such as tents and small 
houses, but pass through like some invisible 
force. When they strike the open prairie, far 
away from the mountains, they dissipate as 
gradually and mysteriously as they formed. 

This photograph shows the 
second phase of a twister, 
when it has begun to as- 
sume formidable proportions. 
The picture was taken in the 
autumn of 1916, at Camp 
Stewart, near El Paso, Tex. 

A twister after it has grown 
to its full size and strength. 
In spite of their terrifying 
appearance, these sandstorms 
rarely do serious damage 
and on reaching the open 
prairie disappear as gradu- 
ally and mysteriously as 
they formed 





Charles Francis Saunders 

W 1 

(C) Stereo-Travel Co. 

An ambitious urchin attempting the ascent of a cocoanut 

palm on a windy day. The cocoanut palm is one of the 

most representative features of the landscape 

r ELL inten- 
t i o n e d 
friends would have 
had me give Colon 
the go-by, and 
boarding the special 
train that awaited 
our steamers ar- 
rival, go directly to 
Panama. "There's 
nothing to see at 
Colon," they said, 
"it's just a half- 
baked spigotty town. 
You ought to stay in 
Panama, which is 

land pasture) are 
negroes; so are your 
grocer and your 
druggist ; your laun- 
dress, of course, is 
one ; and black is the 
man who develops 
your kodak films : 
but the Isthmian ne- 
gro seems of a type 
less light-hearted 
than the "darky" of 
our Southern States. 
Perhaps in a society 
where he is practic- 
ally "the whole 

straight goods — the 
oldest white founda- 
tion on the continent, 
Spanish as Spain, 
senoritas on parade 
Sunday nights while 
the music plays in the 
plaza, and all that. 
You'll only be wast- 
ing time in Colon." 

Nevertheless, I de- 
cided to give the ac- 
cused a fair trial, and 
secured a room at the 
one American hotel 
of the place. After a 
breakfast that began 
pleasantly with three 
tart oranges peeled to 
the quick, thrust each 
upon a separate fork, 
the forks stacked like 
the poles of an In- 
dian tepee, I hung my 
crook-handled um- 
brella on my arm in 
readiness for the rain 
which falls intermit- 
tently most days in 
the Isthmian year, 
and sallied forth. I 
found enough in and 
about Colon to pass 
away a week. 

The Colonese life is 
distinctly West In- 
dian. It is staged in 
a setting of cocoanut 
palms and frame 
houses whose upper- 
story balconies extend 
far out over the side- 
walk and protect the 
foot passengers from 
sun and rain, and the 

actors are mainly negroes. Your tailor is a negro; your 
shoemaker is a negro: the policemen (who, both in Colon 
and Panama, are as thick as blueberries in a New Fn°- 

(.C) Stereo-Travel Co. 

A little Panamanian maid in the pollera or native gala 

attire. Life in Panama is more or less a succession of 

gala days, religious or political 

A pause in the day's occupations — 
a negro woman en route to de- 
liver her bundle of laundry. A 
large portion of the inhabitants of 
the Canal Zone are negroes from 
the British West Indies 

thing," without the 
whites to serve as a 
buffer class between 
him and the activities 
of fate, the responsi- 
bilities of life weigh 
upon him. His speech 
is a puzzle to you. At 
first you take it to be 
a foreign tongue, and 
sometimes it is — a 
Spanish or French 
patois; but oftener 
you find it is English 
with a curious sing- 
song drawl ending in 
a quaint rising inflec- 
tion, caught in the 
British atmosphere of 
his native Jamaica, 
Barbados or Trini- 

In both Colon and 
Panama life is largely 
spent in the street or 
in rooms giving di- 
rectly on it, and usu- 
ally doors and win- 
dows are wide open to 
the air. There is no 
division of the towns 
into business and resi- 
dence sections; prac- 
tically every house 
combines both fea- 
tures — the ground 
floors being used for 
shops, the upstairs 
for living apartments. 
So you have but to walk the streets and Panamanian life 
is before you as a scroll unrolled — even the domestic side 
of it, for, particularly in Colon, many of the household 
operations are carried on upon the upstairs balconies. 
There, behind the railings, which are often beautified with 
boxed and potted plants, the women sew, wash clothes and 
cook, or sit and gossip, drying their hair the while; and 
there meals are frequently served, while the monotony of 
life is broken by the occasional presence of a restless 

MARCH, 1917 


stares you in the face at every turn. The tickets are on sale at half 
the shops you enter, and the streets are lined with vendors, tempting 
you with bunches of the alluring yellow billetes. Most of the sellers 
are women, who are inveterate smokers of cheroots and cigarettes. 
Some are young and comely; others old and wrinkled. The purchase 
is usually a serious business and the tickets are as well scrutinized as a 

piece of goods. In- 
spiration may come 
with looking, or the 
buyer may have a 
tip from a fortune- 
teller, or, better still, 
have dreamed a 
number. In such 

The elaborately constructed cakes for the wedding feast of 

a Colon bride, set out in the air in order that the frosting 

may harden 

cases he shops from one vendor to another un- 
til he finds the ticket he wants. The American 
Canal men find the lottery a congenial outlet 
for their speculative spirit, and have dubbed the 
lottery practice "playing dookey," because the 
owner of the lottery is a Panamanian named 
Duque. The main office is in Panama City, 
where it shares a palatial mansion with the 
Bishop of Panama, an outward and visible sign 
of an inward and vital connection, for it is said 
the Church is the beneficiary of all drawings of 
unsold numbers. 

If a Panamanian has any money in his pocket 
on Sunday afternoon, his fancy is apt to turn to 
some gallera or cockpit. I have never seen a 
bullfight, but if it turns the stomach as much as 
my first cockfight did I do not want to see one. 
In a small, wooden-walled arena, looked down 
upon by rising tiers of board benches, were two 
or three hundred hungry-eyed Panamanians, in- 
cluding policemen, watching the savage on- 
slaughts of two cocks upon each other, in a 
cleared space in the center. The shaved necks 
of the birds were picked to masses of bloody 
flesh, the ground was flecked with feathers 
ripped from their bodies by the dagger-like gaffs 
fastened to their legs, and as one or the other 
reeled under some staggering blow from his 
antagonist the crowd shrieked in encourage- 
ment or despair, according to which cock they 
had backed. With the wavering tide of success, 
fresh bets were howled, money was even flung 
frantically into the ring, and jeers and taunts 
urged the birds on to fresh endeavor. Above 
> the pandemonium now and then sounded the 
; shrill crow of other cocks tied to roosts under 
the roof, whose turn to battle would come later 
on. When the climax came and one cock fell, 
; unable to rise again, its owner jumped into the 
; pit, filled his mouth with water from a nearby 
I jar, and picking up the feebly kicking bird tried 
; to revive it by squirting the water over its body 
i and pulling its lacerated neck crosswise back 
and forth between his own lips. Then, setting 

(C) Stereo-Travel Co. 


the cock on its shaky legs, he urged it on to another round with its 
only less exhausted adversary. In a moment, however, it was down 
again, and the frenzied mob surged, shrieking, into the arena. The 
backers of the victor, beside themselves with joy, embraced one another 
and talked and bragged uproariously, while the losers paid their money 
and the coachers of a fresh relay of birds brought their charges on the 
field to be inspected, weighed, betted on and set to battle. 

It was quite by accident that I stumbled upon the public market at 
Colon. It is a huge, high-roofed quadrangle, surrounded by shallow, 
open-front shops, where various clothing stuffs, especially the bright- 
colored prints dear to West Indian femininity, are sold. In the half light 
of the interior, fat negro women in bandana turbans or antique hats, 
pipe or cigarette in mouth, preside over tables whereon are huddled 
fascinating assortments of tropical products. Here are bananas and 

cocoanuts, grape- 
fruit and limes, 
plantains and yams 
and cassava root, 
peppers, papayas, 
pumpkins and okra, 
homemade ginger 
beer in second-hand 
bottles and curly 
loaflets of fresh- 
made bread. Here 
are heaps of little, 
round Panamanian 
tomatoes, oranges 
from Jamaica as 
green as grass, fat, 
thin-skinned ba- 
nanas no bigger 
than your thumb, 
pottery from Mar- 
tinique, eggs from 
Venezuela wrapped 
in corn-husk and 
guaranteed muy 
frescos, and queer 
little dabs of salad 
stuff — heart of cab- 
bage, a carrot, a 
slice of pumpkin and 
a sprig of parsley to 
cap it off. Buyers, 
usually colored 
women with a tin 
pan or basket borne 
on their heads, walk 


Besides the usual street purveyors in Panama, there are men with gaudily-painted, 
little carts, selling leche frio, the diluted iced milk, which almost rivals rum in the 

popular taste 

A quain. feature of the fish market is the daily attendance of hundreds of these pehcans who watch eagerly and < 

vigorous battle for the occasional scraps thrown them 




Owing to the general absence of roads in the jungle that hems in the Canal Zone, country produce is usually brought to town by boat, and the water market is a pic- 
turesque scene in Panama. The boats are floated right to the ancient sea wall on the crest of the tide, which, when it recedes, leaves them beached high and dry, tipped 

over on their sides with their motley cargoes displayed for sale 

up and down the aisles 
and bargain in subdued 
voices, reserving their en- 
ergy, perhaps, for the 
strenuous times of the fish 
market, which occupies a 
corner section to itself. It 
is a small space closely 
screened in to keep out 
flies; but life there is very 
intense. West Indians, 
Panamanians and Chinese 
scream, barter, gesticulate 
and quarrel over fish — yel- 
low, red. black and tabby 
fish, round, linear, oblong 
and rectangular — and 
scattered through the 
throng are policemen to 
keep the peace. There is a 
perfect babel of tongues; 
people are crowding in 
every direction, crying, 
"Pasa! pasa!" as they 
push through, with drip- 
ping fish unwrapped in 
their hands or in baskets 
on their heads. It is hard 
to believe that bloodshed 
is not imminent, but it is 
not. The uproar is just 
the way of the warm 
countries, and these bel- 
wrought up to the point of 
flying at one another's 
ligerents over a real's 
worth of fish, after bcin<: 

(C) Stereo-Travel Co 


In the Seventeenth Century the Spaniards established a toll gate here and levied a tax upon all traffic 

between the two oceans, which was forced to pass this way, as the Chagres River was the main highway 

of travel. The canoe in the foreground is a cayuca or native dugout, made from a single log 

throats, suddenly reach an 
agreement, burst into 
laughter, light a cigarette 
and go about other busi- 

Owing to the general 
absence of roads in the 
jungle that hems in the 
Canal Zone, country pro- 
duce is usually brought to 
town by boat, and the 
water markets form a 
very picturesque feature 
of both Colon and Pan- 
ama. That at Panama is 
much the more important. 
The boats, with their 
pretty Spanish names — 
"La Rosa de Taboga," "La 
Paloma," and what not — 
are floated right to the 
ancient sea wall on the 
crest of the tide, which, 
when it recedes, leaves 
them beached high and 
dry and looking very pic- 
turesque, tipped over on 
their sides, their motley 
cargoes displayed for sale. 
Hither come the mar- 
keters to buy, some with 
baskets, some with push- 
carts, some just with 
hands and heads, for the 
pride that balks at carry- 
ing a bundle seems not yet 
to have penetrated to the 

MARCH, 1917 



Though there are probably more policemen to the square mile in both Colon and Panama than in any other city of the world, the arm of the law is not rigorous, and the prison 

term of an offender is seldom more than a couple of months, no matter what the offense 

monkey on a chain, or of a green parrot that swears scandalously in 
Spanish from its perch tacked against a post. 

As to the shops, there is really very little that the traveler cares to 
buy at any of them except Panama hats. These may be had in every 
variety from a dollar up; but the purchase of a Panama is a fine art, 
and it goes without saying that, if you do not know the points of a good 
one when you leave home, 
you will be sure to be 
"done" if you attempt to 
buy one on the Isthmus. 

More interesting often 
than the contents of the 
shops are the signs. They 
are rarely pictured as are 
the tavern signs, for in- 
stance, that charm the 
rambler in England; their 
interest is in the romance 
of their wording. In Co- 
lon there is a philan- 
thropic cobbler who an- 
nounces himself on a 
board above his shop "A 
Friend of All"; there is 
the tailor shop of "The 
Golden Scissors"; and 
when one is in need of a 
calico dress, one is torn in 
doubt between the hospi- 
table "Everybody's Store" 
and the very honest- 
sounding sign of "The 
Sincere Company." In 
Panama you need a little 
Spanish to help you to see 
the point. There, for ex- 
ample, instead of the fa- 
miliar "Chinese Laundry" 
of home is the more state- 
ly phrase, "La Lavan- 
deria de Hop Wo" or 
Chung Sing. You may 
buy a hat at "La Perlita" 
(the little pearl), or gro- 

(LJ Siereo- i ravel Co. 


Taboga is the largest and most beautiful of the islands, said to be of volcanic origin, that can be seen 
from the old sea wall of Panama City. The cannon dates from the time of the Conquistadores 

ceries at "Las Cuatro Naciones" (the four nations) ; while from "La 
Mano de Dios" (it shocks your sensibilities, unused to Spanish ways, to 
find that this means "The Hand of God") you may buy anything from a 
pin to an anchor. But it is in naming the cantinas or bars, perhaps, that 
Panamanian fancy is most luxuriant. Even a teetotaler might be 
tempted to crack a bottle at "The Flower of May," or "The Delights," 

or "The Breeze of the 
Pacific," or "The Bar of 
Both Worlds." 

You are not long on the 
Isthmus before you learn 
that the principal native 
amusements are drinking 
rum, playing the lottery 
and cock-fighting. The 
number of drinking places 
is startling. Besides the 
regular saloons and hotel 
bars, nearly every grocery 
store has its cantina, 
frankly open to the street ; 
yet, in a stay of over two 
weeks, I saw almost no 

"They get drunk just 
the same," said a resident 
to whom I mentioned this 
fact. "But when they're 
drunk they're usually in 
bed or in jail. What do 
they drink? White Eye. 
That's native rum, which 
is what sugar cane is 
raised for down here; lit- 
tle rum distilleries are as 
common on the jungle 
farms as cider presses in 
the States. But gentlemen 
drink beer or whiskey — 
rum is the drink for nig- 
gers and cheap skates, it's 
only about the price of 
As to the lottery, it 



I, is tn the plazas .ha. .he social life of .he city centers by day the men meet to discuss business and politics, and 

at night both men and women gather to listen to the mus.c and goss.p 

Isthmus. A quaint feature of the fish market, which is hard by on a pier 
jutting over the water, is the daily attendance of pelicans. Hundreds 
of the°se queer birds of grandfatherly mien fly in from the outer harbor 
and float on the water by the pier or waddle up on the beach, waiting 
for scraps to be thrown down to them. It is as exciting as a football 
scrimmage to see them scramble for a flung fish. The one that first 
gets it finds his troubles only begun. A screaming score crowd around 
him and with their ungainly bills haul at him until many times a fish 
stowed away in a pelican's pouch is actually dragged out of it by one 
who manages to get a good hold of the swallowed fish with his beak. 

Leading down to the sea wall market are narrow streets where pearl 
dealers have their shops cheek by jowl with big warehouses full of 
Oriental smells, and along the curbs stand petty traders of so many 
sorts that one is reminded of an Eastern bazaar. Besides the usual 
purveyors of tropical fruits and homemade pastries, there are men with 
gaudily painted little carts, selling ices and leche frio, the diluted iced 
milk which almost rivals rum in the popular taste; here, too, are oper- 
ators of the light artillery that takes your picture while you wait, and 
vendors of the cozy little Mexican pajaritos de amor (love birds) 
perched snugly on the rims of their baskets, dreaming love's young 
dream; and here, of course, are the lottery ticket people. Up and down 
the narrow thoroughfares, in the midst of donkeys and tradesmen's carts 
and "spigotty" hacks clanging their gongs, walk motley throngs of people 
bound to and from the markets. There are negro mammies in gaudy 
bandana turbans, Chinese with baskets swung from a bamboo yoke 
athwart their shoulders, West Indians with all sorts of bundles on their 
heads, East Tndian peddlers with embroidered, brimless caps, and on 


Puerto Bello, beautiful harbor, was the name given by Columbus to this spot, which he discovered on his last 

voyage to America, and here was built a fortified town that was thought impregnable until Morgan, the buccaneer, 

surprised it one night. Now the cannon are utilized by native laundresses 

their backs huge packages of shawls and stuffs 
for women's attiring; and that short, hurrying 
figure whose black head is crowned with a queer 
little caricature of a hat is a San Bias Indian, 
one of an unconquered aboriginal race of the 
Isthmus, whose zeal for independence and the 
purity of their blood and morals is such that 
they will not tolerate the presence of a white 
man overnight in any of their jungle villages. 

All this is very picturesque, but very demo- 
cratic. If you want to see something of Pana- 
manian bon ton, the plaza is the place. There 
is a little one at Colon with bowers of shrubbery 
from whose shadowy depths hybiscus blooms 
thrust tongues of fiery color, and where, in the 
humid night the fragrance of ginger flowers 
fills the air ; but the crowds that gather there to 
listen to the music and to gossip lack the char- 
acter of those at Panama. Of the several plazas 
in the latter city, the one par excellence is the 
Cathedral Plaza, which is the open-air. center of 
Panama's social life. This square, shaded by 
magnificent royal palms, is dominated by the 
characteristically Spanish faqade of the great 
church with thirteen saintly images in thirteen 
niches. Facing other sides are the Bishop's 
Palace, the Lottery, the Municipal Hall and the 
Hotel Central of native fame. Eight narrow streets, half roofed across 
by the balconied upper stories of their houses, empty into this plaza, 
which day and night pulsates with the ebb and flow of the city's life. 
What the Rialto has been to Venice, the Cathedral Plaza has been to 
Panama. Friends meet here by appointment; here business deals are 
talked over, politics discussed and revolutions plotted. On the walls of 
the little kioskos bereaved Panamanians post notices of deaths and fun- 
erals; and, if you want your shoes blacked, you cannot have the deed 
done in more charming surroundings than amid the tropic greenery of ' 
this plaza. But it is on Sunday nights that you must visit the plaza to 
see it in its glory ; then the band plays and the social parade takes place. 
There is a broad walk around the four sides and through the center, 
and on that occasion it is thronged with animated, well-dressed prome- 
naders, moving in two lines in opposite directions beneath the electric 
lights*; every bench is filled with lookers-on, eager to detect in the pass- 
ing crowd the features of friends or public notables ; and during the lib- 
eral intermissions between the numbers of the concert, there is still 
music — the music of light-hearted laughter and of mellow southern 
voices speaking the language of Spain. 

If you are the sort that feels a special thrill in stepping in the foot- 
prints of a romantic past, there are two little jaunts in the Isthmus that 
will yield you especial pleasure. One is to the ruins of Old Panama, the 
original city which Morgan the pirate burned in 1671 ; the other is to 
Puerto Bello. To Old Panama is about five miles, and the trip being 
by road, you have the choice of going by carriage, motor car, horseback 
or afoot. It is just a pleasant country road at first, bordered with wide. 
grassy expanses where long-horned cattle graze, and there are glimpses 
of the sea under low-hanging clouds. 

By and by you pass out of this open country — 
las sabanas, they call it, that is, the savannas or 
plains — and are skirting the jungle. Here and 
there in small clearings planted to sugar cane, 
bananas, yams and melons, stand the thatch- 
roofed bohios, or homes of the people you have 
been passing on the road; then the highway 
makes a sharp turn towards the sea, and shortly 
you come upon all that pirates and the tooth of 
time have left of the once "very loyal and very 
noble" city of Panama Vieja — a few crumbling 
walls of stone, which the luxuriant growths of 
the jungle have now all but buried. The most 
conspicuous ruin is the square tower of the 
cathedral of San Anastasio, in which Pizarro 
may have attended mass ; but to me a greater 
appeal is made by an old arched bridge seen just 
as you approach the site of the old city. It was 
part of the king's stone highway that was built 
to connect Panama with Nombre de Dios and 
Puerto Bello on the Atlantic side. That paved 
way, now all but obliterated, was made neces- 
sary by the torrential Isthmian rains which con- 
(Continucd on page 43) 

M ARCH , 19 17 



















Travel and College Training 

TO create a love for travel and a desire 
to know something about all parts of 
the world is the aim of a new student society 
known as The Globe Trotters, organized at the 
University of Wisconsin. The organization 
of such societies in colleges and schools de- 
serves hearty encouragement. Knowledge of 
the world we live in, whether it be gained at 
first hand by actual travel or through asso- 
ciations and publications, is a part of educa- 
tion which no institution of learning should 

Another Club Dinner Coming 

The officers of the Travel Club of America 
are planning for another Club dinner. It will 
be held at the Hotel Majestic, Central Park 
West and Seventy-second Street, some time 
in April. Full arrangements have not yet 
been completed, so it is impossible at this 
time to give the exact date and list of 
speakers, but due notice will be sent to mem- 
bers. At the dinner last December there were 
over three hundred and fifty members present, 
and inasmuch as more than a thousand new 
members have been enrolled since then, there 
should be an even greater attendance on the 
coming occasion. 

The Growth of Metropolitan 

In a most interesting pamphlet recently is- 
sued by the Interborough Rapid Transit Com- 
pany of New York, it is stated that "5,397,963,- 
628 passengers, three times the world's popula- 
tion, have been carried on the Interborough in 
the last ten years, with only five passengers 
killed in a train accident." With all due regret 
that even so many as five should be killed, it 
is rather reassuring to realize that when rid- 
ing on the lines of this company your chances 
for a safe trip are a billion to one. This in a 
city whose traffic is increasing at the rate of 
100,000,000 passengers annually is a remark- 
able record. 

In 1872, when the street-cars in New York 
were drawn by horses, the total number of pas- 
sengers carried was 138,722,196. Ten years 
later not only had this number increased to 
164,149,803 for the surface lines, but the new 
elevated lines brought the total for 1882 up 
to 250,510,832. In 1906 the passengers on the 
surface and elevated lines had increased again 
by the hundreds of millions, and the new sub- 
way carried 137,919,632 passengers, the total 
for the year being 836,661,206. And now for 
the year 1916 the grand total was 1,201,067.- 
709, an average of 332 rides a year for each 
person in the city. More than 325 miles addi- 

tional subway and elevated lines are in process 
of building, but in the light of the foregoing 
it would seem that even when they are com- 
pleted the rapid transit system of New York 
will be inadequate. 

Safety Second in New York 

In spite of the large amount of educational 
work done in New York City to promote the 
"safety first" idea, there were nearly eighteen 
per cent more deaths in 1916 due to street 
vehicles and surface cars than in the preced- 
ing year. This but serves to emphasize the 
need for personal co-operation with those in 
charge of the traffic, both on the part of pedes- 
trians and drivers of vehicles. The careless- 
ness of chauffeurs is a constant menace, even 
to the ultra-careful, but an even greater men- 
ace is the habit of rushing across the street 
in front of a rapidly moving truck and then 
stopping to watch it go by. Every member 
of the Travel Club of America should have 
for his motto : It is better to be safe than sorry. 

Car Ventilation 

An evidence of the Denver & Rio Grande 
Railroad's attention to the comfort of their 
passengers is noted with interest by the secre- 
tary of the Travel Club of America. The 
bulletin follows: 

"Conductors should see that the passenger 
equipment on their trains is properly ventilated 
and that a comfortable and healthful temper- 
ature is maintained therein. . . . There is 
nothing that will create adverse comment on 
our service as quickly as poor ventilation and 
lack of, or excessive, heat in coaches and 
sleepers. Lack of attention to these conditions 
in the cars on your trains indicates to the pas- 
sengers indifference to their comfort and 
health. Conductors and trainmen under their 
jurisdiction should at all times look after the 
comfort and convenience of passengers. It 
is attention to the little things that at first 
thought may not seem important that results 
in true appreciation of our service and a con- 
tinuance of the patronage upon which your 
employment depends. Assist in improving the 
service and making friends for our company 
by giving these matters the most careful at- 

New Excavations in Mesa Verde 

National Park 

During the summer of 1916 a new ruin was 
excavated by the forces working under the 
direction of Dr. J. Walter Fewkes, of the 
Smithsonian Institution. The ruin is on top of 






the mesa in the vicinity of Mummy Lake, about 
five miles north of Spruce Tree Camp. Al- 
though of a different type of construction, it 
is almost as large as the famous Sun Temple 
excavated by Dr. Fewkes in 191 5, and from an 
archeological and historical standpoint will un- 
doubtedly rank equally in importance with the 
latter. The indications are that the Sun Tem- 
ple was used for religious or ceremonial pur- 
poses, while this newly discovered ruin was a 
communnal dwelling consisting of many living 

Dr. Fewkes will return to the Mesa Verde 
this summer to continue his valuable work in 
the excavation of the ruins, comparatively few 
of which have even been touched. It is to be 
hoped that a generous appropriation will be 
made by Congress for the purpose of building 
automobile roads and trails in the park, so that 
it will become increasingly easy for tourists 
to see the wonders there. 

Uniform Automobile Warnings 

In the following letter to the President of 
the Travel Club there is a suggestion that is 
well worth consideration